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Scientific Method


Observations- information gathered by a sense
Data- info from observations
Quantitative observation- involve #s- counting or measuring
Qualitative- characteristics that cannot be easily measured like color or texture
Hypothesis- Answer to scientific question (testable)
Inference- logical interpretation based on prior info
Spontaneous generation- The idea that life could arise form nonliving matter
Redi- made a new hypothesis that flies produce maggots
Variable- A factor in an experiment that can change like temperature, light, and time
Control (variable)- a variable that is kept unchanging
Manipulated Variable (independent- one that is changed on purpose
Responding variable (dependent)- variable that changes in response to the manipulated
Pasteur- proved that there is no such thing as spontaneous generation
Theory- A well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Metabolism- chemical reactions that build up or break down materials
Homeostasis- keeping their internal conditions stable
SI – metric system- a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on a certain
physical standard and are scaled on multiples of 10
Gram- basic measure of mass which is 1000 milligrams
Microscope- A decide that produces magnified images of structures that are too small 2 c
wit the regular eye
(compound) Light microscope- uses light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses
to form an image (1000x usually greatest power)
Electron microscope- produce images by focusing beams of electrons
Transmission Electron Microscope- TEM goes through
Scanning Electron Microscope- SEM surface
Usually 3d but have to be dead
Cell culture- cells come from one cell
Cell fractionation- find one part of the cell to study use centrifuge
Biology- science that seeks to understand the living world
Safety Rules- rules to have a safe year p.1060
Experiment- A scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or
demonstrate a known fact
Conclusion- states what occurred in the experiment
Scientific Method- Question, Research, Hypothesis, Test by doing experiment, Analyze data,
conclusion
Length- The distance from one point to another
Volume- The amount of space an object takes up
Mass- the amount of matter in an object
Temperature- the measure of hotness or coldness
Liter- basic unit of volume which is 1000 milliliters
Meter- Basic unit of length which is 1000 millimeters and 100 centimeters
Celsius- the type of degrees that are used to measure temperature 0 is freezing point of
water while 100 is boiling point of water
Kilo- 1000 of the basic unit of metric
Centi- 100 of these make up the basic unit of metric
Milli- 1000 of these make up the basic unit of metric
Micro- 1 million of these make up the basic unit of metric
Nano- 1 billion of these make up the basic unit of metric
Tools of the biologist-
Petri dish- a circular tray used for cultures of microorganisms
Pipettes- a tube with a bulb used for transforming very small amounts of liquid
Slides
Bunsen Burners
Graduated Cylinder
Triple-Beam Balance
Metric Ruler
Parts of the Light Microscope-
1. Eyepiece
2. Arm
3. Stage
4. Opening of the stage
5. Fine adjustment knob
6. Coarse adjustment knob
7. Base
8. Illuminator
9. Diaphragm
10. Diaphragm lever
11. Stage clips
12. Low power objective
13. High-power objective
14. Nosepiece
15. Body tube
16. Medium-power objective
Stereomicroscope- A microscope that produces a three-dimensional image of an object by
focusing on the object from slightly different positions in each of two lenses
Magnification- the magnifying power of an instrument
Extrapolation- Estimate or try to conclude something in this way
Graph- A diagram showing the relation between variable quantities, typically of two
variables, each measured along one of a pair of axes at right angles
1. Bar Graph
2. Line Graph
3. Area Graph
4. Pie Chart
CHEMISTRY
Atom- basic unit of matter
Subatomic particle- units of matter below the size of an atom
Atomic number- The number of positive charges or protons in the nucleus of an atom of a
given nucleus, and therefore also the number of electrons normally surrounding the
nucleus
Nucleus- the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons
Neutron- A subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without an electric
charge, present in all atomic nuclei except those of ordinary hydrogen
Atomic mass- The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It
is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass
number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different
isotopes
Proton-a stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, with a positive electric
charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron, but of opposite sign.
Electron- a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all
atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids. The electron's mass is about
9 × 10 −28 g, 1,836 times less than that of the proton. Electrons orbit the positively charged
nuclei of atoms and are responsible for binding atoms together in molecules and for the
electrical, thermal, optical, and magnetic properties of solids.
Element- each of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemically
interconverted or broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of
matter. Each element is distinguished by its atomic number, i.e., the number of protons in
the nuclei of its atoms

Isotope- Atom of an element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other
atoms of the same element

Radioactive isotopes- 32P, 35S, 14C, 125I

Molecule- smallest unit of most compounds

Compound- substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in
definite proportions

Ionic bond- Bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to
another

Covalent bond- Bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms

Lewis Dot Structure- A structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; two
dots between atoms represent a covalent bond. Also known as electron-dot formula; Lewis
formula.

