PowerPoint Presentation by EZSsWy

VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 28

									          A project of
          Earthlife Africa Johannesburg
& participant in the Energy Caucus
                             March 2005




Energy Caucus Presentation to PPC:
Creating Employment
Reducing Poverty
Respect for Future Generations
                     Four areas of project activity
                       to promote sustainable energy and
                             address climate change



•Advocacy and building awareness and capacity;
•Research and information dissemination;
•South-North-South networking and collaboration;
•Supporting the
South African Climate Action Network (SACAN).
                                  Advocacy and
                                raising awareness

Advocating social and environmental justice in the energy
sector and in addressing global climate change, including:
•Input to government processes e.g. Integrated Energy
   Planning (IEP); Renewable Energy & Efficiency Strategies;
•Participation in stakeholder fora, e.g. DME workshops; NCCC;
•Supporting civil society initiatives, e.g. Energy Caucus; CURES;
•Community outreach and capacity building;
•Lobbying of decision-makers.
                         Information development
                             & dissemination

Producing and distributing information and advocacy
materials, including:
Sustainable Energy Briefings;
E-mail newsletters: SENSE (monthly) & CCEN (bi-monthly);
Climate Action News (Quarterly);
Flyers, fact-sheets, posters, information booklets, incl:
‘Getting to Grips with Global Climate Governance’ &
‘Getting to Grips with Sustainable Energy’


                 www.earthlife.org.za
                                          Research
Commissioning independent research, for a knowledge
base focused on public benefits and longer term:
‘Green Power, public benefits and electricity sector restructuring’ (2001)
‘Energy Sustainability Indicators for South Africa’          (May 2002)
‘Policies and Measures for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency’
                                   (EDRC with ERI, UCT, April 2003)
‘Employment Potential of Renewable Energy in South Africa’
                                  (AGAMA Energy, November 2003)
‘The Potential of Renewable Energy in South Africa’ long-term, to 2050
                                       due April 2005 (RAPs Consulting)
                                  South-North-South
                              networking & collaboration
Information exchange, civil society collaboration and developing
solidarity with organisations in the South, as well as the North, including
participation in the global Climate Action Network (CAN), Friends of the
Earth International, Citizens United for Renewable Energy and Sustainability
(CURES), INFORSE, Climate Justice etc.
Study Tour: South Africans to Denmark, incl. DME officials and a
parliamentarian (May 2003)
WSSD: Civil society position papers (first Energy Caucus) and liaison with
big NGOs
Bonn Renewables 2004 & follow-up
       South Africa Climate Action
           Network (SACAN)
•Initial funding to support meetings of SACAN;
•Production of information materials, including S A
Climate Action News (distributed with groundWork newsletter);
•Providing secretariat services to the network;
•Co-ordination NGO & CBO interaction with government
& national processes
•Co-ordinating participation in CAN and international
initiatives such as CDMWatch and Climate Equity debate.
 Why a South African civil society Energy Caucus?
   - To provide a common platform to advocate
    a just transition to sustainable energy

•What is sustainable energy?
•Why do we need to change from business-as-usual (BAU)?
•What are the elements and parameters of a just transition?
•What are the costs and who should pay them?
•What is possible or realistic and what are the factors that
determine what is possible?
•How does South Africa initiate a just transition?
           Nkosana’s input
• Paste here
 Why a South African civil society Energy Caucus?
   - To provide a common platform to advocate
    a just transition to sustainable energy

•What is sustainable energy?
•Why do we need to change from business-as-usual (BAU)?
•What are the elements and parameters of a just transition?
•What are the costs and who should pay them?
•What is possible or realistic and what are the factors that
determine what is possible?
•How does South Africa initiate a just transition?
    What is sustainable energy? - RE & EE
Renewable energy that draws on resources that are constantly
replenished – flux energy (mostly solar in origin) – rather than
exhausting finite hydrocarbon or uranium ‘stock’ energy.
Conditions need to apply to hydropower (World Commission on Dams) &
biomass – sustainable production; competing land and water use.
Energy efficiency seeks maximum final output for a given input:
•Everybody (business, industry, commercial and government buildings,
individuals – role models) could do more with less, also extending access;
•Includes conservation e.g. solar water heating and passive solar design;
•Optimising benefits and reducing costs in medium and long term.


