Uncovering Problems at the Turn of the Century by HC12091507409

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									Uncovering Problems at the
   Turn of the Century
         Chapter 16
         16.1 :: Introduction
• Jacob Riis – “How the Other Half Lives”

  – Conditions of the urban poor

    • One of the many muckraking journalists of the time

          » Muckrakers – brought the nations problems to the
            attention of the average citizen
16.2 The State of the Union in 1900
• Westward expansion and urbanization
         » The United States was a shadow of its Civil War era
           self

• “Manifest Destiny” had been achieved
         » The “American Frontier” was deemed closed

• American industry was continually
  multiplying its worth
         » Evolution of the mail order catalog
         » Evolution of chain stores
                   Urbanization
• By 1900 forty percent of Americans lived in the city
  (rural to urban migration)

             » 100 years earlier six percent lived in urban areas
             » What did the city offer?

• Evidence of progress:
         – Skyscrapers
         – “Palaces of Merchandise”
         – Mansions

• Census reveals diverse America
             » 12 Million Immigrants in a 50 Year Span
      Poor Living and Working
             Conditions
• Many of the urban poor lived in slum
  tenements
         » 90,000 people per square mile in New York City!

• City infrastructure was inadequate for
  such large numbers
         » Disasters in Chicago, San Francisco, etc.

• Sanitation problems promoted disease
   Problems in the Workplace
 “Life in a factory is perhaps, with the
                exception of prison life, the
 most monotonous life a person can live.”

- The workplace was unsafe and unsanitary
- Many times whole families were employed
- Injury only meant poverty
            Unsafe Products
• Upton Sinclair – “The Jungle”
     • Foods and drugs were not regulated by any
       government body
• “Miracle Cures in a Bottle”
     • Many times people would end up addicted to a
       substance – usually a drug
• Monopolies took over small businesses
           » Muckrakers took on this, and the lack of food and
             drug regulation
16.4 :: Environmental Problems
• Americans changed the landscape in various
  ways:
          » Logging
          » Domesticated Range Animals

• Extractive industries
          » What was the harm in exploiting the environment?


“…the river was waiting to be dammed…the
 prairie waiting to be farmed, the woodlands
 to be cut down, the desert to be irrigated…”
      Polluting Water and Air
• Cities were polluting the environment,
  to the dismay of the average citizen
         » Other pollutants: animals



• In some cities household sewage and
  industrial waste were released into
  water sources
         » Rivers that were in the way or were a health
           hazard were paved over
         » OR you could just reverse the flow of the river…

								
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