Polar Covalent- A bond in which a pair of electrons is shared in common between two
atoms, but the pair is held more closely by one of the atoms.

Hydrogen bond- A chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to
an electronegative atom, especially a nitrogen, oxygen, or flourine atom, usually of another
molecule.

Cohesion- attraction between molecules of the same substance

Adhesion- attraction between molecules of different substances (capillary action)

Surface Tension- A property of liquids arising from unbalanced molecular cohesive forces
at or near the surface, as a result of which the surface tends to contract and has properties
resembling those of a stretched elastic membrane.

Mixture- material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically
mixed together but not chemically combined
Solution- Mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are
evenly distributed

Solvent- A substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution

Solute- A substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution

Suspension- mixture of water and nondissolved materials

pH scale- measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in
solution, range from 0 to 14

Acid- Compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution

Base- Compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution

Buffer- weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp,
sudden changes in pH

Monomer- Small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

Polymer- large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

Carbohydrate- Compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms 1:2:1 ratio
(monomers); major source of energy for the human body

Monosaccharide- Single sugar molecule

Disaccharide- A class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues.

Polysaccharide- large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides

Glucose- a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a
component of many carbohydrates. • A hexose; chem. formula: C 6 H 12 O 6.

Galactose- a sugar of the hexose class that is a constituent of lactose and many
polysaccharides.

Fructose- a hexose sugar found esp. in honey and fruit

Isomer-each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different
arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties
Maltose- a sugar produced by the breakdown of starch, e.g., by enzymes found in malt and
saliva. It is a disaccharide consisting of two linked glucose units.

Sucrose-a compound that is the chief component of cane or beet sugar. • A disaccharide
containing glucose and fructose units; chem. formula: C 12 H 22 O 11.

Lactose- a sugar present in milk. It is a disaccharide containing glucose and galactose units

Dehydration synthesis- It is a type of condensation reaction in which monomers join
together into polymers while losing water molecules. This process is carried out by losing
(-OH) from one of the monomers and (H) from another monomer. The two unstable
monomers join together, and the (-OH) and (H) combine forming water (H2O).

For example, A-OH + B-H → AB + HOH

Hydrolysis- Decomposition of a chemical compound by reaction with water, such as the
dissociation of a dissolved salt or the catalytic conversion of starch to glucose.

Starch- A naturally abundant nutrient carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, found chiefly in the seeds,
fruits, tubers, roots, and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice, and
varying widely in appearance according to source but commonly prepared as a white
amorphous tasteless powder (FUNCTION)

Glycogen- A polysaccharide, (C6H10O5)n, that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in
animals and occurs primarily in the liver and muscle tissue. It is readily converted to
glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs. Also called animal starch
(FUNCTION)

Cellulose- a polysaccharide consisting of long unbranched chains of linked glucose units:
the main constituent of plant cell walls and used in making paper, rayon, and film
(STRUCTURE)

Chitin- A tough, protective, semitransparent substance, primarily a nitrogen-containing
polysaccharide, forming the principal component of arthropod exoskeletons and the cell
walls of certain fungi. (STRUCTURE)

4 types of organic molecules found in all living things- carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and
nucleic acids

Chemical formula- ex. H20 or NaCl
BIOCHEMISTRY

Lipid- A macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils,
waxes, and steroids

Glycerol- A alcohol which acts as the backbone for lipids to which the fatty acids attach to

