Industry, Immigrants, and Cities, 1870-1900
Lecture/Reading Notes 3 (p. 73-79)
III. New Cities
Immigration from _________ and migration from _________________ to the
cities resulted in an ___________________ during the late nineteenth century.
By 1900, _____________ and ______________ anchored an urban-industrial
core extending from New England to the cities bordering the Great Lakes.
A. Centers and Suburbs
1. The development of downtown urban centers
Downtowns expanded up and out as tall buildings arose creating
_________________ administered their empires from downtown,
even if their factories were located on the ______________ or in
Banks and insurance companies clustered in _________________
while department stores and shops clustered in _______________
along electric trolley lines.
2. The residential suburban neighborhood
Advances in _____________________________, first the horse
drawn railway, then the _____________________, eased
commuting for office workers.
The _________ emerged as the preferred residence for the urban
middle class after 1870.
For the working class – even skilled artisans – suburban living
remained out of reach.
Residence, consumer habits, and leisure activities reflected
growing ____________________ divisions.
B. The New Middle Class
1. Residences and class divisions
In the late nineteenth century, industrial technology and urban
growth expanded the urban middle class to include ___________,
factory supervisors, managers, civil servants, technicians, and a
broad range of “__________________” office workers.
The more affluent members of the new middle class moved to ___
________________ within and outside the city limits.
Simple _______________ sheltered the growing number of clerks
and civil servants who remained in the city.
These dwellings contrasted sharply with the crowded one- or two-
room apartments that confined the ______________.
2. A new consumer society
By 1910, the new middle class lived in ________________, with
indoor plumbing and appliances that eased food preparation.
The middle class liked anything that ______________: trolleys,
trains, electric razors, vacuum cleaners.
Soon the spectacle and merchandise of the _________________
attracted shoppers from all social strata, not just the middle class.
3. Leisure in the new urban society
Sports like ______________ became important extracurricular
activities at Harvard, Yale and other elite universities.
The first country club in the United States was founded in
Brookline, Massachusetts in 1882.
Middle-class urban residents rode electric trolleys to suburban
parks and __________________________ clubs.
______________ was the leading spectator sport among the
The _____________, or saloon, was the workingman’s club.
The _____________________ was another hallmark of the
industrial city. They provided a place for working-class men and
women to meet and date.
Increasing materialism had revealed great fissures in American
urban society by 1900. Yet places like _____________________,
_____________________ and _____________________
provided spaces for some interaction.