FF Afghanistan by VWycS7P


									FAST FACTS

  The Situation

  History: Afghanistan was founded in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian
  empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. Beginning of the sixties, a brief
  experiment of liberal monarchy ended in 1973 by a coup which established the Republic of Afghanistan, with the
  support of the Afghan Communist Party. The assassination in April 1978 of the leading ideologist of the
  Communist Party ended by a Communist counter-coup which led to the Soviet Union invasion in 1979, aiming to
  support the tottering Afghan Communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in
  1989 under relentless pressure from the international community and the United States which were supporting
  anti-Communist Mujahedin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban,
  a hard-line Islamic movement that emerged in 1994. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in New
  York City, a NATO coalition and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering
  Osama Bin Laden. The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political
  reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National
  Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected
  president of Afghanistan and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. The second
  presidential and provincial council elections were held on 20 August 2009.

  Millennium Development Goals: Afghanistan ranks 174 out of 178 countries in the UNDP Human
  Development Index 2007. It has over 27 millions inhabitants and over half of the population is under 18 years
  old. With 191 out of 1,000 children dying before their 5 year, Afghanistan’s child mortality rate is among the
  highest in the world. Together with India, Nigeria and Pakistan, it is in the list of countries where polio continues
  to be endemic. The maternal mortality ratio is of 1,600 per 100,000 live births or one of the five highest in the
  world. 15,000 people die each year of tuberculosis. According to a UNICEF rapid assessment done in June
  2008, 16 percent of children between six and 69 months old are affected by global acute malnutrition. 70 percent
  of the population has no access to safe drinking water and only eight per cent of households have access to
  latrines. The net enrolment in primary education stands at 53 per cent for urban children, whereas it is only six
  per cent for nomadic children. Two million primary school-age children are not attending school, 1.3 million of
  whom are girls. An estimated 7.4 million people, or 30 percent of the population are food-insecure, six million
  amongst them live in rural areas.

  Humanitarian situation: With recurrent natural disasters (drought, floods, earthquakes) and conflict,
  Afghanistan is prone to emergencies (1) Natural disaster : In April/May 2009, ten of the country’s 34 provinces
  have been affected by floods, landslides and avalanches, killing numerous people and hundreds of livestock,
  while damaging vital agricultural land. (2) Conflict: Civilian deaths resulting from armed hostilities between
  insurgents, international military troops, and government forces have increased by 24 percent to over 1,000 so
  far this year compared to the same period in 2008, according to a recent report of the United Nations Assistance
  Mission in Afghanistan [UNAMA]. Since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, insecurity has gradually taken
  over the country, particularly the south and the east. Today there are 235,000 internally displaced people (IDP)
  in Afghanistan and 2.6 million Afghan refugees in the region, registered mostly in Pakistan and Iran.

  Economy: Gross National Income is estimated to be US$ 250 per capita and an estimated 42 percent of
  Afghans live below the poverty line, while 45 percent are food insecure. Since April 2008, food prices have risen
  by 30-50 percent. Growth in Gross Domestic Product declined from 13 percent in 2007 to nine percent in 2008.
  The average rate of inflation in 2008 was ten percent, compared to five percent in 2006, mainly due to increases
  in the prices of imported fuel and food.

  Key challenges: Effective humanitarian responses are hampered by inadequate systematic data and an
  ineffective humanitarian information management system. Assessment and emergency responses are severely
  restricted as due to insecurity only 43 percent of the country is accessible for UN missions. Limited
  governmental technical and implementation capacity, especially with respect to delivery of community based
  services further hampers effectiveness.


  UNICEF Offices:
   Kabul [Centre]
   Kandahar [South]
   Herat [West]
   Mazar [North]
   Jalalabad [East]

  Basic Indicators

   Indicators                                                          Value              Source           Year
   Total population                                               27.145.000        UNICEF SOWC            2007
   Population under 18/ Population under 5 [in million]            14.5m/5m         UNICEF SOWC            2007
   Life expectancy at birth :                                        44 years       UNICEF SOWC            2007
   Development level                                      174 of 178 countries          UNDP HDI           2008
   GNI per capita                                                         250       UNICEF SOWC            2007
   Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births):                  1,600       UNICEF SOWC            2007
   U5 mortality rate (per 1,000 births):                                  257       UNICEF SOWC            2007
   U5 moderately or severely underweight:                                39%        UNICEF SOWC            2007
   Access of population to clean water: Urban/Rural (%)                37/17        UNICEF SOWC            2007
   Access to adequate sanitation: Urban/Rural (%)                      45/24        UNICEF SOWC            2007
   Primary school enrollment ratio (net) Boys/Girls                74% / 46%     School Survey-GoA         2007
   Children (12-15 months) immunized against DPT3                        83%        UNICEF SOWC            2007
   Children (12-15 months) immunized against measles                     70%        UNICEF SOWC            2007
   Adult HIV prevalence                                                0.10%        UNICEF SOWC            2007
   People living with HIV                                    2,000 (High est.)      UNICEF SOWC            2007
   No. of children orphaned due to all causes                          2,100        UNICEF SOWC            2007

  UNICEF in Action

  The initial UNICEF country programme 2006-2008 was extended over 2009 to align the programme cycle with
  the Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS) framework. (2008-2013). the current Country
  programme has five components:

  Health and Nutrition programmes contribute to survival and development of children and women wellbeing 1)
  Increased access and utilization of primarily community-based Integrated Maternal and Child Health and
  Nutrition services including promotion of optimal infant and young child feeding practices; 2) Reduced burden of
  vaccine preventable diseases (polio, measles Diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, Hepatitis and Homophiles
  influenza) improve the quality of existing services and expand immunization coverage 3) Facility and community
  based management of severs acute malnutrition; 4) Increased utilization of facility-based reproductive health
  and child health services; 5); School health intervention packages; 6) Promote access and unitization of iodized
  salt at household level and 7) HIV prevention.

