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					   An attempt to provide an objective
    estimate of a natural phenomenon

    ◦ e.g. measuring height

    ◦ or weight




                               Marketing Research   9/15/2012   1
   Nominal Scales
    ◦ Categories -- mutually exclusive and collectively exclusive.

   Ordinal Scales
    ◦ Rank order – e.g. most important to least important.


   Interval Scales
    ◦ Ordinal + the intervals between data points are equal.


   Ratio Scales
    ◦ Above + a meaningful absolute zero or origin.


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   How could you measure height using the
    following levels of measurement?
    ◦ Nominal Scales
    ◦ Ordinal Scales
    ◦ Interval Scales
    ◦ Ratio Scales




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Evaluate my bathroom scale:

     Is it ACCURATE?




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   Consistent results over time.

   Measures are free from random error.

Test-Retest Reliability:

     Obtained by repeating the measurement
      using the same instrument under as
      nearly the same conditions as possible.


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Addresses the issue of whether what we tried
  to measure was actually measured.
How do I know if my bathroom scale is valid?
That is, does 160 really MEAN anything?
How could I know this with my bathroom scale?
   1. JUST using the same scale

   2. Using ANOTHER scale.



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• Face validity
• Content validity
• Criterion-Related Validity
• Predictive Validity
• Concurrent Validity
• Construct Validity
• Convergent Validity
• Discriminant Validity
All types of validity are related.


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• Situation 1:
  A lack of reliability
    • my scale varies a lot (150, 160, 170)
• Situation 2:
  High reliability, but lacks validity
    • My scale always shows 160, but other scales are different
• Situation 3:
  Reliable, consistent, and valid
    • ALL scales show a consistent 160




                                  Marketing Research   9/15/2012   8
Scaling Defined
    In order to decrease noise:
    you measure something several times
    • Unidimensional scaling
    • Multidimensional scaling
   Graphic Rating Scales
    Present to respondents with a graphic continuum
     typically anchored by two extremes

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