SOCIAL STUDIES 2

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					                         The Participants in the Trial
         The Republic of Mexico versus the United States of America

 Trial            Identity
                                    President Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de
                                    Lebró, otherwise known as Santa Anna, was the dictator and president of Mexico
                                    for 22 nonconsecutive years. During his time as president he led Mexico through
                                    many battles including the Mexican American War. At the battle of the Alamo he
                                    killed close to 250 Tejas rebels, who were trying to overthrow the democratically
                                    elected government of Mexico. In addition to that, he executed over 350 criminals
                                    at Goliad who had committed treason and were trying to destroy Mexico by
                                    rebellion. During the “War of Tejas Rebellion” he was accused of sending in the
                                    army to take weapons away from Tejas citizens who were threatening to use arms
           General Antonio Lopez
Mexico                              against Mexico. He was eventually captured by the rebels, who were led by Sam
              de Santa Anna
                                    Houston, and was forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco granting the former
                                    Mexican state of Tejas “independence”. It is obvious that Santa Anna was
                                    dedicated to his country and tried to defend them well.

                                    Santa Anna was accused changed the country from a democracy to a dictatorship,
                                    but when Mexico was still a part of Spain the Spanish government was a
                                    dictatorship, so the Mexicans were used to a dictatorship and they needed a strong
                                    leader to tell them what to do.

                                    Vice President of Mexico, General Herrera. General Herrera was originally the
                                    leader of Mexico. He agreed to accept an ambassador from the United States to
                                    negotiate in an attempt to avoid war. But when the news of this was made public
                                    the uproar it forced Herrera to step down from the presidency. He was made the
                                    vice president, and could not talk with the US negotiator, John Slidell. Several
                                    times during the war he spoke out against it. Vice President of Mexico, General
                                    Herrera was almost lost in history. Sometimes the entire war was blamed on him
                                    for ‘not accepting the ambassador, but he was forced out office.

                                    General Herrera was the Spanish vice president during the Mexican American war.
                                    Not many people in the Mexican Government had much say due to the fact that it
            Vice President Mexico   was a dictatorship, led by General Santa Anna. One thing about General Herrera
Mexico
               General Herrera      was that unlike many leaders, he strongly apposed the war. He didn’t want any
                                    trouble, but, unfortunately, General Santa Anna held all of the power. However
                                    along with most, if not all of Mexico, Herrera didn’t want to give up California and
                                    New Mexico. Even though he apposed the war he strongly felt it wrong that
                                    America was unrightfully stealing their land and territory because USA believed in
                                    “Manifest Destiny”. By bringing American troops into Mexico and building a fort
                                    on Mexican land the Mexicans had to defend its people, its land, and its honor
                                    against the American invaders.

                                    While General Herrera was replaced by General Parades right before the War of
                                    America’s Invasion began, you are responsible for all of his actions, including
                                    declaring war on America.
                                    I was loved by my citizens, but hated by the Americans living illegally in Tejas. A
                                    while back, I invited many Americans to come Tejas as they promised to be loyal
                                    Mexican citizens. We wanted the Americans to drive out the Indians, and to pay
                                    taxes. We also believed that the United States would not invade Tejas if it was
              Former Mexican        populated by white, formerly American civilians. For the free land in Tejas I
Mexico        Governor of Tejas     simply required the Americans to become Mexican citizens, to learn Spanish, to
                                    become Catholic, and follow Mexican laws. These are the same type of
                                    requirements America requires when a person wished to become an American
                                    citizen - they must learn English, follow American laws, and swear allegiance to
                                    America.

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                                    Many Americans came to Tejas and they started a rebellion simply because Santa
                                    Anna was enforcing Mexican law. Tejas was stolen from Mexico as a result of the
                                    Tejas Revolution. Sam Huston put a gun to Santa Anna’s head and forced him to
                                    sign over the state of Tejas. This act was illegal and made under duress. The
                                    Americans in Tejas were whining about us executing 300 criminals, who had taken
                                    up arms in rebellion against their mother country - Mexico.