  Basic Education and Gender Equality programmes aim to increase primary school net enrolment for girls by
  20 percent and literacy rates among adults especially females, 15-49 years of age by 50 percent through: 1)
  Support to sector reform and community development, 2) Improvement of quality of primary education with a
  special focus on girls, and 3) Women’s literacy and empowerment. The interventions to restore education in
  emergency will include 1) an education in emergency response strategy to ensure continuity, 2) School
  protection through communities, and 3) Coordination through the Cluster approach.

  Water and Environmental Sanitation programmes intend to increase access to, and use of safe water and
  basic sanitation services, and promote improved hygiene practices, via 1) Hygiene Education and Institutional
  Capacity Building, 2) School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene and 3) Health-Care water facilities and Community-
  based Water, Sanitation and Hygiene services.

  Child Protection programme aims to support the Government of Afghanistan and civil society in developing and
  implement appropriate protection policies, legislation and measures to safeguard women and children from
  violence, exploitation and abuse. The programme also has targeted support for the sub-national child protection
  system such as provincial/district Child Protection Action Networks (CPAN). The programme has three projects:
  Social Protection; Child labor and Child Trafficking.

  To increase awareness and respect of the rights of Afghan women and children an inclusive
  Communication for Development (C4D) strategy has been designed to assist the Government in the
  acceleration of child and maternal survival through behavior development at the family and community level.

  Emergency response: A standing level of preparedness to assist an initial 100,000 people is being maintained
  by UNICEF, including stockpiles of essential drugs, nutrition supplies, education material and non-food supplies
  in strategic provincial hubs. Any emergency response is carried out in coordination with the government and the
  eight humanitarian clusters.

  UNICEF in Emergencies

  In May 2009, approximately 22,000 households in 13 provinces (North, Northeast and Western regions) were
  affected by floods. In response UNICEF provided 4,500 families with High Energy biscuits, Emergency Health
  Kits, and NFI (family kits, jerry cans, blankets, cooking stoves, tarpaulin, floor mats, plastic sheeting and tents).
  In some cases the provision of assistance was delayed due to lack of access, caused by insecurity and
  damaged road-infrastructure. .

  In June 2009, flash floods in Eastern Region and the district of Bamyan affected around 350 families and two
  schools. UNICEF provided NFI (blankets, family kits, tents, jerry cans and stove gas cylinders) to 96 families and
  13 school tents to provide temporary learning space for 1 200 students.

  In July 2009, fighting between international troops and insurgents in the Southern province of Helmand resulted
  in the internal displacement of over 4,000 families. Based on a joint rapid assessment with WFP, UNICEF
  provided NFI (family kits, blankets, floor mats, tarpaulin and jerry cans) to 2,560 families.

  UNICEF in Afghanistan

     UNICEF maintains a working distribution network in Afghanistan since 1949. Today it has one central and
      five Zonal Offices, covering 34 Provinces, in the South (ZO Kandahar), West (ZO Herat), East (ZO
      Jalalabad), North (ZO Mazar) and Center (ZO Kabul), as well as ten outposts.
     The CO currently has 260 staff members, including 219 Nationals and 31 Internationals.
     The two official languages are Dari, spoken by about 50 percent of the population and Pashto, 35 percent.
      Since 2001 English has become increasingly important
     Able to do media interviews? Yes . Language spoken in Communication section: English, French,
      German, Arabic, Dari and Pashtu.

  For further information, please contact:

  Farida Ayari, UNICEF Afghanistan, Chief of Communication, Tel: +93 798 50 7110, fayari@unicef.org
  Cornelia Walther, UNICEF Afghanistan, Communication Specialist, Tel: +93 798 507112, cwalther@unicef.org
  Sarah Crowe, Regional Chief of Communications, Tel:+91 9910532314, scrowe@unicef.org

  The Situation

  One of the world’s most densely populated countries, Bangladesh is home to 159 million people, 40% of them
  children. Bangladesh became an independent state in 1971 and its political history has seen periods of martial
  law, military rule and parliamentary democracy. The Awami League was democratically elected to government at
  the most recent elections held in December 2008.

  Extremely fertile, yet prone to floods and cyclones, this low-lying country is particularly vulnerable to natural
  disasters and the devastating effects of climate change. Three-quarters of Bangladeshis live in rural areas, but
  rapid urbanisation is also occurring, resulting in high land prices and the growth of large urban slums.

  Despite these challenges, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving the Millennium
  Development Goals (MDG) for children, particularly those relating to universal primary school education and the
  reduction of child mortality. Since 1990, child mortality was reduced by more than 50 percent in Bangladesh.

  While human development indicators continue to improve, 41.3 percent of the population still live on less than
  $1.00 a day and about 84% survive on less than $2 a day.

  Map of Bangladesh showing UNICEF Field Offices

                                                 88°0'0"E               88°30'0"E               89°0'0"E               89°30'0"E   90°0'0"E       90°30'0"E            91°0'0"E      91°30'0"E          92°0'0"E             92°30'0"E

                                                                                                                                              Bangladesh Field Office's Location


                                                                                                                                                               International Bounday
                                                                                                                                                               District Boundary!


                                                                                                                                                                   Major River
                                                                                                                                                               UNICEF Field Office

                                                            (West Bengal)
                                                                                                                                                              INDIA (Meghalaya)



                                                                (West Bengal)






                                                                                                                                                                           BAY OF BENGAL

                                                     The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this

                                                     map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

                                                     Spatial Reference: Geographic Coordinate System WGS 1984.