 “..reliable, affordable, economically viable, locally
     acceptable and environmentally sound..” (UN - CSD)
    Why do we need to change from
         business-as-usual?
National resource base: Impacts of stock (fossil and nuclear) energy
use are unsustainable, destroying or degrading the natural resource base
and causing rapidly escalating climate change
Human health: The extraction, processing and burning of hydrocarbons
(sp. coal and oil) and nuclear fuel are poisoning communities
Energy security – national and local: less dependence on imports and
more wealth staying within communities
Competitivness in global economy: reduced material input costs,
vulnerability to global markets and liability for regional and global pollution
Stock energy resources are finite: hydrocarbon resources are limited,
with oil production near its peak, are required as feedstock material and
could be more productively used in future (uranium also limited)
Human rights: large-scale, centralised and industry-oriented energy
development increases dependence on trans-national corporations
    Why do we need to change from
         business-as-usual?
Renewable energy:
•Creates more jobs than conventional energy development
•Allows community participation / ownership – not simply customers
•Growth industries with established export potential (e.g. India)
•Human scale with minimal impacts (water, land, air and atmosphere)
•Uses plentiful resources currently going to waste – less entropy
Energy efficiency:
•Value for money and resources
•Better investment than new elec. generation & fuels processing plants
•Accelerated technology development – moving to best available
•Full-cost accounting – encourages application of ‘triple bottom line’ in
meeting energy service needs;
Employment in coal-based electricity generation in South Africa

        Source: Own analysis, based on data from Eskom (1989), Eskom (2002), Statistics SA (1995),
                              Statistics SA (2002), NER (2000), DME (2003c).



               200000                                                 150000

               180000                                                 135000

               160000                                                 120000
                                                                                      consumption:
Output (GWh)




               140000                                                 105000          coal-generated
                                                                                      electricity
               120000                                                 90000           electricity-related




                                                                               Jobs
                                                                                      mining jobs (53%)
               100000                                                 75000
                                                                                      Eskom jobs
                80000                                                 60000

                60000                                                 45000
                                                                                      total jobs
                40000                                                 30000

                20000                                                 15000

                    0                                                 0
                        1980
                        1981
                        1982
                        1983
                        1984
                        1985
                        1986
                        1987
                        1988
                        1989
                        1990
                        1991
                        1992
                        1993
                        1994
                        1995
                        1996
                        1997
                        1998
                        1999
                        2000            Year
Summary conventional energy employment potential: jobs/MW insalled and/GWh produced

                               Fuel                        Mnfr                           Inst                      O&M                     Total
                        /MW           /GWh         /MW              /GWh         /MW             /GWh         /MW      /GWh           /MW          /GWh
 Coal (current)[2]         0.8          0.2                                                                   0.9         0.2         1.7           0.3
 Coal (future)             0.8          0.2                                       1.3            0.3          0.9         0.2         3.0           0.7
 Nuclear                                                                                                      0.5         0.1         0.5           0.1
 PBMR                                                  ?             ?            0.4            0.1          0.9         0.1         1.3           0.2
 Gas                      ?                 ?          ?             ?            1.0            0.1          0.1         0.0         1.2           0.1



                  Core RETs employment potential data (gross direct jobs/MW and /GWh)

                               Fuel                    Mnfr                     Inst                    O&M                 Other                  Total


            RET         /MW      /GWh           /MW        /GWh          /MW       /GWh          /MW      /GWh       /MW        /GWh        /MW       /GWh


 Solar thermal           0.0          0.0                     3.0                      7.0                    0.4               0.0                    10.4
                                                1.7                      4.0                      0.2                 0.0                   5.9

 Solar PV                0.0          0.0                  32.9                        21.2                   4.4               3.5                    62.0
                                                18.8                     12.1                     2.5                 2.0                   35.4

 Wind                    0.0          0.0                     8.4                      1.3                    2.6               0.3                    12.6
                                                3.2                      0.5                      1.0                 0.1                   4.8

 Biomass                 0.0          0.0                     0.0                      0.0                    5.6               0.0                    5.6
                                                0.0                      0.0                      1.0                 0.0                   1.0