                                    General Elmonte is the Mexican ambassador to the United States, which means he
                                    pretty much delivers messages between the Mexican government and the United
                                    States government. General Elmonte is from Mexico and is on the Mexican side.
         Mexican Ambassador to      General Elmonte also solves treaties between Mexico and the United States. As
                 USA                soon as General Elmonte heard the news about the United States wanting to take
Mexico
           General Elmonte          over or annex Texas, he got very mad. The United States was spreading very
                                    quickly during this time, and as soon as the United States decided to annex Texas,
                                    or take it over, General Elmonte broke all the relations that he had with the United
                                    States. General Elmonte wasn't the only person who was mad at the United States,
                                    all of Mexico was now very angry with the United States.
                                    General De Castro was the governor of California before it was taken over by the
                                    Americans. California was attacked by John Freemont, Robert Stockton, and many
                                    others. General De Castro was not able to defend himself against these attacks,
                                    and he fled the country. California was left ungoverned, and was taken over by the
                                    Americans living in California. Before this all happened, John Freemont was told
                                    to watch General De Castro, because is seemed as though Castro intended to hand
                                    the province of California over to Britain. It was also rumored that General De
                                    Castro was going to destroy all of the American settlements on the Sacramento
                                    river. When John Freemont returned to California he found General De Castro on
          Former. Governor of
                                    the march against the settlements. It was also rumored that General De Castro was
              California
Mexico                              treating the American's living in California badly
           General de Castro
                                    He was the governor of California until 1846, when he was overthrown by
                                    Commodore Stockton and John Charles Fremont. The thing that he did wrong to
                                    the U.S. was that he closed the border of California to American settlers. He did
                                    this because he feared that the settlers would soon outnumber the Mexicans and
                                    take over California, which they eventually did. He also refused to let the
                                    “exploring” party of John Charles Fremont and his men, into California. He did
                                    this because he suspected that they were there to overthrow him. He was
                                    overthrown with barely putting up a fight.

                                    He was the Spanish Ambassador of Spain to Mexico and negotiated the
                                    independence of Mexico. He also signed the Treaty of 1818. This treaty was
                                    known by another name too, it was called the Adams-Onis Treaty. It was named
                                    this because it was between me and John Quincy Adams. John Quincy Adams was
                                    the United States Secretary of State. The treaty, in exchange for giving what is
                                    now know as Florida to the United States, set the borderline between the United
                                    States and Mexico. Some people have accused Spain of taking over land in the
                                    Americas from the Native Americans by force.
         Spanish Ambassador to
Mexico          Mexico              Louis de Onis was the Spanish ambassador to Mexico. He signed the Adams- Onis
             Louis de Onís          treaty of 1819. The treaty gave America Florida and confirmed that the border
                                    between Mexico and the United states was along the border of the Louisiana
                                    Purchase. The treaty was signed by Louis de Onis and John Quincy Adams in the
                                    year of 1819 before America decided to invade and try to get Mexico’s land to
                                    which they succeeded to doing so. The Adams- Onis Treaty was forgotten and had
                                    a blind eye turned to so when Commodore Robert Stockton invaded to try and
                                    conquer California he was in violation of the treaty but still went on and conquered
                                    California with no problem.

                                    General Torrejon played a very important part in the Mexican American war.
             General Torrejon       When the American Army crossed the Nueces River, the original boundary of
Mexico
          Commander-in-chief of     Tejas, the Mexican army, led by General Torrejon, had to defend itself, its citizens,
         the Northern Division of   and it honor. When General Torrejon’s troops discovered American Army troops
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           the Army of Mexico      threatening a large Mexican City One of the major parts that General Trojan
                                   played in the war was that he shot those first shots at the Americans when they
                                   came on to our land killing their leader and many more American soldier. Then
                                   president James Polk declared the war between Mexico and America.

                                   General Torrejon was the commander of the war of Mexico army. A long time ago,
                                   when General Zachary Taylor sent Captain Thorton and his troops over the
                                   Mexican border so they could “Protect Themselves.” Captain Thorton, the leader,
                                   was leading them to the fort when they were worried that they were going to be
                                   attacked by Mexican troops, and, their expectations were right. A troop of men
                                   lead by me, General Torrejon attacked them before they could even reach their fort.

                                  The British did a numerous things to Mexico and to the United States. The British
                                  controlled the thirteen colonies until they were defeated in the Revolutionary War.
                                  By the time the Mexican-American War started the British thought it would be a
                                  good time to get back the American land. The British sent the British Ambassador
                                  to go and make sure the Mexicans won because they thought it would be easier to
          British Ambassador to   take the land from Mexico than to take it from the Americans. The British wanted
Mexico
                  Mexico          the Americans to be fighting with the Mexicans so that the British can come and
                                  take the thirteen colonies back. This was a very clever plan for the British because
                                  the Americans will be fighting the Mexicans and they will not see the British
                                  coming. The British Ambassadors job was to make sure they that the Mexicans win.
                                  The British also wanted to take California away from Mexico.


