The Participants in the Trial
The Republic of Mexico versus the United States of America
President Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de
Lebró, otherwise known as Santa Anna, was the dictator and president of Mexico
for 22 nonconsecutive years. During his time as president he led Mexico through
many battles including the Mexican American War. At the battle of the Alamo he
killed close to 250 Tejas rebels, who were trying to overthrow the democratically
elected government of Mexico. In addition to that, he executed over 350 criminals
at Goliad who had committed treason and were trying to destroy Mexico by
rebellion. During the “War of Tejas Rebellion” he was accused of sending in the
army to take weapons away from Tejas citizens who were threatening to use arms
General Antonio Lopez
Mexico against Mexico. He was eventually captured by the rebels, who were led by Sam
de Santa Anna
Houston, and was forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco granting the former
Mexican state of Tejas “independence”. It is obvious that Santa Anna was
dedicated to his country and tried to defend them well.
Santa Anna was accused changed the country from a democracy to a dictatorship,
but when Mexico was still a part of Spain the Spanish government was a
dictatorship, so the Mexicans were used to a dictatorship and they needed a strong
leader to tell them what to do.
Vice President of Mexico, General Herrera. General Herrera was originally the
leader of Mexico. He agreed to accept an ambassador from the United States to
negotiate in an attempt to avoid war. But when the news of this was made public
the uproar it forced Herrera to step down from the presidency. He was made the
vice president, and could not talk with the US negotiator, John Slidell. Several
times during the war he spoke out against it. Vice President of Mexico, General
Herrera was almost lost in history. Sometimes the entire war was blamed on him
for ‘not accepting the ambassador, but he was forced out office.
General Herrera was the Spanish vice president during the Mexican American war.
Not many people in the Mexican Government had much say due to the fact that it
Vice President Mexico was a dictatorship, led by General Santa Anna. One thing about General Herrera
General Herrera was that unlike many leaders, he strongly apposed the war. He didn’t want any
trouble, but, unfortunately, General Santa Anna held all of the power. However
along with most, if not all of Mexico, Herrera didn’t want to give up California and
New Mexico. Even though he apposed the war he strongly felt it wrong that
America was unrightfully stealing their land and territory because USA believed in
“Manifest Destiny”. By bringing American troops into Mexico and building a fort
on Mexican land the Mexicans had to defend its people, its land, and its honor
against the American invaders.
While General Herrera was replaced by General Parades right before the War of
America’s Invasion began, you are responsible for all of his actions, including
declaring war on America.
I was loved by my citizens, but hated by the Americans living illegally in Tejas. A
while back, I invited many Americans to come Tejas as they promised to be loyal
Mexican citizens. We wanted the Americans to drive out the Indians, and to pay
taxes. We also believed that the United States would not invade Tejas if it was
Former Mexican populated by white, formerly American civilians. For the free land in Tejas I
Mexico Governor of Tejas simply required the Americans to become Mexican citizens, to learn Spanish, to
become Catholic, and follow Mexican laws. These are the same type of
requirements America requires when a person wished to become an American
citizen - they must learn English, follow American laws, and swear allegiance to
Many Americans came to Tejas and they started a rebellion simply because Santa
Anna was enforcing Mexican law. Tejas was stolen from Mexico as a result of the
Tejas Revolution. Sam Huston put a gun to Santa Anna’s head and forced him to
sign over the state of Tejas. This act was illegal and made under duress. The
Americans in Tejas were whining about us executing 300 criminals, who had taken
up arms in rebellion against their mother country - Mexico.
General Elmonte is the Mexican ambassador to the United States, which means he
pretty much delivers messages between the Mexican government and the United
States government. General Elmonte is from Mexico and is on the Mexican side.
Mexican Ambassador to General Elmonte also solves treaties between Mexico and the United States. As
USA soon as General Elmonte heard the news about the United States wanting to take
General Elmonte over or annex Texas, he got very mad. The United States was spreading very
quickly during this time, and as soon as the United States decided to annex Texas,
or take it over, General Elmonte broke all the relations that he had with the United
States. General Elmonte wasn't the only person who was mad at the United States,
all of Mexico was now very angry with the United States.