                                                                                                                                              0   20          40          80        120              160

                                    88°0'0"E                        88°30'0"E                89°0'0"E                89°30'0"E     90°0'0"E        90°30'0"E             91°0'0"E        91°30'0"E           92°0'0"E              92°30'0"E

  Basic Indicators1

  Total population:                                                             159 million (2007)
  Pop. under 18/ pop under 5:                                                   64.5 million/ 18.9 million (2007)
  Life expectancy at birth :                                                    64 years (2007)
  UNDP Development Index Rank                                                   140 out of 177 countries
  GNI per capita                                                                $470 (2007)
  Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births):                           320
  U5 mortality rate (per 1,000 births):                                         61 (2007)
  U5s moderately or severly underweight:                                        46% (2000 – 2007)
  Access of pop. To improved drinking water sources:                             80%; urban 85%, rural 78% (2006)
  Access to adequate sanitation:                                                 36%, urban 48%, rural 32% (2006)
  Primary school enrolment ratio (net)                                          87 (boys), 91 (girls) (2007)
  One-year-olds immunized against DPT3 (%, age 12-15 months)                    90% (2007)
  One-year-olds immunized against measles (%, age 12-15 months)                 88% (2007)
  Adult HIV prevalence                                                          <0.1%
  People living with HIV                                                        12,000
  No. of orphans or vulnerable children due to                                  No data available

  UNICEF in Action

  Health and Nutrition Programme
  UNICEF Bangladesh has three main projects under this programme: maternal and neonatal health, Child
  survival and Nutrition. UNICEF works in public health facilities and with local communities to strengthen maternal
  and neonatal health services and encourage women to seek medical treatment.
  To improve child survival, UNICEF programme focuses on three main areas: immunisation; the Integrated
  Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) and the prevention of child Injuries. UNICEF seeks to improve nutrition
  across the entire lifecycle – from infancy, through childhood, adolescence, and the child-bearing years,
  particularly through adequate provision of micronutrients such as vitamin A, iodine, iron or folic acid.

  Water and Environmental Sanitation
  UNICEF Bangladesh Sanitation, Hygiene, Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh project (SHEWA-B) aims
  to reach 30 million people both in rural and urban areas in order to improve access to safe water and sanitation
  and to promote hygiene. About 10,000 hygiene promoters educate communities about the benefits of improved
  latrines, hand-washing, and waste disposal. By the end of 2008, communities targeted by the project had
  installed 355,000 latrines using their own funds. UNICEF has also tested more than 1 million tube wells for

  Child Protection
  The child protection programme has four main components: adolescent empowerment; children at risk; children
  and the law and birth registration. With the adolescent empowerment project UNICEF objective is to help
  prevent child marriage, dowry and other forms of abuse and exploitation of adolescents, especially girls.
  UNICEF also supports the Government in order to improve the efficiency and coverage of birth registration, and
  help raise public awareness about the importance of birth registration.


    All data from the State of the World’s Children 2009, except where stated
    Government of Bangladesh figure. UN adjusted figure is 570.
    UNGASS 2008 Country Progress Report: Bangladesh

  UNICEF aims to achieve quality education for all children by making primary schools more inclusive, child-
  friendly and effective. UNICEF supports the Government-driven Second Primary Education Development
  Programme (PEDP II), particularly through teachers training, development of Information leaflets on current
  issues in education; school level improvement plans. UNICEF also works to mobilize communities in support of
  primary education and primary schools.
  UNICEF promotes early learning or pre-school education. Since 2006, UNICEF and the Government of
  Bangladesh have established 5,560 early learning centres in several disadvantaged districts. This programme
  currently serving over 254,000 children. Another project aims at providing education to working children. The
  project establishes small learning centres in urban areas that are home to high numbers of working children. By
  2008, the project had opened 6,646 centres for 166,150 students in the six divisional capitals of Bangladesh.

  UNICEF adopts an integrated approach across sectors to address HIV/AIDS. Since the country has a low
  prevalence of HIV/ AIDS, programmes mostly focus on increasing public awareness and equipping young
  people with adequate knowledge and information.

  Emergency response
  Because Bangladesh is susceptible to regular natural disasters that impede development, emergency
  preparedness and disaster risk reduction are central to UNICEF’s everyday work in Bangladesh. Assistance
  varies dramatically depending on the crisis. With wide presence in the field though nine field offices and constant
  pre-positioning of emergency supplies, UNICEF can immediately respond to small or large scale emergencies.
  UNICEF is also coordinating the WASH cluster activities together with the Department of Public Health
  Engineering (DPHE).

  UNICEF in Emergencies

  Cyclone Aila – May 2009
  Bangladesh’s most recent natural disaster was Cyclone Aila in May 2009, affecting about 4 million people in the
  south-west coastal area. The disaster led to an outbreak of diarrhoea and water-borne diseases. UNICEF
  provided $US 118,000 to repair latrines and water points and provide clean water and water-purifying tablets. By
  end June, over 3.5 million water purifying tablets and about 600,000 sachets of ORS had been supplied to
  communities. UNICEF also procured essential drugs including IV saline for a total of US$ 95,000. Approximately
  9,000 diarrhoea cases and 12,500 ARI cases were treated with UNICEF supplied drugs and IV saline. A total of
  110 child-friendly safe spaces were established in partnership with Save the Children and other NGOs, providing
  safe places to more than 10,000 affected children, who could enjoy recreational activities as well as safe water
  and food. UNICEF also provided 30,841 plastic sheets and 5,061 family kits for 26,151 families in Satkhira and
  Bhola districts. UNICEF donated education materials to 40,000 children in 400 AILA affected schools.

