15th African Water Association Congress by 03qZ8Xyu


									15th African Water Association
 Water and Sanitation: Perspectives
and Challenges relating to Energy and
          Climate Change
          Summary of Technical Outcomes

               Technical Coordination Team:
 Piers Cross, Halifa Drammeh, Dennis Mwanza, Grace Lwanga
• The Conference Problematic
• Summary of Overall Outcomes
• Summary of Water and Sanitation
  Discussion Outcomes
• Implications of Conference and Kampala
  15th AfWA Congress Themes
 Title: Perspectives and Challenges relating
         to Energy and Climate Change
• The challenge of climate change and
  environmental degradation
• Better Water and Sanitation Service
• Energy and Water Governance
                    Congress Design
Opening       Climate            Better WSS             Energy and       Closing
Plenary:      Change:            Service Delivery:      Water            Plenary:
Outlining     Global Trends      Performance            Governance:      Technical
themes                           Benchmarking           Energy           Outcomes
Setting       and Watershed      Service delivery for   Optimization     MoU AfWA
Context       Degradation        the poor               Infrastructure   and
                                                        Financing        AMCOW
Keynote       Implications for   Sanitation and fecal
Challenges    water investment   sludge                 Integrating      Way
              and                management             Research         Forward
                                 Sustainable            Tackling
              Adaptation and     financing              Corruption
                                 Leadership and         Water Safety
              Specific Cases     Capacity Building      Plans

    Exhibition, Poster Presentations, Side Events, Business Meetings, Launches

          Conference Problematic                                              Themes:
    Threats                                                    Challenges     Capacity Building
•       Climate Change                 Weak Political
•       Environmental Degradation                                             Technical
                                          WSS            •   Sustain water    Innovation
•       Water Resource Threats          Leadership           sources
•       Food crisis increases                            •   Reduce energy    Environmentally-
        irrigation+water competition      Uneven             needs            friendly
                                       National Policy   •   Deepen           technologies
    •    Weak governance                   Frame             reforms,
    •    Institutional complexity                            improve          Performance
                                                             governance       benchmarking
    •    Political interference                          •   Improve
                                                             performance      Partnerships
    •    High urbanization                Africa         •   Serve the Poor
    •    Slums+ Changing Cities           Water          •   Become           Customer
    •    Increasing demand from           Utilities          financially      Management
         the poor/ MDGs                                      viable +
                                                             bankable         Financing

    •    Energy shortages +                                                   Governance
         increasing energy costs                                              Sanitation/
                                         Existing Low WSS Scorecard:
    •    Financial crisis increases                                           Managing fecal
                                         - Water Coverage just >50%
         cost of borrowing                                                    sludge
                                         - Flush toilets – less than 8%
    •    Lack of access to capital                                            Serving the poor
                                         - 221m people use open defecation
    •    Insufficient revenue: for
         O&M, replacement                - High UAW                           Disaster resiliency
   Impacts of Climate Change on water resources

     Increasing Temperatures and Changing Weather
       Patterns Affect the Water & Sanitation Sector

   Water                                                Citizens and
                            WSS Services
 Resources                                              Households

Water Scarcity              Breakdown or flooding of    Changing weather patterns
                            subsurface infrastructure   can prompt migration from
                                                        water stressed areas
Contaminated aquifers       Overwhelmed sanitation      Increase incidence of
                            systems                     water –borne diseases

Reduced ability for self-   Supply and disposal of      Increase disparity between
cleaning                    water and wastewater is     rich and poor
Unpredictable patterns of                               Increased cost to cope
rainfall                    Extreme events affect       with polluted water
                            operational costs
    Scale of Congress                          AMCOW-AfWA
• Over 1000 delegates from 64 countries        Partnership
• Opened by President of Uganda, supported     Africa Water
  by royalty, attended by Ministers, agency    Academy

