"Chapter 3 Lecture Reading Notes Student 3"
Chapter 3 Industry, Immigrants, and Cities, 1870-1900 Lecture/Reading Notes 3 (p. 73-79) III. New Cities Immigration from _________ and migration from _________________ to the cities resulted in an ___________________ during the late nineteenth century. By 1900, _____________ and ______________ anchored an urban-industrial core extending from New England to the cities bordering the Great Lakes. A. Centers and Suburbs 1. The development of downtown urban centers Downtowns expanded up and out as tall buildings arose creating urban skylines. _________________ administered their empires from downtown, even if their factories were located on the ______________ or in ______________________. Banks and insurance companies clustered in _________________ while department stores and shops clustered in _______________ along electric trolley lines. 2. The residential suburban neighborhood Advances in _____________________________, first the horse drawn railway, then the _____________________, eased commuting for office workers. The _________ emerged as the preferred residence for the urban middle class after 1870. For the working class – even skilled artisans – suburban living remained out of reach. Residence, consumer habits, and leisure activities reflected growing ____________________ divisions. B. The New Middle Class 1. Residences and class divisions In the late nineteenth century, industrial technology and urban growth expanded the urban middle class to include ___________, factory supervisors, managers, civil servants, technicians, and a broad range of “__________________” office workers. The more affluent members of the new middle class moved to ___ ________________ within and outside the city limits. Simple _______________ sheltered the growing number of clerks and civil servants who remained in the city. These dwellings contrasted sharply with the crowded one- or two- room apartments that confined the ______________. 2. A new consumer society By 1910, the new middle class lived in ________________, with indoor plumbing and appliances that eased food preparation. The middle class liked anything that ______________: trolleys, trains, electric razors, vacuum cleaners. Soon the spectacle and merchandise of the _________________ attracted shoppers from all social strata, not just the middle class. 3. Leisure in the new urban society Sports like ______________ became important extracurricular activities at Harvard, Yale and other elite universities. The first country club in the United States was founded in Brookline, Massachusetts in 1882. Middle-class urban residents rode electric trolleys to suburban parks and __________________________ clubs. ______________ was the leading spectator sport among the middle class. The _____________, or saloon, was the workingman’s club. The _____________________ was another hallmark of the industrial city. They provided a place for working-class men and women to meet and date. Increasing materialism had revealed great fissures in American urban society by 1900. Yet places like _____________________, _____________________ and _____________________ provided spaces for some interaction.