 Landfill                0.0          0.0                     7.1                      7.1                    8.8               0.0                    23.0
                                                1.9                      1.9                      2.3                 0.0                   6.0
   …and we do have the policy to address
these issues, some in development and
some begging for implementation…
  SA Policy and implementation
• White Paper on Energy Policy (DME, 1998):
“Ensuring that an equitable level of national resources is
  invested in renewable technologies, given their potential
  and compared to investments in other supply options”
• White Paper on Renewable Energy
“… is being published to ensure that the renewable
  energy resources are used optimally.”
  Target: “..additional 10 000 GWh (0.8 Mtoe) renewable
  energy contribution.. by 2013…this is equivalent to two
  660MW coal-fired power stations”
       But this would produce 10 000 GWh per annum
  SA Policy and implementation
• Draft Energy Efficiency Strategy (DME, 2004):
12% reduction against projected demand for 2014 – review
   in 2007 “…this target is by no means a mandatory
   requirement, but rather a guideline to aspire to.”
 “Mandatory energy efficiency standards will be an
   important and integral part of the Strategy.” yet to be
   developed
• Renewable Energy Strategy (overdue)
R14.2 million for direct once-off subsidies in first 5
   years, followed by a review of the target
• Electricity Regulation Bill (comment period just
   ended)
Concerns re grid access and fair treatment of SMMEs
     SA Policy and implementation
• NEMA (1998)
   EIA regulations: incl. identify alternative sites for projects, but
     little on alternative technologies / strategies and practice
     and energy projects ‘exempt’ – DME vs DEAT
• Draft Air Quality Act (2004)
“… air pollution carries a high social, economic and
  environmental cost that is seldom borne by the polluter;”
   Controlled emitters with emissions standards for appliances and activities,
     but standards yet to be set and no power to introduce pollution charges
     (Treasury Environmental Fiscal Reform - process unclear and focused
     on raising revenue rather than redirecting investment and budget
     allocations and implementing constitutional rights
What are the elements and parameters
         of a just transition?
Access to basic energy services is recognised as a
     human right and responsibility of the state;
Meeting energy service needs without compromising
     other human rights – equity, including gender and
     grandchildren;
No net job loss and improved worker health & safety;
Implementation of the polluter pays principle;
Application of cradle to grave responsibility and
     liability
Public participation in planning and decision-making;
       How to initiate a just transition?
Acknowledge the need and the challenge – incl. vested interests
Political agenda – elaboration of existing priorities
Integrated Energy Planning – phase 2 initiated, but short term
Policies and Measures (PAMs) for RE & EE
Corporate accountability - not just voluntary agreements without
monitoring, independent verification and penalties
Popular awareness & Individual behavioral change –
instigating a culture of responsibility and sharing… ubuntu
International co-operation and co-ordination – multilateral
agreements to stop the ‘race to the bottom’ of global competition
             ‘The Independent PAMs Study’

UCT study Priority PAMs:
• Legislate codes and standards for energy efficient buildings in
  government, commercial and residential sectors
• Set mandatory equipment standards for industry and commerce
• Set targets for renewable electricity generation (15% elec by 2020)
• Subsidise the production for renewable electricity
• Implement a pollution tax (with exception for households)
“The research concluded that these measures could be
  implemented with little or no cost to the economy, with significant
  savings for some stakeholders, net job creation and significant
  human health and environmental benefits.”
  ‘The Employment Potential of RE in South Africa’

AGAMA study conclusions:
• RE electricity generating technologies will create 36 400 new
  jobs when providing 15% of the total electricity mix in 2020
  without taking jobs away from the coal-based electricity generating sector;
  if RET deployment displaces coal, further additional jobs created;
• A biodiesel and bioethanol programme that replaces 15% of
  current petrol and diesel consumption would see the ctreation
  of 350 000 new, direct jobs;
• Targeted deployment of solat water heaters will result in the
  creation of at least 118 000 new, direct jobs;
more on the potential of RE in SA up to 2050 on 13 April at the
  third Sustainable Energy Symposium, incl. Launch report
What is possible or realistic and what are the
 factors that determine what is possible?
•Available renewable energy resources can provide for
all current energy demand many times over;
•Technologies and materials exist to achieve a ‘factor 4’
improvement in efficiency – i.e. achieve the same service
with 25% of current energy input (factor 10 possible);
   but
•Exploitation of stock energies is one of the most profitable
enterprises under current market conditions – consumption = profit;
•Developing countries do not have a ‘third world’ to plunder, nor the
ecological space to follow the development path of the North.
   What factors determine what is realistic?

•Millenium Development Goals
•Business as usual will lead to catastrophic climate change,
with Sub-Saharan Africa the suffering the worst impacts
•National security – “wars of the future will be fought over water”
•Energy pricing – stepped block tariff – industry not hide behind poor
•Full cost accounting & resource economics
•Technology transfer
•Equity in the greenhouse
What are the costs and who should pay them?
 The longer we wait, the more it will cost, e.g. stranded public
 investments in plants with 40-year lifespan

 Avoiding ‘dangerous’ climate change requires the
 mobilisation of political will and financial resources on the
 scale usually reserved for going to war
 Leveling the playing field, incl. subsidy reform and polluter pays
 Mandate of Development Banks and other IFIs – international
 finance institutions including export credit agencies

 Public spending for public benefit
 Common but differentiated responsibilities
                                  Conclusion
A Just Transition to Sustainable Energy is possible for
employment creation and poverty reduction, through
Integrated Energy Planning – from resource extraction to
end use with full cost-benefit analysis done right this time,
A forward-looking policy agenda – national and
international (not waiting for/dependent on Northern finance) with an
Energy services approach, incl. needs and benefits based pricing,
 if there is clear political will and implementation.

								
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