General De Castro was the governor of California before it was taken over by the
Americans. California was attacked by John Freemont, Robert Stockton, and many
others. General De Castro was not able to defend himself against these attacks,
and he fled the country. California was left ungoverned, and was taken over by the
Americans living in California. Before this all happened, John Freemont was told
to watch General De Castro, because is seemed as though Castro intended to hand
the province of California over to Britain. It was also rumored that General De
Castro was going to destroy all of the American settlements on the Sacramento
river. When John Freemont returned to California he found General De Castro on
Former. Governor of
the march against the settlements. It was also rumored that General De Castro was
Mexico treating the American's living in California badly
General de Castro
He was the governor of California until 1846, when he was overthrown by
Commodore Stockton and John Charles Fremont. The thing that he did wrong to
the U.S. was that he closed the border of California to American settlers. He did
this because he feared that the settlers would soon outnumber the Mexicans and
take over California, which they eventually did. He also refused to let the
“exploring” party of John Charles Fremont and his men, into California. He did
this because he suspected that they were there to overthrow him. He was
overthrown with barely putting up a fight.
He was the Spanish Ambassador of Spain to Mexico and negotiated the
independence of Mexico. He also signed the Treaty of 1818. This treaty was
known by another name too, it was called the Adams-Onis Treaty. It was named
this because it was between me and John Quincy Adams. John Quincy Adams was
the United States Secretary of State. The treaty, in exchange for giving what is
now know as Florida to the United States, set the borderline between the United
States and Mexico. Some people have accused Spain of taking over land in the
Americas from the Native Americans by force.
Spanish Ambassador to
Mexico Mexico Louis de Onis was the Spanish ambassador to Mexico. He signed the Adams- Onis
Louis de Onís treaty of 1819. The treaty gave America Florida and confirmed that the border
between Mexico and the United states was along the border of the Louisiana
Purchase. The treaty was signed by Louis de Onis and John Quincy Adams in the
year of 1819 before America decided to invade and try to get Mexico’s land to
which they succeeded to doing so. The Adams- Onis Treaty was forgotten and had
a blind eye turned to so when Commodore Robert Stockton invaded to try and
conquer California he was in violation of the treaty but still went on and conquered
California with no problem.
General Torrejon played a very important part in the Mexican American war.
General Torrejon When the American Army crossed the Nueces River, the original boundary of
Commander-in-chief of Tejas, the Mexican army, led by General Torrejon, had to defend itself, its citizens,
the Northern Division of and it honor. When General Torrejon’s troops discovered American Army troops
the Army of Mexico threatening a large Mexican City One of the major parts that General Trojan
played in the war was that he shot those first shots at the Americans when they
came on to our land killing their leader and many more American soldier. Then
president James Polk declared the war between Mexico and America.
General Torrejon was the commander of the war of Mexico army. A long time ago,
when General Zachary Taylor sent Captain Thorton and his troops over the
Mexican border so they could “Protect Themselves.” Captain Thorton, the leader,
was leading them to the fort when they were worried that they were going to be
attacked by Mexican troops, and, their expectations were right. A troop of men
lead by me, General Torrejon attacked them before they could even reach their fort.
The British did a numerous things to Mexico and to the United States. The British
controlled the thirteen colonies until they were defeated in the Revolutionary War.
By the time the Mexican-American War started the British thought it would be a
good time to get back the American land. The British sent the British Ambassador
to go and make sure the Mexicans won because they thought it would be easier to
British Ambassador to take the land from Mexico than to take it from the Americans. The British wanted
Mexico the Americans to be fighting with the Mexicans so that the British can come and
take the thirteen colonies back. This was a very clever plan for the British because
the Americans will be fighting the Mexicans and they will not see the British
coming. The British Ambassadors job was to make sure they that the Mexicans win.