  Cyclone Sidr – November 2007 - In November 2007, Cyclone Sidr – a category four cyclonic storm – hit
  Bangladesh, killing more than 3000 people and injuring 55,000 others. Immediately following the cyclone,
  UNICEF offered immediate emergency assistance and ongoing relief support to the 8.9 million people who lost
  family members, homes and livelihoods .UNICEF worked with Save the Children to establish 220 safe spaces
  where child victims received food and water and had access to psycho-social support and recreation. UNICEF
  provided a wide range of emergency supplies, including 1 million packs of oral rehydration solution, 100,000
  blankets and safe drinking water for 100,000 families. Longer-term support has included materials and support
  to build 42 transitional schools, construction of almost 30,000 latrines and nutritional supplements for thousands
  of women and children.
  Floods – July-September 2007
  The most recent serious floods were in 2007, when more than half of Bangladesh was affected. The floods
  caused 1,100 deaths (90 per cent of them children), 400,000 displaced people and 1.1 million damaged or
  destroyed homes. A total of 13.3 million people were affected – 6 million of them being children.
  To restore access to safe water, UNICEF supported the construction of 853 new tubewells, the repair of 91,300
  damaged wells, and distribution of over 4.3 million water purification tablets.

  UNICEF also provided plastic sheets and family kits for 98,000 families, food supplements for 162,000 people
  And essential drugs for 250,000 people. During the floods UNICEF set up safe spaces that provided care and
  psychosocial support to 40,000 children. These children were able to continue their studies thanks to UNICEF’s
  emergency education kits.

  UNICEF in Bangladesh

         UNICEF opened its first office in Dhaka, Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) in 1951
         The country office now has 199 staff, including 159 Nationals and 40 Internationals.
         Languages spoken within the office include English, Bangla, French, Portuguese, Dutch.
         Media Interview can be conducted in those languages
         UNICEF works with the Government of Bangladesh, UN agencies, national and international NGOs
          such as BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), ActionAid, CARE Bangladesh, CARITAS,
          Centre for Injury Prevention Research Bangladesh, Concern Worldwide, Oxfam, Plan International and
          Save the Children.
         UNICEF Bangladesh received funding for emergency activities from many donors. Main donors include:
          CIDA (Canada), SIDA (Sweden), DFID (UK) , DANIDA (Denmark), Norad (Norway), USAID (USA),
          Japan, The Netherlands and Australian Governments.

  For further information please contact:

  Christine Jaulmes, UNICEF Bangladesh, Chief Communications and Information Section,
  Mobile: (88) 0171 304 3478; Tel: (880-2) 9936701, ext 209; email: cjaulmes@unicef.org

  Arifa S Sharmin, UNICEF Bangladesh, Communications Specialist,
  Mobile: (88) 0171 304 3477; Tel: (880-2) 9936701, ext 477, email: assharmin@unicef.org

  Sarah Crowe, Regional Communications Chief, tel: +919910532314, scrowe@unicef.org


  India is the world’s seventh-largest country by geographical area and the second-most populous country in the
  world with an estimated population of 1.2 billion. The country is bordered by Pakistan to the west; the People's
  Republic of China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east.

  India is a republic consisting of 28 states and seven union territories with a parliamentary system of democracy.
  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh currently heads a national-level coalition government under the banner of the
  United Progressive Alliance (UPA).

  India is the world’s largest democracy; it has the world’s twelfth largest economy at market exchange rates and
  the fourth largest in purchasing power.

  Hindus constitute 80.5 per cent of the country’s total population, while Muslims constitute 13.4 per cent. The
  remaining 6.1 per cent are Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Christians and others.

  Achievements and Challenges

  Over the last few years India has seen impressive economic growth as well as progress in terms of human
  development. The economy grew at a rate of 9.4 per cent in 2006-2007 as compared to 5.8 per cent in 2001-
      7                                                                                                      8
  2002 . The population below the poverty line fell from 36 per cent in 1993-94 to 27.5 per cent in 2004-2005 .

  However, India still has much progress to make if it is going to reach the targets set by the Millennium
  Development Goals (MDGs) and the Government of India (GOI) recognises that even these growth rates are not
  fast or equitable enough to reach disadvantaged populations.
  Thirty-four per cent of the population lives on less than one dollar a day and the percentage of underweight
  children under the age of three has remained stagnant for the past seven years, standing at 45.9 per cent in

  Malnutrition is directly or indirectly associated with more than half of all young child mortality. About 78 per cent
  of total under-five deaths occur before age one. The Infant Mortality Rate for India was estimated to be
                                13                                                                              14
  58/1,000 live births in 2006 and the Maternal Mortality Rate currently stands at 301/100,000 live births.

    World BankReport 2008 ( http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP.pdf )
    Census of India 2001
    Press note by Press Information Bureau on 31 May 2007 (As quoted in UNICEF India Country Programme Action Plan 2008 -
         2012, p. 1)
    http://mospi.nic.in/t1_income_at_constant.htm (As quoted in UNICEF India Country Programme Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 1)
    Government of India Poverty Estimates for 2004-2005. Press Information Bureau. March 2007. (As quoted in UNICEF India
         Country Programme Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 1)
    Towards Faster and More Inclusive Growth. Planning Commission, Government of India. June 2006. (As quoted in UNICEF
         India Country Programme Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 1)
     http://mdgs.un.org/unsd//mdg/Data.aspx?cr=356#f20 (As quoted in UNICEF India Country Programme Action Plan 2008-2012,
         p. 2)
     Fact Sheets: National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS3). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2006. (As quoted in UNICEF
         India Country Programme Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 2)
     State of the World’s Children (SOWC). UNICEF. 2007.
     Sample Registration System Bulletin. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. October 2007. (As quot ed in

  The percentage of working children stood at 11.8 in 2005-2006 . Two out of every three children in the country
  have been physically abused and 53.2 per cent of children have faced one or more forms of sexual abuse .
  Sanitation coverage in rural India increased from 21 per cent in 2001 to 48 per cent in 2007 . In urban areas 83
  per cent of households currently have access to adequate sanitation . The Government of India plans to make
  the country free from open defecation by the end of the Eleventh Plan in 2012.