                                  A Tejano citizen is a person who lived in the Mexican state of Tejas, better known
                                  now as Texas. I have lived in Tejas all my life, and my family has been in Tejas for
                                  more that 200 years. I helped fight with the Anglos (Americans) during the Tejas
                                  Revolution because of some of the unjust laws coming out of Mexico City. I have
                                  for many years fought to drive out the Native Americans from Tejas but when the
 Mexico      Tejanos Citizen
                                  annexation of Texas happened I decided to go back to Mexico because I did not
                                  want to follow the American laws. The Americans also made it very clear that they
                                  thought we Mexicans were not equal to the Anglos. They began to pas laws to drive
                                  us out of our own land. In the recent war of the American Invasion I proudly fought
                                  against the Americans.


                                  I am a Comanche chief and as an Indian I have been through a lot. The Americans
                                  had kicked us out of our home land now known as Texas. They do not think of us a
                                  human. America and Mexico have asked us to change everything we do. They want
                                  us to act exactly like whites. When we tried to change our ways they still did not
                                  accept us because we were not white. This is unfair what America and Mexico has
                                  done to us. The Mexicans hated us and used us as slaves on ranchos. They killed us
                                  when we were innocent. They put us Indians into missionaries and tried to convert
                                  us to Catholics. When the Spanish took over Mexico it has been estimated that more
                                  than 20 million Native Americans were killed or died from European type diseases.

              Chief Judge –       As being the chief tribal judge in the trial, the other Indian tribes and I were hurt
 Native
               Comanche           dearly by both countries. As far as America saw us, we were to play no role in the
                                  development of their country. We were threatened, kicked off our land and the
                                  “Trail of Tears” was the relocation that we Indians had to undergo. Not only
                                  America, but Mexico treated us very poorly also. We were treated unfairly, and
                                  Indians were pretty much Mexico’s slaves. We were forced to work, had no political
                                  power, very poor, and treated as inferiors. From each country we were treated
                                  poorly, as we were living in Texas; the middle of the two countries disputes. As the
                                  Tribe chief of the Comanche Indians, I was appointed as head judge for the trial.
                                  This was because my tribe and I were affected dearly by both of the countries. By
                                  being a judge for this trial, we wouldn’t be one-sided judges, as we hated both
                                  countries for the many horrible things that they had done to us.


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                              In the trial I was a Native American my tribe was the Apache tribe. The Apache
                              tribe had a population of about 31,000 people and they mainly lived in areas that are
                              now New Mexico, Arizona, and Oklahoma. The Apache tribes lived in these areas
                              way before the Spanish or British or French even knew America existed. When the
                              Spanish did arrive in that area they looked at the Apache tribes as unequal and since
                              they weren’t catholic the Spanish thought that the apache were going to hell. So
Native     Apache Chief       what the Spanish did is they took their land and put the apache people in missions.
                              Missions were places where the Spanish were enslaving the apache and trying to
                              convert them to catholic. In these missions many apache Indians were tortured and
                              killed by the Spanish and Mexicans. The Mexicans also wanted the Anglos to come
                              into our lands to help them drive us out - they even offered money for the scalps of
                              any Apache (man, woman, or child). As you can see the Apache lives were hugely
                              impacted and wronged by the Spanish and the Americans.

                              Congratulations you have been chosen as a Cherokee judge. Being a judge is not as
                              easy as it looks. Each judge is a different Indian tribe leader. The Cherokee had
                              signed a treaty in court saying that they could live in Georgia freely, & nobody
Native    Cherokee Chief      could touch their land. But when gold was discovered on our land in 1829 President
                              Andrew Jackson disobeyed this treaty and forced the Cherokee to move at gunpoint
                              - thousands died during this terrible Trail of Tears. Good luck and make the right
                              decision.
                              I was President James K. Polk. As President of my country I did many things to
                              protect my country and its people that the Mexicans thought were wrong and unjust.
                              Some of the things I did were, break the Adams-Onis treaty, ordered an army to
                              “invade” California, and send Zachary Taylor and his troops to settle on our side of
                              the Rio Grande River. Although the Mexicans thought that these things were wrong,
                              I can justify everything I did. I can justify breaking the Adams-Onis treaty because I
                              did not sign it. In reality, it was signed by John Quincy Adams, in 1819. I did not
                              agree with the boundaries of the treaty so I broke them. Although some may argue
                              that I DID technically sign it, as “a U.S. president”. Also, I can justify sending
                              troops to “invade” California because our people were starving and there was not
                              enough land for them to live on. Besides, how did Spain get the land in the first
         President James K.   place? They took it! Lastly, I can justify sending Zachary Taylor to settle on the Rio
USA             Polk          Grande because I was just trying to protect my country and its people. If I had not
                              sent them there to build a fort, innocent people would have been killed because, only
                              days later, the fort was attacked, and blood was shed, on American soil.

