Oregon 2009 Sesquicentennial Celebration
Native American Indian Tribes Encountered by the Corps of Discovery
Author: Connie Eastburn, firstname.lastname@example.org
Mapleton School District
Courtesy of Lane Education Service District's
Teaching American History project
Target Grade Level(s): 3 4 5 6
Approximate Time Needed: 6-8 weeks
Prerequisites: Conducting a search/bookmarks, saving work to a designated area,
and creative software application experience
Brief Overview: Students will conduct in-depth research on the various tribes
encountered by the men of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Working in small
groups, students will become "experts" on the Native American Communities they
are investigating. Each group will be prepared to create a slide show demonstrating
geographical regions, traditions/ceremonies, shelters, customs, clothing, food
sources, and methods of transportation, and myths, legends, or histories of their
Native American Tribe. Oral presentations will be conducted in order to fully share
each group's discoveries.
CCGs, Standards and Benchmarks
Objectives and Procedures
Modifications and Assessment
Required Materials and Preparation
Resources: Handouts, web sites and other helpful teacher materials
Objectives: Students will learn to conduct research on a given tribe that parallels
contact with the Lewis and Clark expedition. They will record notes
on a study guide worksheet and keep track of resources visited and
used. Each student will be required to find information from a variety
of the resources including but not limited to the following: websites,
encyclopedias, trade books, videos, and maps. Students will utilize
technology to create pictorial models of their findings along with
written text to support their discoveries. With teacher assistance,
multimedia slide shows will be posted on the Internet linking to the
Mapleton Elementary School's home
In addition, students will have an opportunity to present their
rehearsed slide show to the class.
Instruction/Procedure Week One: Introduce this unit of study by modeling how to seek out
: specific information on a topic while reading an informative book on
a specific Native American Tribe from a major region of the country.
Avoid using a tribe that will later be researched by one of the
students. Students will take notes using the Native American Study
Guide (see materials list). The teacher will point out pertinent facts
that match the study guide. The goal is to have each student gain
some experience in taking notes and locating facts from a printed
Week Two: As a entire class project, the teacher and students will
categorize the information about the Native American Tribe and
organize a writing web to retell the facts. (See example of writing
web in materials list) Inspiration 6.0 software can be used for this
purpose if available. Divide the class into small writing groups. Each
group will be responsible for writing one paragraph on an assigned
topic from the writing web. Next the paragraphs will be brought
together to produce one written report. These steps are important to
model for "first time" researchers, but can be modified or deleted for
students with more research experience.
Week Three: Background information on the Lewis and Clark
Expedition is introduced to the class by either showing a video or
reading a nonfiction story of the expedition told in a chronological
time frame. (Recommended written resource -Lewis and Clark for
Kids- see materials list) Students begin to have an understanding
about the existence and support of many Native American Indian
tribes to the success of the Corps of Discovery. Students are each
assigned a different tribe encountered by Lewis and Clark on their
westward journey. (see map of most tribes and locations at
http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native/index.html) Explain to the
students that they will be the representative of their assigned tribe
who will be reporting to Lewis and Clark what they can expect in
meeting each tribe as they move up the river and over the land toward
the Pacific Ocean. If working with a large group of students, pairs or
small groups could be assigned to each tribe. There are
approximately fifteen tribes to choose from. (see list provided with
materials) It is important that all tribes are represented in some way.
All students begin their investigation using a variety of search
engines and web sites.
Week Four: Using the study guide provided by the teacher, (see
materials list) students will look for information describing the region
and location of the tribe they are investigating. Resources will be
checked to find out the main types of shelter, clothing, food source,
mode of transportation, important ceremonies, myths and famous
American Indian from each tribe. Students should also be encouraged
to discover the interactions between this tribe and the Corps of
Discovery. This information can be shared orally by reading Lewis
and Clark for Kids to the whole class or using another broad
overview of the expedition. (See National Geographic Video
Week Five: Students will be required to have documented
information from a variety of sources. Based on each student's level
and abilities, adjustments can be made for this requirement. Ample
time should be allotted for research to be obtained from the network,
encyclopedias, trade books, and personal interviews where possible.
Week Six: Students will organize their information into a writing
web as previously modeled. This will help them to see what
information they still need to locate. They will then prepare a rough
draft for ten slides. (See Slide Show Panning form) Kid Pix or
PowerPoint would be two software programs that could be used to
prepare a slide show demonstrating their knowledge. (If technology
resources are limited, students could create a written report in the
form of a book for their tribe including information on each topic and
illustrations.)You may link to student completed projects at
http://blackboard.lane.k12.or.us Click-Login Username:thirdgrade
Password:student Click Third Grade under Courses Click Projects.
Then click on the folder for Individual Projects. Enjoy!
Week Seven: Students will prepare a one-page summary that can be
utilized in a classroom book of reports for a culminating written
project. Students will also rehearse and be ready to share their slide
shows orally. Each student will be scored on organization, content,
delivery, and language.
OPTIONAL INTEGRATED CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES:
The following activities can be integrated throughout the seven-week
unit or used as culminating activities upon completion of the
1. Create a classroom "quilted" bulletin board using the theme of
shelters. Each student designs their tribes shelter on 8" X 8" manila
colored squares. The name of the tribe is written on the corner of
each square. Form a border around the area using alternating fall
colors in geometrical designs. See map of Indian Dwellings jpeg. for
samples of shelters from various tribes.