  heads, World and African sector leaders      GRUBS

• 52 sessions, over 250 presentations, over    Dr Muhairwe’s
                                               Book “Making
  500 speakers                                 Public
• Exhibitions, side events, launches, AMCOW    Enterprises
  and business meetings
• Multimillion $ event, fee-based, supported   Peer-Learning
  by 19 sponsors                               Agreement
   Observations on Technical Discussions
Encouraging Trends                               Characteristics
• Recognition that Africa can/needs to lead      • Practitioners
  solving its own problems                         experience
• Increasing adoption of utility reforms         • Blend of utility,
• Focus on performance improvement                 academic, CSO,
                                                   PS, political
• Sanitation: Increasing recognition of            perspectives
  importance                                     • Learning from
• Utilities discussing implications from climate   case-studies
  change + environmental threats                 • Great variety
• Beginnings of energy-water nexus awareness • Many “aha”
• Good examples of utility-CSO collaboration in
  serving the poor
     Showcasing Water in Uganda
 “Uganda considers the WSS sector as one of the cardinal means to transform the
 economy and increase productivity” President Yoweri Museveni, AfWA Congress Opening Address
• Political Leadership: Presidential attention to water,
  outstanding Ministerial leadership, African-wide influence
• NWSC Flagship Utility: Institutional reforms, technical
  innovations, financial viability/bankability, Africa Water
• Finance and Governance: SWAp, increased gov finance,
  increasing revenue, clear institutional responsibilities, small
  towns managed by PS
• Partnerships: Intra-government, public-private, NGO network
• Openness: in tackling ongoing issues: environmental
  degradation, poor quality lake water, hydropower,
  sanitation/sewerage, serving the poor, energy
• Impact: Coverage > water MDGs – aiming for universal
• Innovation, research and monitoring: Willingness to
  experiment, encourages research and strong monitoring,
  golden indicators
   What’s New? What’s Exciting?
• IWA – New urban design             • Growing body of practical
  strategies and city responses to     experience in performance
  closing the environmental loop       benchmarking
• UN-HABITAT/ Google                 • Durban recovering oil for growing
  partnership geo-referencing
  utility and service data             algae in waste water treatment
• Using mobile phone technology      • Successful adoption of OBA
  in service monitoring in Senegal     approaches (Kenya, Morocco,
• Utilities undertaking strategic      Uganda)
  business planning, introducing     • Cases (incl Ghana) of better
  low-cost water quality testing,      fecal sludge management
  undertaking energy audits
                                     • Future city modeling
• Pro poor units set up in Dar Es
  Salaam, Kampala, Nairobi,          • Micro-credit for extending
  Lusaka                               sanitation to low-income
• New approaches and technology        households
  to improve water meter             • WHO/DFID Vision 2020 studies
                                       on resilience to climate change
                                     • Findings from SWITCH initiatives
Main Recommendations: To Utilities on
    Water Resource Management
1. Adopt proactive approaches to water resource
   development: conservation programs, customer
   awareness, efficiency measures, source protection, wetland
   protection, risk management strategies, use non-traditional
   water sources (Urban stormwater; wastewater; recycling; cities as
   catchments; desalinisation), consider decentralised water systems
2. Adopt proactive approaches to energy conservation
   through reducing NRW, full cost pricing to reduce wastage,
   using gas from treatment processes to generate power,
   using alternative energy sources
3. Adopt environmentally-friendly decentralized sanitation
   systems (constructed wetlands, biogas, UDDT, carbon credit financing of
Main Recommendations: To Utilities on
        Better WSS Services
1.   Performance measurement can make significant improvements in
     utility efficiency. Measurement and benchmarking should be
     explicitly linked to decision-making and investment.
2.   Adopt to demand-driven approaches to water service management
3.   Strengthen customer education and customer dialogue
4.   Call to action for utilities to focus on services to the poor
     •   Many win-win opportunities: turning NRW into revenue
     •   Institutionalize pro-poor approaches
     •   Delegated management approaches
     •   Establish pro-poor units
5.   Take on sanitation and solid waste disposal – generate finance
     specifically for sanitation (sanitation levy, user fees); develop
     specific expertise in on-site sanitation and SWD
6.   Consider getting a shadow credit-rating and getting market finance
     – brings market rigour to operations and incentivize reforms
7.   Adopt OBA: OBA are making connection fees affordable and
     motivating service providers to serve low-income households.
     Main Recommendations: To National
              Sector Leaders
1.    National Plans to Incorporate Adaptation/Mitigation of
      Environmental Degradation and response to Climate Change
        Concrete and realistic country plans, sustainable service delivery,
         target poverty, improving financial viability of utilities
2.    Follow-up on national implementation of Sharm El-Sheikh and e-
      Thekwini commitments
3.    Bold, comprehensive and sustained reforms are key in weathering
      the multiple crises
4.    Institutional and financial autonomy are key elements of the reform
5.    Good governance and clear institutional roles needed for utilities
      can become credible, financially viable + bankable
6.    Link Gov transfers to performance improvements and targeting of
 Main Recommendations: To AfWA
1. Inclusive AU Commission on Water
      Maintain highest-level political attention on water in Africa
      Cement AU/AMCOW/AfDB/UN/development partners high level
      Track Water/Environment/Climate Change Interactions
2. AfWA/AMCOW develop process with all main stakeholders for one
   global water learning process:
      One Annual High Level Political event
      One Annual Review of Commitments
      One Water “Week” of technical exchange/advocacy
      One quality multi-agency Africa report (building on GLAAS and CSOs)
3. AfWA develop one high-level all-Africa Water Utility Benchmarking
   Process (supported by IWA/AfDB/UN/ WB/WOP/Regulators)
      Many performance measurement and benchmarking initiatives– need
       to understand what works best
4. AfWA/AMCOW San Task Force to launch Major Push to support
   countries get on-Track for Sanitation MDGs
      Last Half-a Decade of Intensive Effort/UNSGAB
      AfWA to become partner in AfricaSan 3 (planned for 2011)

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