Fatty acid- Any of a large group of monobasic acids, especially those found in animal and
vegetable fats and oils, having the general formula CnH2n+1COOH. Characteristically made
up of saturated or unsaturated aliphatic compounds with an even number of carbon atoms
Carboxyl group- the monovalent group -COOH, consisting of a carbonyl group bound to a
hydroxyl group: the functional group in organic acids
Organic acids-An acid made up of molecules containing organic radicals; e.g., acetic acid,
citric acid, which contain the –COOH group
Nonpolar- Hydrophobic; describing molecules or groups that are poorly soluble in water.
These molecules would be composed either of elements having nonpolar covalent bonds or
polar covalent bonds that cancel each other out
Monoglyceride- any of the fatty-acid glycerol esters where only one acid group is attached
to the glycerol group, for example, RCOOCH2CHOHCH2OH; examples are glycerol
monostearate and monolaurate; used as emulsifiers in cosmetics and lubricants.
Diglyceride- An ester of two fatty acids and glycerol
Triglyceride-A naturally occurring ester of three fatty acids and glycerol that is the chief
constituent of fats and oils
Saturated- When each carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon
atom by a single bond
Unsaturated- When there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid it is
unsaturated
Polyunsaturated- Lipids whose fatty acids contain more than one double bond
Ester bond- bonds that are formed by the reaction of an acid and alcohol.
In biological molecules you find ester bonds in lipids where the carboxyl group of a fatty
acid reacts with the hydroxyl group of triglycerol.


