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Amphioctopus marginatus


									Amphioctopus marginatus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Amphioctopus marginatus, also known as the coconut octopus and veined
                                                                                                 Amphioctopus marginatus
octopus, is a medium-sized cephalopod belonging to the genus Amphioctopus. It is
found in tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean. It commonly preys upon
shrimp, crabs, and clams, and displays unusual behaviour, including bipedal walking
and gathering and using coconut shells and seashells for shelter.

 1 Size and description
 2 Behavior and habitat
 3 See also
 4 References
 5 External links                                                                                     Scientific classification
                                                                                             Kingdom:         Animalia
Size and description                                                                         Phylum:          Mollusca
                                                                                             Class:           Cephalopoda
The main body of the octopus is typically around 8 centimeters (3 in) in size, and,
with arms, approximately 15 centimeters (6 in) long. The octopus displays a typical          Order:           Octopoda
color pattern with dark ramified lines similar to veins, usually with a yellow siphon.       Family:          Octopodidae
The arms are usually dark in color, with contrasting white suckers. In many color            Genus:           Amphioctopus
displays, a lighter trapezoidal area can be seen immediately below the eye.
                                                                                             Species:         A. marginatus

Behavior and habitat                                                                                      Binomial name
                                                                                                 Amphioctopus marginatus
                                              The coconut octopus is found on sandy                          (Taki, 1964)
                                              bottoms in bays or lagoons. It frequently
                                              buries itself in the sand with only its eyes
                                              uncovered. [citation needed]                      Octopus marginatus
                                                                                                Taki, 1964
                                              In March 2005, researchers at the
                                                                                                Octopus striolatus
                                              University of California, Berkeley,
                                                                                                Dong, 1976
                                              published an article in Science in which A.
                                              marginatus was reported to have a
                                              bipedal behavior. [1] It is one of only two octopus species known to display such
                                              behavior, the other species being Abdopus aculeatus. According to the article, this
 Small (4-5 cm diameter) individual using a
    nut shell and clam shell as shelter
                                              behavior was discovered in an area off Sulawesi, Indonesia, where the sandy
                                              bottom was littered with coconut shells. The bipedal motion appears to mimic a
                                              floating coconut. [2]
Researchers from the Melbourne Museum in Australia claimed the creature's use of tools for defense, and the use of available
debris to create a defensive fortress. This behavior, observed in Bali and North Sulawesi in Indonesia between 1998 and
2008, was published in the journal Current Biology in December 2009. [3][4][5] The researchers filmed A. marginatus
collecting coconut half-shells, discarded by humans, from the sea floor, carrying them up to 20 meters (66 ft), and arranging
the shells to form a spherical hiding place akin to a clamshell.[4][6] The authors claim this behaviour to fall under the
definition of tool use because they claim the shells are carried for later use. However, this argument does not hold up to
scrutiny in light of the predator environment in which A. marginatus lives. Amphioctopus marginatus lives in soft-sediment
areas with many bottom-dwelling predators, such as scorpionfish and flounders, that often bury into the sand and cannot be
seen or easily avoided. The coconut shells provide constant protection from potential attacks from below while moving along
the bottom. Thus, the claim of tool use is not upheld.
See also
  Cephalopod intelligence

  1. ^ Sanders, Robert: Octopuses occasionally stroll around on      4. ^ a b Gelineau, Kristen (2009-12-15). "Aussie scientists find
     two arms, UC Berkeley biologists report , University of            coconut-carrying octopus" . The Associated Press.
     California, Berkeley, March 24, 2005.                              Retrieved 2009-12-15. [dead link]
  2. ^ Christine L. Huffard, Farnis Boneka, Robert J. Full:          5. ^ Harmon, Katherine (2009-12-14). "A tool-wielding
     Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in                      octopus? This invertebrate builds armor from coconut
     Disguise , Science, March 25, 2005.                                halves" . Scientific American.
  3. ^ Finn, Julian K.; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark D. (2009),       6. ^ Henderson, Mark (2009-12-15). "Indonesia's veined
     "Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus", Curr.          octopus 'stilt walks' to collect coconut shells" . Times
     Biol. 19 (23): R1069–R1070,                                        Online. [dead link]
     doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.052 , PMID 20064403 .

External links
  "CephBase: Amphioctopus marginatus"         . Archived from the original   on 2005.
                                                                                                    Wikimedia Commons has media
  Octopus uses coconuts       - Video via EducatedEarth
                                                                                                    related to: Octopus marginatus
  Octopus marginatus       at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
  BBC article with video
  Guardian article with video
  Daily Mail article with video

via Amphioctopus marginatus

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