The British also wanted to take California away from Mexico.
A Tejano citizen is a person who lived in the Mexican state of Tejas, better known
now as Texas. I have lived in Tejas all my life, and my family has been in Tejas for
more that 200 years. I helped fight with the Anglos (Americans) during the Tejas
Revolution because of some of the unjust laws coming out of Mexico City. I have
for many years fought to drive out the Native Americans from Tejas but when the
Mexico Tejanos Citizen
annexation of Texas happened I decided to go back to Mexico because I did not
want to follow the American laws. The Americans also made it very clear that they
thought we Mexicans were not equal to the Anglos. They began to pas laws to drive
us out of our own land. In the recent war of the American Invasion I proudly fought
against the Americans.
I am a Comanche chief and as an Indian I have been through a lot. The Americans
had kicked us out of our home land now known as Texas. They do not think of us a
human. America and Mexico have asked us to change everything we do. They want
us to act exactly like whites. When we tried to change our ways they still did not
accept us because we were not white. This is unfair what America and Mexico has
done to us. The Mexicans hated us and used us as slaves on ranchos. They killed us
when we were innocent. They put us Indians into missionaries and tried to convert
us to Catholics. When the Spanish took over Mexico it has been estimated that more
than 20 million Native Americans were killed or died from European type diseases.
Chief Judge – As being the chief tribal judge in the trial, the other Indian tribes and I were hurt
Comanche dearly by both countries. As far as America saw us, we were to play no role in the
development of their country. We were threatened, kicked off our land and the
“Trail of Tears” was the relocation that we Indians had to undergo. Not only
America, but Mexico treated us very poorly also. We were treated unfairly, and
Indians were pretty much Mexico’s slaves. We were forced to work, had no political
power, very poor, and treated as inferiors. From each country we were treated
poorly, as we were living in Texas; the middle of the two countries disputes. As the
Tribe chief of the Comanche Indians, I was appointed as head judge for the trial.
This was because my tribe and I were affected dearly by both of the countries. By
being a judge for this trial, we wouldn’t be one-sided judges, as we hated both
countries for the many horrible things that they had done to us.
In the trial I was a Native American my tribe was the Apache tribe. The Apache
tribe had a population of about 31,000 people and they mainly lived in areas that are
now New Mexico, Arizona, and Oklahoma. The Apache tribes lived in these areas
way before the Spanish or British or French even knew America existed. When the
Spanish did arrive in that area they looked at the Apache tribes as unequal and since
they weren’t catholic the Spanish thought that the apache were going to hell. So
Native Apache Chief what the Spanish did is they took their land and put the apache people in missions.
Missions were places where the Spanish were enslaving the apache and trying to
convert them to catholic. In these missions many apache Indians were tortured and
killed by the Spanish and Mexicans. The Mexicans also wanted the Anglos to come
into our lands to help them drive us out - they even offered money for the scalps of
any Apache (man, woman, or child). As you can see the Apache lives were hugely
impacted and wronged by the Spanish and the Americans.
Congratulations you have been chosen as a Cherokee judge. Being a judge is not as
easy as it looks. Each judge is a different Indian tribe leader. The Cherokee had
signed a treaty in court saying that they could live in Georgia freely, & nobody
Native Cherokee Chief could touch their land. But when gold was discovered on our land in 1829 President
Andrew Jackson disobeyed this treaty and forced the Cherokee to move at gunpoint
- thousands died during this terrible Trail of Tears. Good luck and make the right
I was President James K. Polk. As President of my country I did many things to
protect my country and its people that the Mexicans thought were wrong and unjust.