  The number of people living with HIV/AIDS in India is estimated to be between two to three million, with an
  approximate national adult HIV prevalence rate of 0.36 per cent . An estimated 70,000 children in India below
  the age of 15 are infected with HIV .

  In education, the Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) in primary education have increased from 84.6 per cent in 1992-
  1993 to 107 per cent in 2004-2005 , with much of the growth attributable to increased enrolment of girls. The
  estimated non-attendance rate for children in the age-group 5-14 years is 18 per cent , and the drop-out rate is
  29 per cent .

  Natural Emergencies

  India is among the world’s most disaster-prone countries. Almost 80% of India’s geographical area is considered
  at risk to one or more types of natural disasters: floods, coastal cyclones, droughts, earthquakes and landslides.
  Tens of millions people are affected annually in India, most of them from the poorest strata of the population, a
  high proportion of whom are children.

  In only the last two decades, several major natural disasters have occurred in India: The Latur Earthquake in
  1993; the Orissa super-cyclone in October 1999, the Bhuj earthquake in January 2001, the Tsunami in
  December 2004, the earthquake in Jammu & Kashmir in October 2005, major flooding in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh,
  Assam, Orissa, West Bengal and other states in 2007 and 2008. In 2009, the eastern Indian State of West
  Bengal was hit by cyclone Aila which affected 6.8 million people and resulted in a loss of 138 human lives.
  UNICEF State Offices:

         UNICEF India Country Programme Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 5)
     State of the World’s Children (SOWC). UNICEF. 2007.
     National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS3). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2006. (As quoted in UNICEF India Country
         Programme Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 8)
     Study on Child Abuse. Ministry of Women and Child Development. 2007. (As quoted in UNICEF India Country Programme
         Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 8)
     Coverage as per the date reported in TSC online monitoring software of GOI. (As quo ted in UNICEF India Country Programme
         Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 8)
     Fact Sheets: National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS3). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2006. (As quoted in UNICEF
         India Country Programme Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 8)
     Policy Framework for Children and AIDS. Government of India. 2007. (As quoted in UNICEF India Country Programme Action
         Plan 2008-2012, p. 7)
     National HIV Sero-Surveillance. National AIDS Control Organisation. 2006. (As quoted in UNICEF India Country Programme
         Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 7)
     Selected Educational Statistics. MHRD. 2004-5 (As quoted in UNICEF India Country Programme Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 3)
     Status of Education and Vocational Training In India. National Sample Survey Organisation. 2004-5. (As quoted in UNICEF
         India Country Programme Action Plan 2008-2012, p. 3)
     Selected Educational Statistics. MHRD. 2004-5. (As quoted in UNICEF India Country Programme Action Plan 2008 -2012, p. 3)

    UNICEF India Country Office headquarters, New Delhi
    Jaipur, Rajasthan
    Ahmedabad, Gujarat
    Raipur, Chattisgarh
    Ranchi, Jharkhand
    Patna, Bihar
    Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
    Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
    Bhubaneshwar, Orissa
    Hyderabad, office for Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
    Chennai, office for Tamil Nadu and Kerala
    Kolkata, West Bengal
    Guwahati, Assam
    Mumbai, Maharashtra

                                           Jammu & Kashmir

                                                           Himachal Pradesh



                                                                     Delhi                                                                             Arunachal Pradesh

                                                                                      Lucknow                                                       Assam
                                                Jaipur                                                                              Guwahati
                                                                                                                  Bihar                                           Nagaland
                               Rajasthan                                      Uttar Pradesh
                                                                                                         Patna                       Meghalaya

                                                                Madhya Pradesh                       Jharkhand
                                                                                                                   West Bengal
                             Gandhinagar                   Bhopal                                       Ranchi        Kolkata             Tripura
                   Gujarat                                                           Chhattisgarh




                                                               Andhra Pradesh



                                                                         Tamil Nadu


Basic Indicators

Indicators                                                       Value                 Source          Year
Total population:                                                1,169,016,000         SOWC 2009       2007
Population under 18                                              Approx: 424 million   Registrar       2009
Population under 5                                               Approx. 115 million   General of
Life expectancy at birth :                                       64 years              SOWC 2009       2007
Development level                                                Value = 0.609         UNDP Human      2006
                                                                 Rank = 132            Development
GNI per capita                                                   950                   SOWC 2009       2007
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births):              301                   SOWC 2009       2007
U5 mortality rate (per 1,000 births):                            72                    SOWC 2009       2007
U5s moderately or severely underweight:                          46%                   SOWC 2009       2000-2007
Percentage of population using improved drinking water sources   Total: 89%            SOWC 2009       2006
                                                                 Urban: 96%,
                                                                 Rural : 86%
Percentage of population using improved sanitation facilities    Total: 28%            SOWC            2006
                                                                 Urban: 52%
                                                                 Rural: 18%
Primary school enrolment ratio (net)                             Boys: 90              SOWC 2009       2000-2007
                                                                 Girls: 87
One-year-olds immunized against DPT3 (%, age 12-15 months)       81%                   SOWC 2009       2007
One-year-olds immunized against measles (%, age 12-15            67%                   SOWC 2009       2007
Adult HIV prevalence (source: )                                  0.3%                  SOWC 2009       2007
People living with HIV                                           2.4 million           SOWC 2009       2007

UNICEF in Action in India

UNICEF is working jointly with Government of India on a five-year Country Programme to help India achieve its national
development goals.

