By: Inna Gnipp and
Species: Dengue virus
What is the Dengue Virus?
Arthropod, Mosquito, born
It is a pathogen that causes
Dengue fever (DF)
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)
Can lead to Dengue shock syndrome (DSS)
Has four different serotypes (DEN-1,2,3,4)
First reported epidemics in 1780 in Asia, Africa,
and North America
Dengue induces cytokine production in cells
Cytotoxic factor effects endothelial cells
involved in most of the following:
Skin (inflammatory rashes)
Muscle and joint pain
Nausea and/or Haematemesis (vomiting of blood)
Epistaxis (Bleeding from the nose, mouth, or gums)
Haematuria (Blood in Urine)
Pain behind the eyes
Petechia (Skin rash) and/or Purpura (Lesions)
Virus isolation by infection of mice using
Detection of IgM antibodies in the blood by
PCR or Viral isolation (Serology)
ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent
Pathogenesis and infection
process of Dengue
Humans are initially infected through a mosquito vector
Initial interaction with cell occurs with the viruses ability
to infect cell
Primary target, Phagocytes
Virus uses cell receptor molecule to enter cell
Cell receptor molecules include:
Heparan Sulfate (Expressed in almost all cell types)
Virus replicates in target organs
Infects white blood cells and lymphatic tissues
Virus is released and circulates in blood
Alternate mosquito then bites host and receives virus
There is no specific treatment All efforts of control are aimed
Relieving symptoms and against mosquitoes
complications: Elimination of breeding areas
Plasma volume replacement Actions to prevent mosquito
bites (repellant, nets, and
Sedatives for restless patients vapors)
Blood transfusion with Vaccinations are pending
patients with significant blood Problem is that the
loss vaccination needs to prevent
Aspirin should be avoided all four serotypes
Is prominent in tropical environments
Ideal for Mosquito habitats
What is promoting the disease?
Global warming is causing climate changes which is
causing the disease to move to more environments
(higher altitudes and amplitudes)
More habitats for mosquitoes to thrive in
Spread has been increased by urbanization and
Inability of mosquito control in countries is also a major
Morbidity and Mortality
More than 2.5 Billion people live in areas
that have a risk of infection
Over 100 million cases of Dengue
infection are reported each year globally
500,000 cases pertain to DHF
DHF has a 5% fatality rate for those
People at high risk are children and the
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