Some of the things I did were, break the Adams-Onis treaty, ordered an army to
“invade” California, and send Zachary Taylor and his troops to settle on our side of
the Rio Grande River. Although the Mexicans thought that these things were wrong,
I can justify everything I did. I can justify breaking the Adams-Onis treaty because I
did not sign it. In reality, it was signed by John Quincy Adams, in 1819. I did not
agree with the boundaries of the treaty so I broke them. Although some may argue
that I DID technically sign it, as “a U.S. president”. Also, I can justify sending
troops to “invade” California because our people were starving and there was not
enough land for them to live on. Besides, how did Spain get the land in the first
President James K. place? They took it! Lastly, I can justify sending Zachary Taylor to settle on the Rio
USA Polk Grande because I was just trying to protect my country and its people. If I had not
sent them there to build a fort, innocent people would have been killed because, only
days later, the fort was attacked, and blood was shed, on American soil.
President James Polk was the President of the United States during the Mexican
American war. Many people accused him of starting the war, but then again, it did
do a lot for our country. One thing that it did for the country was that it doubled in
size. Polk was from the state of Kentucky, and mot many people know about what
he did or even that he was the President of The U.S. I think that the reasons that we
went to war with Mexico were very good. In going to war with Mexico, he was
protecting our people that were being harmed by the Mexican government. He was
a great president
Before the Mexican American War, Mexico asked to speak to an American envoy
in the hopes of avoiding war. They pledged that if America sent one, they would
accept him. President Polk decided to send John Slidell, a congressman. John
Slidell went down to Mexico, but once he arrived, the Mexicans refused to speak
with him because they had heard that President Polk was not only unwilling to
USA discuss compensating Mexico for the loss of Texas, but that all the Americans
wanted to discuss was buying more of our territory, including California and New
Mexico. After no one in the Mexican government would meet with him Slidell then
went back to America, enraged that he been rejected by the very people who asked
to speak with them. John Slidell became convinced that Mexico must be punished,
and told the president so.
Congressman Abraham Lincoln was called “Spotty” Lincoln for writing the Spot
Resolution. He believed that the land that the Mexican-American War was started on
was not American. He was a congressman during the time of the Mexican-
American War. What he did during the war is that he spoke up about the war and
USA influenced the country that the Mexican-American War was not right. He did not
agree with it and he also did not want other Americans to believe in it either. To do
this, he wrote the Spot Resolution to make the country aware that fighting a war
with Mexico was not right
Samuel Houston was a commander for the Texan army during their war for
independence. In the Alamo and at Goliad many innocent Texan troops were
Sam Houston, slaughtered after they had surrendered. At Goliad no Texans even fired at the
Commander Texas Mexican troops. They were simply leaving the city to avoid fighting with the
USA Troops during Texas Mexican army. They were all slaughtered. I eventually met Santa Anna in battle and
Revolution, defeated his army. After Santa Anna was captured he signed the Treaty of Valasco -
granting Texas its independence. He was the 1st president Republic of Texas and
asked the USA to allow Texas to join the United States.
General Zachary Taylor was a patriot who served his country with bravery. He
fought courageously in the Mexican-American War and became a president right
after President Polk. General Taylor was the commander of the U.S. army. General
Taylor played a huge role in the war. He was ordered by President Polk to bring his
regiment over the Rio Grande, (the border to Mexico) to defend their selves against
Santa Anna and his troops. General Taylor served right under President Polk during
General Zackary Taylor the war. Commodore Stockton, (who served under General Taylor), was ordered by
Commander of all US Taylor to build a military fort right in Mexican territory. This was a very good idea,
troops in Mexican- because if Mexico decides fight Americans, the fort will be right there ready to go
USA into action. General Zachary Taylor and in spite of everything he did to Mexico, I
believe he definitely did it to be in our country’s best interests.
General Zachary Taylor is a well known general from the Mexican-American war
and he spent much of his time in combat with the Mexican troops. The general was
there when they set up Fort Texas and left to intercept the attack on the American
storage area. As the Americans he left behind to defend Fort Texas he returned and
met the attack head-on driving the opposing army into the river. He also, while out
numbered four to one, pushed ahead into Santa Anna’s army and ended the northern
war. A while after this he the gained presidency of the Republic of Texas.