The overall goal of the 2008-2012 Country Programme is to advance the fulfilment of the rights of all women and children to
survive, develop, participate and be protected by reducing social inequalities based on gender, caste, ethnicity or region.


UNICEF plays a critical roll to ensure the effective implementation of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Its key focus
areas in health are (1) Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI); (2) to promote the acceleration
of routine immunisation; (3) ORS / zinc therapy for diarrhoea; (4) to provide quality care for women and newborns and safe
deliveries - Special Care Newborn Units (SCNU); (5) Maternal and Perinatal Death Inquiry and Response (MAPEDIR); and
(6) monitoring district level availability, access, utilisation, quality and effective coverage of services.


UNICEF supports the Government in its objectives to reduce and prevent malnutrition, and to improve the development of
children under three years old, especially those in marginalised groups. It focuses on (1) the nutritional status of under 3 year
olds; (2) improvements in quality and efficiency of existing government programmes; and (3) the strengthening of nutrition
intervention policies supportive of families and communities.

Water and Environmental Sanitation

UNICEF supports the national and state governments in developing and implementing a range of replicable models for
sanitation, hygiene and water supply: Elements from these have influenced government policy and programmes. UNICEF
action on Child’s Environment focuses on (1) improving the child’s household hygiene and sanitation environment; (2)
improving the child’s school environment; and (3) improving community management and sustainability of water and
sanitation interventions.

Child Protection

UNICEF India’s approach to child protection aims to build a protective environment in which children’s rights are fully realised
and they can live and develop to their fullest potential. UNICEF action on Child Protection in India includes (1) promoting
Alternative Learning Centres in areas where child labour is common; (2) strengthening knowledge base on trafficking and
commercial sexual exploitation of children; (3) supporting advocacy and public awareness campaigns to change mindsets
and promote community action against child labour and trafficking.

UNICEF supports the Government of India to meet MDGs 2 and 3 and national goals as outlined in the 11 five year plan.
UNICEF works to (1) strengthen policy and implementation capacity of state and national players to reduce disparities and
support disadvantaged groups; (2) to support accountable and responsive local government systems to achieve MDGs / local
development goals, especially for disadvantaged groups, women and girls; (3) to ensure 11 five year plan targets related to
the MDGs are on track in at least one district in each of the seven priority states and (4) to enhance the abilities of civil
society groups and government systems to respond to disasters.


As a part of the joint UN response and within the context of National Aids Control Plan III, UNICEF works with the
Government of India and other partners in four key areas: (1) Primary prevention of HIV/AIDS in adolescents, young people
and women of childbearing age; (2) quality assurance and monitoring; and (3) advocacy.

UNICEF in Emergencies

UNICEF in India is the UN agency with most effective field office network in the country, high credibility with the government,
and capacity to make a significant contribution in emergencies by complementing the Government’s efforts. UNICEF offices
in the states often assume a coordination role in emergency response. In most cases, UNICEF’s response consisted of
urgently needed supplies with the ultimate purpose of preventing disease epidemics and saving lives, but UNICEF at the
same time put an ever increasing emphasis on advocacy efforts with the government partners and all other stakeholders to
ensure appropriate response to the needy affected population and fast resumption of essential social services.

In 2008, UNICEF was a major humanitarian player in the country that complemented the government’s action. UNICEF
provided support to the state governments to assist the victims of communal violence and displacement, programme
communication support in tackling avian flu, and multi-sectoral support in dealing with major floods. In 2009, UNICEF, among
other interventions, helped the hundreds of thousands of victims of cyclone Aila that hit the eastern Indian state of West

Brief Facts

UNICEF began its operations in India in 1949.

The India Country Office currently has 425 staff members, including 382 Indian nationals and 43 international staff members.

UNICEF works with the Government of India, UN agencies, National and international NGOs such as IRCS, Cry, and Save
the Children.

For media queries and more information:

Alistair Gretarsson
Communications Specialist (International media, emergencies focal point)
Tel: +91-98-7153-5586
E-mail: agretarsson@unicef.org

Sonia Sarkar
Communication Officer (Indian media)
Tel: +91-98-1017-0289
E-mail: ssarkar@unicef.org

Angela Walker
Chief, Advocacy & Partnerships
Tel: +91-98-1810-6093
E-mail: awalker@unicef.org

Sarah Crowe,
Regional Chief of Communications,
Tel:+91 9910532314,

The Situation

Nepal has a population of over 27 million, 16 per cent of whom live in urban areas and 45 per cent of whom are under 18
years old. The country’s geography ranges from the southern lowlands 100 metres above sea level to the high mountains
rising over 8,000 metres. The particular geography and limited communications have resulted in people living in relatively
isolated communities preserving their own languages and culture, but more recently these divisions have become less
distinct. Natural disasters such as floods, landslides and earthquakes occur frequently. Nepal ranks 136 out of 177 countries
on the Human Development Index.

Following 10 years of conflict which ended in 2006, the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Accord on 21 November 2006
marked a new phase in Nepal’s social, political and economic development. The ten years of conflict worsened the situation
for many vulnerable people – child labour and trafficking increased, for example, while birth registration rates fell. Many of the
social disparities among castes and ethnicities that helped spark the conflict remain today and women continue to face
discrimination and chronic economic insecurity.