Protein- A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific
order; the order is determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the gene that codes
for the protein. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the
body's cells, tissues, and organs; and each protein has unique functions. Examples are
hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.
Amino acid- An organic compound containing an amino group (NH2), a carboxylic acid
group (COOH), and any of various side groups, especially any of the 20 compounds that
have the basic formula NH2CHRCOOH, and that link together by peptide bonds to form
proteins or that function as chemical messengers and as intermediates in metabolism.
Alanine- an amino acid not found in proteins but occurring free and in some peptides; it is a
precursor of acetyl CoA and an intermediate in uracil and cytosine catabolism.
Glycine- nonessential amino acid, C2H5NO2, that is the principal amino acid occurring in
sugar cane. The simplest amino acid found in protein, it is derived from the alkaline
hydrolysis of gelatin and used in biochemical research and medicine.
Cysteine- An amino acid, C3H7O2NS, derived from cystine and found in most proteins.
Methionine- A sulfur-containing essential amino acid, C5H11NO2S, obtained from various
proteins
Polypeptide-A peptide consisting of 2 or more amino acids. Amino acids make up
polypeptides which, in turn, make up proteins
Peptide bond- The chemical bond formed between the carboxyl groups and amino groups
of neighboring amino acids, constituting the primary linkage of all protein structures.
Amino terminus- The amino terminus is also known as the N-terminus. It is the beginning
region of a polypeptide chain
Carboxyl terminus- the end of the peptide chain carrying the free alpha-carboxyl group of
the last amino acid, conventionally written to the right.
Primary structure- The linear sequence of amino acids in a protein
Secondary structure- The protein structure characterized by folding of the peptide chain
into an alpha helix, beta sheet, or random coil
Alpha helix- A common structure of proteins, characterized by a single, spiral chain of
amino acids stabilized by hydrogen bonds
Beta pleated sheet- A regular element of secondary structure in proteins, in which two or
more extended strands of the polypeptide chain lie side by side (running either parallel or
antiparallel), held together by a regular array of hydrogen bonds between backbone NH
and C=O groups, to form a ridged planar surface. The amino-acid side chains alternately
face to opposite sides of the sheet
Tertiary structure- The further folding of a protein bringing alpha-helices and beta-sheets
into three-dimensional arrangements. The folding or coiling of the secondary structure to
form a three-dimensional molecule
Disulfide bridges- A sulfur-to-sulfur bond linking the sulfur atoms of two polypeptide
chains
Quaternary structure-Quaternary Structure is the combination of two or more chains, to
form a complete unit
Collagen- A fibrous structural protein that constitutes the protein of the white fibers
(collagenous fibers) of skin, tendon, bone cartilage and all other connective tissues
Hemoglobin- The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells
Antibody- A Y-shaped protein on the surface of B cells that is secreted into the blood or
lymph in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a bacterium, virus, parasite, or
transplanted organ, and that neutralizes the antigen by binding specifically to it; an
immunoglobulin
Functions of proteins- Antibodies, Contractile Proteins, Enzymes, Hormonal Proteins,
Structural Proteins, Storage Proteins, Transport Proteins
Nucleic acid- macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen, carbon, and
phosphorus polymer of nucleotides
DNA- nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
RNA- single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
Nucleotide- monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and
a nitrogenous base
Phosphate- A salt or ester of phosphoric acid
Ribose- A pentose sugar, C5H10O5
Deoxyribose- A sugar, C5H10O4, that is a constituent of DNA
Nitrogenous Base- A basic compound that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine
Purine- A double-ringed, crystalline organic base, C5H4N4
Pyrimidine- A single-ringed, crystalline organic base, C4H4N2, that forms uracil, cytosine, or
thymine
Adenine-A purine base, C5H5N5, that is the constituent involved in base pairing with
thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA.
Guanine- A purine base, C5H5ON5, that is an essential constituent of both RNA and DNA.
Cytosine- A pyrimidine base, C4H5N3O, that is the constituent of DNA and RNA involved in
base pairing with guanine.
Thymine- A pyrimidine base, C5H6N2O2, that is an essential constituent of DNA.
Uracil- A pyrimidine base, C4H4N2O2, that is an essential constituent of RNA.
Phosphodiester bond-The covalent chemical bond that holds together the polynucleotide
chains of RNA and DNA by joining a carbon in the pentose sugar of one nucleotide to a
carbon in the pentose sugar of the adjacent nucleotide.
Leeuwenhoek-Dutch microscopist.
Hooke- Robert was the English scientist and inventor who wrote the 1665 book
Micrographia, in which he coined the term "cell" for a basic biological structure.
Schleiden-German physiologist and histologist who in 1838 formulated the cell theory
Schwann-German physiologist. He founded modern histology by recognizing the cell as the
basic unit of animal structure.
Cell Theory- idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of
structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells.
Virus- A particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can
replicate only by infecting living cells
Prion- A microscopic protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid, thought to
be the infectious agent responsible for scrapie and certain other degenerative diseases of
the nervous system.
Prokaryote- A single-celled microorganism that lacks a nucleus
Eukaryote- organisms whose cells contain nuclei (aerobic)
Micrometer-One-thousandth of a millimetre, and hence one millionth of a metre; symbol
μm.
Nanometer- is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a meter.
Cell membrane- The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
Cell wall-The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and
fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells.
Cytoplasm- The protoplasm outside the nucleus of a cell (has all the organelles)
Nucleus-A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living
cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and
reproduction
Chromatin- A complex of nucleic acids and proteins, primarily histones, in the cell nucleus
that stains readily with basic dyes and condenses to form chromosomes during cell division
Chromosomes- A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of
eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary
information
Nucleolus- A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the
nucleus of a cell. It is usually associated with a specific chromosomal site and involved in
ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosome’s
Nuclear membrane-The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a cell. Also
called nuclear envelope
Nuclear pore-An octagonal opening where the inner and outer membranes of the nuclear
envelope are continuous
Nuclear envelope- nuclear membrane
Cytoskeleton- network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain
its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
Microtubules- Any of the proteinaceous cylindrical hollow structures that are distributed
throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, providing structural support and assisting in
cellular locomotion and transport.
Microfilaments- Any of the minute fibers located throughout the cytoplasm of cells,
composed of actin and functioning primarily in maintaining the structural integrity of a cell
Organelles- A differentiated structure within a cell, such as a mitochondrion, vacuole, or
chloroplast, that performs a specific function
Ribosomes- Small particles, present in large numbers in every living cell, whose function is
to convert stored genetic information into protein molecules
Endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough)- A membrane network within the cytoplasm of
cells involved in the synthesis, modification, and transport of cellular materials.
(Smooth-lipids; rough-proteins)
Golgi Apparatus- A cellular organelle that is part of the cytoplasmic membrane system; it is
composed of regions of stacked cisternae and it functions in secretory processes.
Lysosomes- single, membrane-bound sacs that contain digestive enzymes. The digestive
enzymes break down all the major classes of macromolecules including proteins,
carbohydrates, fats, and nucleic acids
Vacuoles- Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and
carbohydrates
Chloroplasts- A chlorophyll-containing plastid found in algal and green plant cells.
Mitocondria-A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic
cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism,
including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy.
Endosymbiotic Theory- According to this theory, these organelles originated as separate
prokaryote organisms that were taken inside the cell as endosymbionts
Phospholipids- Any of various phosphorus-containing lipids, such as lecithin and cephalin,
that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule
Transport, Tissues, and Enzymes
 Hydrophobic-Repelling, tending not to combine with, or incapable of dissolving in water
Lipid bilayer- a double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
Selectively permeability- property of biological membranes that allows only certain
substances to pass through them
Glycoprotein- Any of a group of conjugated proteins having a carbohydrate as the
nonprotein component
Proteoglycan- Member of a class of compounds consisting of polysaccharide (95%) and
protein (5%)
Mosaic- a work of art made of individual tiles or other pieces assembled to form a picture
or design like the membrane of a cell which is a mosaic of different molecules such as
proteins and lipids and carbohydrates
Cholesterol- A white crystalline substance, C27H45OH, found in animal tissues and various
foods, that is normally synthesized by the liver and is important as a constituent of cell
membranes and a precursor to steroid hormones.
Diffusion- when molecules move from an area where there are more concentrated to an
area where they are less concentrated
Osmosis- The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Concentration- The mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
Passive transport- the movement of a chemical substance across a cell membrane without
expenditure of energy by the cell, as in diffusion
Facilitated diffusion- movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through
protein channels
Active transport- energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane
against a concentration difference
Hypertonic- having the higher osmotic pressure of two solutions (more water inside cell so
shrinks)
Hypotonic- more water outside cell (cell grows)
Isotonic- of equal tension (equilibrium)
Osmotic pressure- The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semipermeable
membrane separating two solutions with different concentrations of solute
Phagocytosis- process in which extensions of the cytoplasm surround and engulf large
particles and take them into the cell
Endocytosis- Process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell
membrane
Exocytosis- process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
Tissue- group of similar cells that perform a similar function
Colonial organisms- organisms that live in groups of the same species and are attached but
have few specialized structures
Organ- a group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
Organ system- a group of organs that work together to perform a special function
Unicellular-Having or consisting of one cell; one-celled
Multicellular-Having or consisting of many cells
Organism- An individual form of life, such as a plant, animal, bacterium, protist, or fungus; a
body made up of organs, organelles, or other parts that work together to carry on the
various processes of life.
Nervous tissue- tissue that receives messages from the body’s external and internal
environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response
Muscle tissue:
Skeletal (striated), smooth, cardiac
Epithelium:
cuboidal, squamous, simple, stratified, columnar, pseudostratified
Connective tissue:
Blood, ligament, tendon, adipose tissue
Examples of human organs and organ systems:
Organs: liver, stomach, brain, kidneys, skin, small intestine, lung, etc.
Organ systems: digestive system, excretory system, endocrine system, respiratory system,
etc.
Cell specialization- separate roles for each type of cell in multicellular organisms
Chemical reactions- process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
Reactant- element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
Product- element or compound produced by a chemical reaction
Chemical bond- link that holds together atoms in compounds
Chemical energy- the rearrangement of the atoms in reacting compounds to produce new
compounds causes a change in chemical energy.
Activation energy- energy needed to get a reaction started
Catalyst- substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Enzyme- protein that acts as a biological catalyst
Substrate- reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
Active site- The part of an enzyme at which catalysis of the substrate occurs
Lock and key model- binding between the active site of an enzyme and a substrate
molecule. The active site was thought to have a fixed structure (the lock), which exactly
matched the structure of a specific substrate (the key)
Induced-fit model-A proposed mechanism of interaction between an enzyme and a
substrate. It postulates that exposure of an enzyme to a substrate causes the active site of
the enzyme to change shape in order to allow the enzyme and substrate to bind
Catalase- An enzyme found in the blood and in most living cells that catalyzes the
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Sucrase- number of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to fructose and glucose
RNAse- Any of various enzymes that break down RNA. Also called RNase
DNA Polymerase- Any of various enzymes that function in the replication and repair of
DNA by catalyzing the linking of dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP in a specific order, using
single-stranded DNA as a template
Maltase-An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of maltose to glucose
Hexokinase- Any enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of hexoses
Hexose- Any of various simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, that have six carbon
atoms per molecule
Amylase- enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds between the sugar monomers in
starches
EVOLUTION
Darwin- English natural historian and geologist; a proponent of the theory of evolution by
natural selection. While the naturalist on the HMS Beagle for her voyage around the