Commodore Stockton was born at Princeton, New Jersey. Robert F. Stockton was a
midshipman in the U.S. Navy since 1811, Became a captain in 1838, and retired in
1850. Became a senator in 1851. Commodore Stockton was sent by president James
k. Polk to Texas, to offer the annex Texas. Stockton's observations in Texas made
him aware of the War with Mexico. Stockton get the appointed title of Commodore
USA since 1846. Stockton commanded U.S. naval and was helpful in taking Alta
California from Mexico during the outset of the Mexican-American war. Stockton
got ordered by Zachary Taylor to go help the people that in California, such as,
Native America that get treated as slave, and America people that in California and
get beat by Mexican. Commodore Stockton defended himself and his people.
Captain Freemont was a captain in the U.S. Army and he “invaded” California 3
times. His main opponent was the Mexican California Governor (General De
Castro). The only reason that he “invaded” California was because when our country
(America) was growing so rapidly that we needed more land to grow food on.
Capt John Charles
Mexico had very few people in California, so they weren’t really even using the
land. At that time there were actually many more Americans living in California
USA Invaded California by
than there were Mexicans. He, along with 5 others, captured to Mexican Governor
of California and during the conflict.
Fremont was afraid that since war had been declared between America and Mexico
that he was actually only rushing to the defense of the Americans in California.
However, the actual fighting was more than 2,000 miles away from California.
Juan Seguin was a Tejano hero in the Texas Revolution. He had a strong interest in
politics when he was a teenager. He joined the Texas Revolution to get rid of Santa
Anna’s rules. He led a group of 25 Tejano’s who wanted fought on the Texan side at
the Alamo battle. He was elected Texas senate in 1839. He also was mayor of San
Captain Juan Seguin,
USA Antonio in 1841. He only spoke Spanish. So he was chosen to transport messages
Republic of Texas
through Texas. Juan Seguin was an amazing person and he did amazing things for
Texas. He supported the Tejas Rebellion because he had always been free to make
his own decisions - until Santa Anna came to power.
John Hardee was an American Captain in the Mexican War. He was sent out on
patrol by General Zachary Taylor to investigate if Mexican troops had crossed the
Rio Grande and were threatening to attack the US Army. He was attacked, without
Captain John Hardee warning, by Mexican troops - while he was on the American side of the Rio Grande.
Many of his men were killed or captured by General Torrejon. His troops were
attacked on the Rio Grande by Mexican troops. This was the final spark that started
the Americans fighting.
You read about the Old 300 in the Texas Revolution handout. The “Old Three
Hundred” were the original formerly American families that had been invited into
Steve Austin’s colony by the Mexican government. These original Texas settler
families were known as the “Old Three Hundred.” Austin’s colony also attracted
more land speculators and settlers to Texas from the United States. He had promised
the Mexican government that, in exchange for granting him land to establish his
colony, that he and the Old 300 would follow Mexican law, learn Spanish, swear
allegiance to Mexico, and become Catholics. Other illegal settlers became angry
when they heard this. All they wanted was to start a new life and look for a way to
USA Old 300 become rich. People in Tejas were also upset at Santa Anna for throwing Steve
Austin in jail when he went down there to discuss the grievances the people in Tejas
had against him and his policies. Then Santa Anna brought in the Army to take away
our guns… What would we use to hunt and defend ourselves from the frequent
Santa Anna was defeated in battle and signed a document giving us our freedom.
Then when we asked to become an American state he attacked us and went back on
My character was the speaker for the Tejanos Citizens. I lived in Tejas and was one
of the citizens that rebelled against the corrupt government in Mexico City. I
believed it was my right to fight for independence. I felt afraid when President Santa
Tejano Citizen Anna brought in the army to take away our weapons. What would we use to hunt
and defend ourselves from the frequent Indian attacks? I am concerned about how
racist the Americans are. They treat me like a foreigner in my own country - Tejas.