Hold Paramount by 04Q4eg8s

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									 Hold Paramount
By Meredith Davies, Kailly Vay,
Maria Hatgipetros, and Colleen
            Kane
     Factors of Safety
Buildings  have high factors of safety (2.0)
Air frames for airplanes have love factors of
safety (1.2)
The Asmara overhang might have a factor
of safety less that is less than one



             What should Chris do?
       Engineering Triumphs
 Pyramids and Aqueducts in Rome
 St. Petersburg in Russia
 The Brooklyn Bridge in New York
  (John, Washington and Emily Robeling)
           Engineering Failures
Due to errors in calculation or fabrication
Due to not anticipating all the ways it could fail
Due to not all side effects being predicted



         Engineers As Managers
Does    duty to employer over ride duty to the
public
      - Explosion of the Challenger
Give benefit of doubt to safety side
“Normalization of Deviance”
                Acceptable Risk
 At what point do we accept the risk and say that
  we cannot design the structure any stronger or
  safer?
 Design is a repetitive process
    – Structure is postulated
    – Loads are estimated
    – Effects of loads are calculated using mathematical
      principles and well-tested equations
   Example of Citicorp building
           Acceptable Risk
 Engineers cannot produce anything that is
  completely risk free
 Engineers are obligated to the public to
  not subject them to risk levels above that
  which is commonly expected
     Decision Making: Technical and
             Ethical Aspects
   Technical questions- how to achieve the goal by the
    most effective and efficient means
   Generally an agreed upon “right” answer
   State-of-the-art answer exists

   Ethical Questions- how to achieve the goal without
    compromising any of your own or of society’s values
   No clear experts on the topic exist
   No “right answers”
      Consulting with Colleagues
   It is an engineer’s professional obligation to report
    unsafe situations
   Professional Obligations out weigh private interests
   Advice from collegues is beneficial within the bounds of
    professionalism
   Difficult for engineers to be critical of each other

								
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