                              President James Polk was the President of the United States during the Mexican
                              American war. Many people accused him of starting the war, but then again, it did
                              do a lot for our country. One thing that it did for the country was that it doubled in
                              size. Polk was from the state of Kentucky, and mot many people know about what
                              he did or even that he was the President of The U.S. I think that the reasons that we
                              went to war with Mexico were very good. In going to war with Mexico, he was
                              protecting our people that were being harmed by the Mexican government. He was
                              a great president

                              Before the Mexican American War, Mexico asked to speak to an American envoy
                              in the hopes of avoiding war. They pledged that if America sent one, they would
                              accept him. President Polk decided to send John Slidell, a congressman. John
            John Slidell
                              Slidell went down to Mexico, but once he arrived, the Mexicans refused to speak
                &
                              with him because they had heard that President Polk was not only unwilling to
           Nicholas Trist
USA                           discuss compensating Mexico for the loss of Texas, but that all the Americans
                              wanted to discuss was buying more of our territory, including California and New
          Negotiators with
                              Mexico. After no one in the Mexican government would meet with him Slidell then
             Mexico
                              went back to America, enraged that he been rejected by the very people who asked
                              to speak with them. John Slidell became convinced that Mexico must be punished,
                              and told the president so.




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                               Congressman Abraham Lincoln was called “Spotty” Lincoln for writing the Spot
                               Resolution. He believed that the land that the Mexican-American War was started on
                               was not American. He was a congressman during the time of the Mexican-
                               American War. What he did during the war is that he spoke up about the war and
      Congressman Abraham
USA                            influenced the country that the Mexican-American War was not right. He did not
             Lincoln
                               agree with it and he also did not want other Americans to believe in it either. To do
                               this, he wrote the Spot Resolution to make the country aware that fighting a war
                               with Mexico was not right

                               Samuel Houston was a commander for the Texan army during their war for
                               independence. In the Alamo and at Goliad many innocent Texan troops were
          Sam Houston,         slaughtered after they had surrendered. At Goliad no Texans even fired at the
        Commander Texas        Mexican troops. They were simply leaving the city to avoid fighting with the
USA    Troops during Texas     Mexican army. They were all slaughtered. I eventually met Santa Anna in battle and
           Revolution,         defeated his army. After Santa Anna was captured he signed the Treaty of Valasco -
                               granting Texas its independence. He was the 1st president Republic of Texas and
                               asked the USA to allow Texas to join the United States.

                               General Zachary Taylor was a patriot who served his country with bravery. He
                               fought courageously in the Mexican-American War and became a president right
                               after President Polk. General Taylor was the commander of the U.S. army. General
                               Taylor played a huge role in the war. He was ordered by President Polk to bring his
                               regiment over the Rio Grande, (the border to Mexico) to defend their selves against
                               Santa Anna and his troops. General Taylor served right under President Polk during
      General Zackary Taylor   the war. Commodore Stockton, (who served under General Taylor), was ordered by
       Commander of all US     Taylor to build a military fort right in Mexican territory. This was a very good idea,
        troops in Mexican-     because if Mexico decides fight Americans, the fort will be right there ready to go
USA                            into action. General Zachary Taylor and in spite of everything he did to Mexico, I
          American War
                               believe he definitely did it to be in our country’s best interests.