Millennium Development Goals: Despite the conflict, many indicators have been improving. Nepal’s Millennium
Development Goals progress report (2005) estimates that the country is likely to reach by 2015 the targets for reducing
poverty, child mortality, tuberculosis, and increasing access to improved drinking water, but is unlikely to do so for universal
primary education or halting HIV and AIDS. The goals for hunger, gender equality, and maternal health would require
additional and very substantial efforts.

Humanitarian Situation: The country continues to face humanitarian concerns fuelled by factors such as residual impact of
major floods in 2008 in the eastern region with some families still needing humanitarian assistance. In addition, the prolonged
winter droughts with little or no rainfall and high food prices have caused deterioration in food security and the nutritional
status of children especially in remote districts in the Mid and Far Western regions. Persistent strikes and road blocks in the
Terai-Madhesh region have further disrupted provision of services to most vulnerable communities.


UNICEF Offices:

       Kathmandu (Country Office)
       Biratnagar (Eastern Regional Office)
       Bharatpur (Central and Western Regional
       Nepalgunj (Mid and Far West Regional

Basic Indicators

Total population, (Source: SOWC, 2007)                         28,196,000

Pop. under 18/ pop under 5 (: (SOWC, 2007)                      12,606,000 / 3,651,000
Life expectancy at birth : (SOWC, 2007)                         64
Development level (source: UNDP Development index, 2005) 142 out of 177 countries
GNI per capita (source: SOWC, 2007)                             340
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births) (SOWC, 2007) 280
U5 mortality rate (per 1,000 births): (SOWC, 2007)              55
U5s moderately or severly underweight: (SOWC, 2007)             45%
Access of pop. To clean water(SOWC, 2007)                       89%;    urban 94%, rural 88%
Access to adequate sanitation:(SOWC, 2007)                      27%, urban 45% rural 24%
Primary school enrollment ratio (net) (SOWC, 2007)              91%(boys), 87%(girls)
One-year-olds immunized against DPT3 (%, age 12-15 months) 82%
One-year-olds immunized against measles (%, age 12-15 months)   81%
Adult HIV prevalence (source: SOWC, 2007)                       0.5
People living with HIV (SOWC, 2007)                             99,000(High est.)
No. of children orphaned due to all causes (est. ‘000s) (SOWC, 2007)

UNICEF in Action

The overall goal of the 2008-2010 country programme is the realization of the rights of all children and women through
support to the interlinked objectives of peace, reconciliation and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
The current country programme has the following components:

The Decentralized Action for Children and Women (DACAW) approach is UNICEF’s primary vehicle for directing a range
of interventions to rural communities across Nepal. The Ministry of Local Development is the lead implementing agency,
along with other ministries, focusing on the most disadvantaged communities in 23 out of the 75 districts in Nepal.

The Child Protection programme aims to strengthen the capacity of the Government and civil society to protect children
against violence, exploitation and abuse, and seeks to support the building of protective systems covering all types of child
rights violations.

The Education programme aims to improve access to quality learning opportunities for all children, and enable girls and
disadvantaged children to complete a basic education cycle and graduate to lower secondary level.

The Health and Nutrition programme aims to improve access to quality health interventions and improved services for
maternal, newborn and children’s health.

The HIV and AIDS programme aims to reduce new HIV infections among young people and to provide access to preventive
services for AIDS treatment, care and support for children, pregnant women and adolescents.

The Water, Sanitation and Hygiene programme aims to increase access to sustainable and safe drinking water, sanitation
facilities, and improved hygiene practices in schools and communities, thus contributing to a reduction of related diseases.

The Social Policy programme supports the government in the development of policies, legislation and budgets that advance
women’s and children’s rights, especially among the most marginalized groups.

Emergency response: A standing level of preparedness to assist an initial 100,000 people is maintained by UNICEF,
including stockpiles of essential drugs, nutrition supplies, water and sanitation supplies, education materials and non-food
supplies in strategic provincial hubs. Any emergency response is carried out in coordination with the government and the
eight humanitarian clusters.

UNICEF in Emergencies

The severe flooding of 2008 caused massive displacement and hardship. The global food insecurity problems have reached
deep into the remote areas with already bad nutritional indicators being made worse. In early August 2009, a diarrhoea
epidemic (and some cases of cholera) in the Mid and Far Western Regions of Nepal claimed about 282 lives. Out of 19

districts affected, Jajarkot and Rukum are the two districts hardest hit by the epidemic. As of 10 August 2009, nearly 52,000
people had received medical treatment in 130 health camps in the 19 districts as a result.

The monsoon rains started to pick up at various parts of the country in August. However as of 31 August 2009, no major
floods on the scale of 2008 have been reported. Contingency Plans developed this year with district partners in six districts
prone to floods are expected to be operational for better management of the flood situation in those districts. UNICEF
continues to monitor the situation through its field–based staff in the districts.

UNICEF in Nepal

       UNICEF began its operations in Nepal in 1968.
       The Country Office currently has 142 staff members including 123 Nationals and 19 Internationals.
       Languages spoken are English and Nepali
       Able to do media interviews? Yes.

For further information, please contact:
1. John Brittain, UNICEF Nepal Chief of Communication, 5523200 ext. 1182 , jbrittain@unicef.org
2. Rupa Joshi, UNICEF Nepal, Communication Specialist, 5523200 ext. 1179 , rjoshi@unicef.org
3. Sarah Crowe, Regional Communications Chief, tel: +919910532314, scrowe@unicef.org

The Situation

Children in Pakistan face a variety of serious challenges, including malnutrition and poor access to education and health
services. Traditional mores and the influence of extremism contribute to a resistance to girls' education and suspicion of
health initiatives such as vaccination. There is considerable variance in the situation of women and children which is
especially poor in rural areas and in Baluchistan Province which hosts a long-running insurgency, and the Federally
Administered Tribal Areas bordering Afghanistan where adult female literacy is only 7 per cent.