Southern Hemisphere 1831-36, he collected the material that became the basis for his ideas
on natural selection. Work: On the Origin of Species
Lyell- 1833 explained in Principles of Geology that processes (like erosion, volcanoes, and
earthquakes) occurring now have shaped Earth’s geological features over long periods of
time
Hutton- 1785 proposed that Earth is shaped by geological forces (like earthquakes or land
moving from sea levels to mountains) that took place over extremely long periods of time.
He estimates Earth to be millions- not thousands- of years old
Lamark- had the theory of the inheritance of acquiring traits (what use get bigger what
don’t lose). The theory is flawed, but he is one of the first to propose a mechanism
explaining how organisms change over time
Malthus- in his Essay on the Principle of Population, he predicted that the human
population will grow faster than the face and food supplies needed to sustain it (only things
that stop it is war, famine, and disease
Galapagos Islands- where Darwin saw unusual species and helped him create his theory of
evolution
Beaks of Finches- show natural selection (changed because of founding of new populations,
geographic isolation, gene pool changes, reproductive isolation, and ecological
competition)
Origin of Species- A book by Charles Darwin explaining his theory of evolution through
natural selection
Natural variation- Differences among individuals of a population
Artificial selection- when farmers use selective breeding so they choose the best of their
crops or animals so they get better results
Natural selection- chooses the fittest survival of the fittest where individuals that are
better suited to their environment (high fitness) survive and reproduce more successfully
Survival of the Fittest- the best adapted survive and reproduce
Evidence of Evolution- fossil record, geographic distribution, homologous structures,
similarities in early development
Homologous structures- structures that develop from the same embryonic tissue but are
different in mature form (bone positions somewhat similar)
Vestigial organs- organs that have no function but since it does not cause less fitness are
not removed
Mendel- father of genetics who had work on heredity
Speciation- Formation of new and distinct species, whereby a single evolutionary line splits
into two or more genetically independent ones
Species- a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Isolating mechanisms- when the populations is reproductively isolated because of few
things
Behavioral isolation- when they can breed but will not because different courtships rituals
or different behavior (diff songs) forming 2 separate gene pools
Geographic isolation- when cut off from each other so diff gene pools and diff natural
selection (does not always work can connect sometimes)
Temporal isolation- if reproduce at diff times
Peter and Rosemary Grant- demonstrated that natural selection still occurs on the finches
and proved that the beak size can be changed by natural selection
Speciation occurs by- founders arrive diff subgroup, separation of populations, changes in
the gene pool, reproductive isolation, ecological competition, continued evolution
Fossils- the remains or impression of a prehistoric organism preserved in petrified form or
as a mold or cast in rock
Fossil record- provides evidence about history of life; it groups organisms together, shows
order of life, and where they lived
Sedimentary rock- formed when rock is broken down by weather to small particles of sand,
silt, and clay covers up fossil and makes it into one
Relative dating- the age of the fossil is determined by comparing its placement with that of
fossils in other layers called index fossils
Radioactive dating- the use of half-lives to determine the age of a sample
Half life- a length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
Radioisotope- a naturally or artificially produced radioactive isotope of an element used to
determine the age of the fossil
Geologic time scale- an ordered, internally consistent, internationally recognized sequence
of time intervals, each distinct in its own history and record of life on Earth
Era- 3 eras divide between the Precambrian and present
Period- The eras are divided into periods each spanning millions of years
Miller and Urey- did experiments that suggested how mixtures of the organic compounds
necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds present on a primitive Earth
Macroevolution- large-scale evolutionary changes that take place over long periods of time
Mass extinctions- extinction of a large percentage of the earth's species, opening ecological
niches for other species to fill
Adaptive radiation- when a small group of species or one species evolves into several forms
that live in different ways
Convergent evolution- process where unrelated organisms come to resemble one another
because of similar environments
Gradualism- where evolution is slow and steady
Punctuated equilibrium- stable periods and rapid changes in between
Hox genes-These genes are critical for the proper number and placement of embryonic
segment structures (such as legs, antennae, and eyes) (homologous structures)
Taxonomy- classification of organisms and assignment of each organism a universally
accepted name
Binomial nomenclature- each species is assigned a two-part scientific name (first word is
the genus uppercased second is not because description they both are in italics)
Linnaeus- brought order to the process of naming species and classifying them into groups
Taxon- one of the levels of organization
Genus- A taxonomic category ranking below a family and above a species and generally
consisting of a group of species exhibiting similar characteristics. In taxonomic
nomenclature the genus name is used, either alone or followed by a Latin adjective or
epithet, to form the name of a species
Species- A fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or
subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding.
Class- A taxonomic category ranking below a phylum or division and above an order
Family- A taxonomic category of related organisms ranking below an order and above a
genus. A family usually consists of several genera
Order- A taxonomic category of organisms ranking above a family and below a class
Kingdom-In the Linnaean taxonomic system, the highest taxonomic classification into
which organisms are grouped, based on fundamental similarities and common ancestry
Domain- Any of three primary divisions of living systems, consisting of the eukaryotes,
bacteria, and archaea, that rank above a kingdom in taxonomic systems that are based on
similarities of DNA sequences
Phylum- A primary division of a kingdom, as of the animal kingdom, ranking next above a
class in size
Cladogram- a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of
organisms; uses derived characters ( characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage
but not in its older members
Bacteria- Eubacteria one of the 3 domains; very ecologically diverse some need air some
die, some live in soil some are deadly parasites (have peptidoglycan in their thick rigid cell
walls)
Archea- Archaebacteria live in extreme environments haven no peptidoglycan but have cell
walls (many live without oxygen)
Eukarya- Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia (started with archaebacteria then plants then
fungi then animals)
Eubacteria only ones in domain bacteria
Archeabacteria only ones in Archea
Protista- big variety some heterotrophs some auto very diff
Fungi- heterotrophs put enzymes in food most multicellular
Plantae-cannot move, photosynthesis, multicellualr
Animals- multicellular can move at least part of life, diverse



CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Cellular Respiration- the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in
the presence of oxygen
Calorie- the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 Celsius
degree
Glycolysis- first step in releasing the energy of glucose in which a molecule of glucose is
broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Coenzyme- A nonproteinaceous organic substance that usually contains a vitamin or
mineral and combines with a specific protein, the apoenzyme, to form an active enzyme
system
NAD+/NADH- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide – electron carrier involved in glycolysis
ATP/ADP- An adenosine-derived nucleotide, C10H16N5O13P3, that contains high-energy
phosphate bonds and is used to transport energy to cells for biochemical processes,
including muscle contraction and enzymatic metabolism, through its hydrolysis to ADP.
ATP is hydrolyzed to AMP when it is incorporated into DNA or RNA.
FAD/FADH2- flavin adenine dinucleotide- A coenzyme, C27H33N9O15P2, that is a derivative
of riboflavin and functions in certain oxidation-reduction reactions in the body.
Oxidation/Reduction-Any chemical reaction in which the oxidation number of a
participating chemical species changes. Addition of hydrogen or electrons or removal of
oxygen is reduction, and removal of hydrogen or electrons or addition of oxygen is
oxidation. The processes always occur simultaneously: one substance is oxidized by the
other, which it reduces. The conditions of the substances before and after are called
oxidation states, to which numbers are given and with which calculations can be made.
(Valence is a similar but not identical concept.) The chemical equation that describes the
electron transfer can be written as two separate half reactions that can in theory be carried
out in separate compartments of an electrolytic cell (see electrolysis), with electrons
flowing through a wire connecting the two. Strong oxidizing agents include fluorine, ozone,
and oxygen itself; strong reducing agents include alkali metals such as sodium and lithium
Fermentation- process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
Anaerobic- process that does not use oxygen
Aerobic- process that requires oxygen
Phosphorylation-The esterification of compounds with phosphoric acid;introduce a
phosphate group into (a molecule or compound)
Lactic acid- A syrupy, water-soluble liquid, C3H6O3, produced in muscles as a result of
anaerobic glucose metabolism
Ethyl alcohol- A univalent organic radical, C2H5.
Mitocondria- A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic
cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism,
including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy. Also called
chondriosome.
Crista (pl. cristae)- One of the inward projections or folds of the inner membrane of a
mitochondrion
Matrix-The space inside the inner membrane and between the cristae of a mitochondria
where cellular respiration takes place
Pyruvic acid/pyruvate- A colorless organic liquid, CH3COCOOH, formed as an intermediate
in carbohydrate metabolism and fermentation and as an end product in glycolysis
Acetyl coenzyme A- A compound, C25H38N7O17P3S, that functions as a coenzyme in many
biological acetylation reactions and is formed as an intermediate in the oxidation of
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Also called acetyl-coA
Kreb’s Cycle- second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into
carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
Citric acid-A colorless translucent crystalline acid, C6H8O7, principally derived by
fermentation of carbohydrates
Carbon dioxide- A colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, CO2, formed during respiration,
combustion, and organic decomposition. Also called carbonic acid gas
Electron Transport Chain- a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the
Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
ATP synthetase/ synthase- large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a
phosphate group together to produce ATP
Insulin- A polypeptide hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans and functioning in the
regulation of the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, especially the conversion of
glucose to glycogen, which lowers the blood glucose level
Oxygen debt- The amount of extra oxygen required by muscle tissue during recovery from
vigorous exercise
ECOLOGY REVIEW