                               General Zachary Taylor is a well known general from the Mexican-American war
                               and he spent much of his time in combat with the Mexican troops. The general was
                               there when they set up Fort Texas and left to intercept the attack on the American
                               storage area. As the Americans he left behind to defend Fort Texas he returned and
                               met the attack head-on driving the opposing army into the river. He also, while out
                               numbered four to one, pushed ahead into Santa Anna’s army and ended the northern
                               war. A while after this he the gained presidency of the Republic of Texas.
                               Commodore Stockton was born at Princeton, New Jersey. Robert F. Stockton was a
                               midshipman in the U.S. Navy since 1811, Became a captain in 1838, and retired in
                               1850. Became a senator in 1851. Commodore Stockton was sent by president James
      Commodore Stockton
                               k. Polk to Texas, to offer the annex Texas. Stockton's observations in Texas made
             &/or
                               him aware of the War with Mexico. Stockton get the appointed title of Commodore
        Colonel Stephen
USA                            since 1846. Stockton commanded U.S. naval and was helpful in taking Alta
           Kearney
                               California from Mexico during the outset of the Mexican-American war. Stockton
      Commanded invasion
                               got ordered by Zachary Taylor to go help the people that in California, such as,
         of California
                               Native America that get treated as slave, and America people that in California and
                               get beat by Mexican. Commodore Stockton defended himself and his people.

                               Captain Freemont was a captain in the U.S. Army and he “invaded” California 3
                               times. His main opponent was the Mexican California Governor (General De
                               Castro). The only reason that he “invaded” California was because when our country
                               (America) was growing so rapidly that we needed more land to grow food on.
        Capt John Charles
                               Mexico had very few people in California, so they weren’t really even using the
            Fremont
                               land. At that time there were actually many more Americans living in California
USA   Invaded California by
                               than there were Mexicans. He, along with 5 others, captured to Mexican Governor
               land
                               of California and during the conflict.

                               Fremont was afraid that since war had been declared between America and Mexico
                               that he was actually only rushing to the defense of the Americans in California.
                               However, the actual fighting was more than 2,000 miles away from California.
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                             Juan Seguin was a Tejano hero in the Texas Revolution. He had a strong interest in
                             politics when he was a teenager. He joined the Texas Revolution to get rid of Santa
                             Anna’s rules. He led a group of 25 Tejano’s who wanted fought on the Texan side at
                             the Alamo battle. He was elected Texas senate in 1839. He also was mayor of San
      Captain Juan Seguin,
USA                          Antonio in 1841. He only spoke Spanish. So he was chosen to transport messages
       Republic of Texas
                             through Texas. Juan Seguin was an amazing person and he did amazing things for
                             Texas. He supported the Tejas Rebellion because he had always been free to make
                             his own decisions - until Santa Anna came to power.

                             John Hardee was an American Captain in the Mexican War. He was sent out on
                             patrol by General Zachary Taylor to investigate if Mexican troops had crossed the
                             Rio Grande and were threatening to attack the US Army. He was attacked, without
      Captain John Hardee    warning, by Mexican troops - while he was on the American side of the Rio Grande.
USA
                             Many of his men were killed or captured by General Torrejon. His troops were
                             attacked on the Rio Grande by Mexican troops. This was the final spark that started
                             the Americans fighting.

                             You read about the Old 300 in the Texas Revolution handout. The “Old Three
                             Hundred” were the original formerly American families that had been invited into
                             Steve Austin’s colony by the Mexican government. These original Texas settler
                             families were known as the “Old Three Hundred.” Austin’s colony also attracted
                             more land speculators and settlers to Texas from the United States. He had promised
                             the Mexican government that, in exchange for granting him land to establish his
                             colony, that he and the Old 300 would follow Mexican law, learn Spanish, swear
                             allegiance to Mexico, and become Catholics. Other illegal settlers became angry
                             when they heard this. All they wanted was to start a new life and look for a way to
USA         Old 300          become rich. People in Tejas were also upset at Santa Anna for throwing Steve
                             Austin in jail when he went down there to discuss the grievances the people in Tejas
                             had against him and his policies. Then Santa Anna brought in the Army to take away
                             our guns… What would we use to hunt and defend ourselves from the frequent
                             Indian attacks?

                             Santa Anna was defeated in battle and signed a document giving us our freedom.
                             Then when we asked to become an American state he attacked us and went back on
                             his word.

                             My character was the speaker for the Tejanos Citizens. I lived in Tejas and was one
                             of the citizens that rebelled against the corrupt government in Mexico City. I
                             believed it was my right to fight for independence. I felt afraid when President Santa
         Tejano Citizen      Anna brought in the army to take away our weapons. What would we use to hunt
                             and defend ourselves from the frequent Indian attacks? I am concerned about how
                             racist the Americans are. They treat me like a foreigner in my own country - Tejas.




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