2. Gift giving was a practice used by both the tribes and Lewis and
Clark. Students prepare a paper package that a small gift could be
wrapped in. Each student decides what an appropriate gift would be
to place in his or her designed package. See template - Gift Giving
and digital picture of a student sample.
3. Winter Count - Storytelling and recorded histories were often kept
on hides. They told of each year's special events. Use torn brown
craft paper or brown paper grocery bags. Students will wrinkle them
until the desired texture is achieved. Give each student a handout that
has traditional Indian symbols and their meanings. (Listed with
resources) Have each student create a "winter count" for the tribe
they are researching. Be sure to have them create a symbol for when
their tribe met the men of the Corps of Discovery.
4. Model Tipi - Students trace and design the outside of a traditional
tipi used by some tribes. Encourage using traditional designs and
colors. See template - Tipi
5. Create a celebration with another class or grade level who has
researched the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery Expedition. See
American History Unit -Exploring the West with Lewis and Clark
Living as a Member of the Corps of Discovery by Vern Eastburn.
Both groups will present their findings and activities to other classes.
If possible, outline a map of the United States in a large gymnasium
or outdoor space and have students stationed at the appropriate
location in conjunction with the tribe they have researched. Students
can be the "experts" and be ready to share the facts they discovered
and any artifacts they have created. For further details please feel free
to contact us about this celebration.
Modifications for Students with limited reading and writing skills will need to have this
special needs lesson adjusted to match their abilities. They would easily be able to
students: work through the searches if bookmarks were preset prior to
investigation. The amount of notes written from their findings will
either need to be adjusted or assistance provided. Oral presentations
may need to rehearsed many times with small groups before
presenting to larger groups of students. Successes should readily be
observed while using the software and the creative paint and drawing
Modifications for Gifted students may wish to contact members of the various tribes
TAG students: through e-mail or phone for personal interviews. Use of a
communication tool such as Eudora could be introduced if it has not
been previously used. Level and rate of learning should be adjusted
to match each student's expertise (i.e. reading, writing, artistic
Assessment: Students completing this unit will be assessed in four areas:
Content - Body of historical knowledge obtained from the process
that aligns with the Oregon Social Studies Standards
Writing - Ability to take newly acquired information and retell it in a
Speaking - Ability to give an oral presentation of newly acquired
Technology - Level of skill utilizing search engines, managing
content software, exploring creative software and producing a
pictorial representation of new knowledge, and demonstrating work
Oregon State scoring guides will be used for content, writing, and
speaking. Local scoring guides on technology will be utilized.
Academic 1. Social Science - History
Standards/Skills to 2. English - Writing
Support the CCGs: 3. English - Speaking
Benchmarks (Does Benchmark 2: Historical Skills
not apply to all Benchmark 1 and 2: History
lessons.): 1. Students will interpret data and chronological relationships in
timelines and narratives.
2. Identify cause and effect relationships in a sequence of events.
3. Understand how history can be organized using themes,
geography, or chronology.
4. Identify primary and secondary sources.
Benchmark 1 and 2: Writing
1. Communicate knowledge of the topic.
2. Structure information in clear sequence, making connections and
transitions among ideas, paragraphs, and sentences.
3. Use varied sentence structures and lengths to enhance flow,
rhythm, and meaning in writing.
4. Use correct spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization,
paragraph structure, sentence construction, and other writing
Benchmark 1 and 2: Speaking
1. Communicate knowledge of the topic.
2. Structure information in clear sequence, making connections and
transitions among ideas, sentences, and paragraphs.
3. Select words that are correct, functional, and appropriate to
audience and purpose.
4. Use eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, oral fluency,
vocal energy, and gestures to communicate ideas effectively when
Required Hardware: Computer with CD drive and Internet access
T.V. with monitor access to computer
Infocus Projector and screen for presentations
Required Software: Inspiration 6.0
Kid Pix Deluxe Studio (or other creative software),
Power Point (for older students),
Compton Encyclopedia, (or other on-line encyclopedia source)
Web Sites and Other Websites utilized in 2002-03:
http://memory.loc.gov - American History Site
Great resource for primary source photographs of Native American
http://oslis.k12.or.us/elem - Oregon School Library Information
Searchasaursus section of this link supports locating photographs of
tribes through the years
http://www.multcolib.org/homework/natamhc.html - Multnomah
County Library Homework Center
Native American Tribes and their organizational structures today are
http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native/index.html - PBS Site on
the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
Each tribe encountered by Lewis and Clark is featured with a
summary of their interactions
Lewis and Clark-Great Journey West, National Geographic video
Other Materials: Trade books on Native American Tribes
Maps of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Resource book-Lewis and Clark for Kids, Janis Herbert, Chicago
Review Press, 2000.
Native American Indian Study Guide
Slide Show Planning Form
Example of planning web for organizing information
List of tribes encountered on the westward journey of Lewis and
Model of a writing web
Templates for: Indian symbols, gift package, tipi.