CELL DIVISON & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Centrosome- region where the centrioles lie and that helps organize the spindle
Surface area to volume ratio- If ratio smaller than 2:1 cannot transfer easily and also DNA
amount important
Phases of cell cycle- G1- cell life
S phase- synthesis of second DNA helix
G2- synthesis of organelles and prepares
M phase- mitosis and cytokinesis
Cell division- the process where the cell divides into two daughter cells
Daughter cells- the two new cells formed when a cell divides
Chromosome- made of DNA and proteins that carry all the genes from one generation to
the next
Chromatids- the sisters that are formed during S phase which are 2 identical parts of the
chromosome that will become the chromosomes
Interphase- The life of the cell where it grows and prepares for division
Mitosis- the four parts of the division of the cell nucleus and division of the chromosomes
and DNA
Prophase- first and longest (50-60 %) of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become
visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the
nucleus (chromosomes attach to spindle)
Metaphase- second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the
center of the cell
Anaphase- the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and
move toward opposite poles
Telophase- fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to
disperse into a tangle of dense material
Centriole- one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the
nuclear envelope
Spindle fiber- fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during
mitosis
Cytokinesis- division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Diploid (2n)- term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous
chromosomes
Haploid (n)- term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and
therefore only a single set of genes
Frederick Griffith- called the event that the harmless cells turned deadly transformation
Transformation- the transfer of genetic material from one cell to another resulting in a
genetic change in the recipient cell
Avery- discovered that DNA is the nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic
information from one generation of an organism to the next
Hershey and Chase- concluded that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was DNA and
not protein
Bacteriophage- a virus that infects and kills bacteria
Radioactive isotopes- 32P and 35S(ulfer) used to figure out no S in DNA almost no
phosphate in proteins (Used as markers)
35S & 32P- used as markers to figure out which was genetic material
Chargaff- American biochemist figured out that there is the same amount of adenine and
thymine while there is the same amount of guanine and cytosine (known as Chargaff rules)
Watson and Crick- made the model of the double helix, in which 2 strands were wound
around each other
Wilkins and Franklin- They were X-ray crystallographers who provided Watson and Crick
with their work (Franklin and Wilkins worked at King's College in London, while Watson
and Crick were working at Cambridge University.) But their detailed measurements gave
the key to Watson to determine that the shape of the DNA molecule was a double helix. It is
doubtful that he would have found the structure without their work.
Nucleotide- monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and
a nitrogenous base
Phosphate group- A group (that is, a combination of atoms from two or more elements that
tend to bond with other elements or compounds in certain characteristic ways) that
includes a phosphate, or a chemical compound that contains oxygen bonded to phosphorus.
Ribose- A pentose sugar, C5H10O5, occurring as a component of riboflavin, nucleotides, and
nucleic acids.
Deoxyribose- A sugar, C5H10O4, that is a constituent of DNA
Adenine- binds with thymine or uracil (RNA) by 2 hydrogen bonds and is a purine
Guanine- binds with cytosine by 3 hydrogen bonds and is a purine
Cytosine- binds with guanine by 3 hydrogen bonds and is a pyrimidine (bind so keeps the
double helix stable)
Thymine- binds with adenine by 2 hydrogen bonds and is a pyrmidine
Uracil- binds with adenine in RNA by 2 hydrogen bonds and is a pyrmidine
Double helix- the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids and
proteins
X-ray diffraction- The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying
variation in intensity due to interference effects. Also known as x-ray microdiffraction

				
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