In recent years, conflict, political turmoil, natural disasters and economic instability have created major challenges to the
wellbeing of children and women in Pakistan. The country is ranked 136th out of 177 countries on the Human Development
Index. It has been affected by food and power shortages, as well as economic troubles predating the global financial crisis
which contributed to high unemployment. In 2008, power was transferred to an elected government after nine years of
military rule, but was followed by further political turmoil and deteriorating security including suicide bombs and attacks
directed against United Nations staff and other humanitarian workers.

In 2005, north-western Pakistan experienced a major earthquake which killed over 73,000 people and devastated health and
education infrastructure. This and subsequent natural disasters including a 2007 cyclone and 2008 flooding came in the
context of increasing insecurity due to fighting between government and Taliban in Swat Valley, which, by May 2009, had
displaced more than 2 million people. Although Swat was largely pacified by late July 2009, operations are expected to
continue in the border regions with Afghanistan where humanitarian actors have no access.


This map is stylized and not to scale. It does not reflect a position by UNICEF on the legal status of any country or territory or the
delimitation of any frontiers. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon the parties.

Basic Indicators

Total population:                                                        157 million (2006)
Population under 18:                                                     70.7 million (2006)
Life expectancy at birth (source: Human Development Report 2007–2008)    64.6 years (2005)
Development level (source: Human Development Report 2007–2008)           136 of 177 countries
GNI per capita (source: World Bank )                                     US$ 770 (2006)
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births):                      320 (2005)
Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 births):                               97 (2006)
Under-5s moderately or severly underweight:                              38 (2001–2002)
Access of population to clean water:                                      91 % (2004)
Access to adequate sanitation:                                            59 % (2004)
Primary school enrollment ratio (net)                                    77 (boys),   59 (girls) (2005)
One-year-olds immunised against DPT3 (age 12-15 months)                  83 % (2006)
One-year-olds immunised against measles (age 12-15 months)               80 % (2006)
Adult HIV prevalence (source: SoWC 2009)                                 0.1 % (2005)
People living with HIV (source: UNAIDS 2008)                             85,000
Number of orphans or vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS (estimate):     170,000

UNICEF in Action

With Pakistan's recent history and vulnerability to natural disasters, UNICEF works to ensure that its programmes incorporate
emergency preparedness and disaster response. To improve maternal and child health and care, UNICEF supports
strengthening services by supporting training for health workers and managers. Parallel community-based communication
activities increase the use of services and good practices such as exclusive breastfeeding. UNICEF also supports
vaccination campaigns and school-based health and hygiene programmes as well as safe drinking water and hygiene
practices, including Community-Led Total Sanitation to eliminate open defecation. School sanitation programmes also
contribute to increasing enrolment, especially for girls. Child-friendly schools with greater community engagement are key
aspects of the education strategy, along with a focus on early childhood education to improve enrolment, retention and
school performance. Federal and provincial level partnerships to improve health, water and sanitation, nutrition and education

for Pakistani children also extend to developing child protection networks and advocacy promoting child-centred policymaking
and ensuring that vulnerable children and adolescents are protected from abuse and exploitation, and have the knowledge to
protect themselves from HIV.

UNICEF in Emergencies

In April/May 2009, fighting between government forces and militants allied with the Taliban caused the sudden displacement
of more than 1.4 million people, adding to about 0.5 million already displaced by conflict and flooding. A tenth of those
displaced sheltered in camps, where UNICEF provided emergency supplies, such as food, shelter and hygiene kits. The rest
sheltered with host families, in public buildings such as schools, and in temporary shelters where they and their hosts both
needed support.

Over 73,000 people received health services supported by UNICEF in camps. In camps and communities, 556,000 children
were vaccinated against measles and 723,000 against polio, which is still endemic in Pakistan. Community health workers
were also trained to access women from conservative societies within their homes with information on nutrition and health
practices. Over 70,000 children and 28,000 mothers were screened for malnutrition. To prevent hygiene related diseases in
the hot summer conditions, over 10,000 latrines were installed in camps, half of them for women. Hygiene kits were
distributed to nearly 400,000 people in camps and communities.

To prevent drop-outs and restore normality for displaced children, 21,000 children were enrolled in camp schools, and 14,000
in host community schools provided additional support from UNICEF. Child friendly spaces were developed in camps, and
child protection monitors trained to identify and assist vulnerable families and children.

Now, as returns continue, UNICEF is assessing the need to restore damaged infrastructure and assist those who returned,
those who stayed in conflict areas and those who continue displaced.

UNICEF in Pakistan

       UNICEF began its operations in Pakistan in 1948.
       The country office has 273 staff members, including 239 Nationals and 34 Internationals.
       There are five field offices: in Quetta (Balochistan), Peshawar (North West Frontier Province), Lahore (Punjab),
        Karachi (Sindh) and in Muzaffarabad (Pakistan-administered Kashmir).
       Languages spoken are English, French, Spanish and Japanese, amongst others.
       UNICEF staff in Pakistan are available to do media interviews.

For further information, please contact the following Communications Specialists:
Antonia Paradela, Mobile: +92 300 5002595, aparadela@unicef.org
Jasmine Pittenger, Mobile: +92 300 5018542, jpittenger@unicef.org
Sarah Crowe, Regional Communications Chief, tel: +919910532314, scrowe@unicef.org

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