Cognitive Test Anxiety by v95E27K

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									Cognitive Test Anxiety

    Jerrell C. Cassady
                Test Anxiety
Classically categorized into 2 components:
• Emotionality (Affective TA)
  – Heightened physiological activity
  – Appraisal of panic symptoms as related to tests
• Worry -- aka “Cognitive Test Anxiety”
  –   Self-deprecating ruminations
  –   Distraction
  –   Interference
  –   Poor cognitive processing
     Cognitive Test Anxiety
• Most commonly affiliated component
  with performance deficits:
  – IQ
  – Standardized tests of achievement
  – Classroom tests
  – Performance activities (alt. assessments)
  – Memory tasks
      Cognitive Test Anxiety
Cognitive Interference Model
• Information is available to the learner, but the
  anxiety leads to interference with retrieval
  efforts.
• Cue overload due to inappropriate “restriction
  of range” for the memorial attempt
• Inappropriate attentional focus
• Strategically-flawed LTM search strategies
      Cognitive Test Anxiety
Information Processing Model
• Multiple aspects of the learning/retrieval
  system lead to poor outcomes
• Inappropriate encoding strategies prohibit
  effective acquisition
• Ineffective rehearsal strategies limit long term
  storage and retrieval
• Deficient organization prohibits optimal recall
        Additive Model of TA
Full awareness of impact of TA on learning
  is available only when considering both
  “state” and “trait” components of TA.
• Trait-level test anxiety refers to typical level of
  anxiety for tests (present in all testing
  situations)
• State or situational factors include: threat of
  current test, self-confidence for content,
  awareness of study preparedness, external
  pressures (teacher, parent) for specific test
     Learning - Testing Cycle
Test Preparation Phase
• Study skills & strategies
• Study time and efficiency (repetition)
• Procrastination -- impedes primarly at “finals”
• Cognitive processing/encoding
• Surface-level processing
• Low self-regulation (monitor effort and progress)
• Perceived threat of tests
• Misappraisal of need to study/prepare
    Learning - Testing Cycle
Test Performance Phase
• Anxiety blockage phenomenon (high anxiety,
  good study skills, easy items)
• Interference during test session
• Distraction from test
• Decision-making impaired under stressful
  situations when “confidence” levels fall for
  knowledge
• Initial response to items on test -- panic and
  fear response
     Learning - Testing Cycle
Test Reflection Phase
• Interpretation of failure/success (attributions)
• Self-efficacy judgments
• Goal establishment for future tests
  (approach/avoidance)
• Development of “fear” for tests -- (ie, tests are seen
  as threatening events -- sparking avoidance,
  perseveration)
• Helplessness orientations
• Influence coping strategies in future test situations
Cassady, J. C. (2001). The stability of undergraduate students'
cognitive test anxiety levels. Practical Assessment, Research
& Evaluation, 7(20). Available online:
http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=7&n=20.
• Report on stability of CTA over time
• Stable “trait-like” measure of test
  anxiety
Cassady, J. C., & Johnson, R. E. (2002). Cognitive test
anxiety, procrastination, and academic performance.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 270-295.

• High cognitive test anxiety associated with
  lower performance on course exams and
  SATs
• Gender differences exist in reported CTA, but
  no impact on performance
• Moderate emotionality helps test
  performance.
• CTA related to procrastination -- however
  procrastination only impaired performance on
  final exam
Cassady, J. C. (2004). The influence of cognitive test anxiety
across the learning-testing cycle. Learning and Instruction,
14(6), 569-592.

• Test anxious students have same
  number of notes for test, but have more
  “copied definitions”
• Higher “perceived threat” for tests
• Lower self-reported study skills
• Higher emotionality scores
• Lower test scores
• Higher rates of “helplessness”
Cassady, J. C. (2004). The impact of cognitive test anxiety on
text comprehension and recall in the absence of salient
evaluative pressure. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18(3),
311-325.
• Cognitive test anxiety influences performance on
  memory and test tasks even when there is no salient
  external evaluative pressure.
• Performance did not vary greatly for test anxious
  students based on “form” of task in non-evaluative
  setting -- suggesting general processing issue
• Cognitive test anxiety had a larger loading factor for
  “high evaluative pressure” situations -- supporting the
  additive model.
• Cognitive test anxiety is largely a trait construct.
Cassady, J. C., Mohammed, A., & Mathieu, L. (2004).
Cross-cultural differences in test anxiety: Women in Kuwait
and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,
35(6), 715-718.
• Females in US and Kuwait differ in their
  anxiety profiles for tests.
• US females -- higher perceived threat
  for testing situations
• Kuwait females -- higher levels of
  emotionality
• Collectivist vs competitive society view
Cassady, J. C. & Gridley, B. E. (2005). The effects of online
formative and summative assessment on test anxiety and
performance. Journal of Technology, Learning, & Assessment
4(1). Available online: http://www.jtla.org

• No evidence that online testing induces greater test
  anxiety than in-class
• HIGHER perceived threat of tests for in-class tests
  (lower personal control)
• Practice tests (online) provided boost to performance
  on summative tests (immediate post-performance
  feedback)
• Practice tests provide test anxious students with a
  reasonable strategy to overcome typical negative
  outcomes -- greater personal control over
  preparation
                New work
• Argentina & US sample -- demonstrated slight
  difference in representations for tests. Self-
  other comparisons unusual in Argentina
• Revision of CTA -- shorter, all positively
  worded, new items focusing on preparation
  phase
• Notes study -- content analysis of notes from
  students with varied levels of CTA
• CTA and online testing -- timing of tests as
  well as number of tests taken as practice
          Next Direction
• Expanding “Academic Anxiety”
  conceptions
• Connection to depression and related
  disorders
• Examination from perspectives of
  coping and emotional intelligence
• Younger populations

								
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