Reading Benchmarks

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					   English Language Arts Standards ~ Grades K-4

STRAND A. ~ READING/LITERATURE

Content Standard: Students in the Albany School District will read and respond to a wide
range of writing to build an understanding of written materials, of themselves, and of others.

Rationale: Reading is a complex, interactive process that continues to be a primary means
of acquiring and using information. Society regards reading as essential to daily living.
Because reading is fundamental to the mastery of other school subjects, students at all levels
must learn to understand what they read. They must know and use various strategies—ways
of unlocking the meaning of words and larger blocks of text—to become successful readers.

Students should be challenged to read literature and other materials that reflect and stimulate
their interests and intellectual abilities. They should read a wide variety of materials, including
fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama, and other written works that reveal the richness and
diversity of our heritage, afford opportunities to acquire new information, refine perspectives,
respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace, and provide for personal
fulfillment.

Performance Standard A.1: Use effective reading strategies to achieve their purposes
in reading.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Tell about experiences, pictures and books.
    Memorize simple nursery rhymes.
    Demonstrate how to use a book appropriately.
    Recognize own name in print.
    Sequence a two to three part story.
    Recognize that print has meaning.
    Aware of environmental print.
    Use pictures to predict a story.
    Recognize letter sounds.
    Identify words that rhyme.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Recognize opposites.
    Recite the alphabet from memory.
    Identify upper and lower case letters.
    Discriminate visually between letters.
    Identify letter-sound relationships for all consonants, vowels, and digraphs.

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      Blend and segment words.
      Discriminate syllable chunks in words.
      Identify beginning, middle and ending sounds.
      Separate words into sounds.
      Show left to right, top to bottom directionality.
      Recognize differences between letters, words, and sentences.
      Turn pages in correct order.
      Point to words as they are read.
      Recognize Kindergarten sight words.
      Sound out and blend short vowel words independently
      Use picture cues to identify words.
      Match words with pictures.
      Comprehend and respond to questions about stories read orally.
      Discern how written texts and accompanying illustrations connect to convey meaning.
      Understand that people read to gain meaning and understanding.
      Track words using one-to-one correspondence.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Apply knowledge of word order, visual cues, auditory cues, and meaning to text.
    Use graphophonic, phonemic, syntactic and semantic skills.
    Begin to use structural analysis skills. (initial, final letters, vowels etc.)
    Recognize vowel sounds in multi-syllable words.
    Use search and predicting skills to decode new words.
    Recognize and comprehend sight vocabulary (word wall words) from first grade
       materials based on textbooks and sight word list.
    Use pictures for clues and as a descriptive device to add information to stories.
    Identify rhyme and repetition used throughout the stories.
    Recognize text structures: words, paragraphs, titles, beginning-ending of stories.
    Gain information from fiction and non-fiction materials.
    Predict and draw upon prior knowledge.
    Recognize how authors and illustrators work together to create literature.
    Gain pleasure and satisfaction from reading books independently.
    Read books voluntarily for enjoyment.
    Read with appropriate expression.
    Read fluently at a minimum rate of 40-60 words with 98% accuracy.
    Complete reading assignments at school and at home.
    Work independently for 15 minutes with clear directions.
    Work carefully to complete work accurately and neatly.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Apply knowledge of letter sounds to decode multi-syllabic words.
    Use semantic (meaning), syntactic (word order), and graphophonic (letter-sound
       relationships) cues to decode unknown words.
    Use increasing knowledge of letter clusters and vowel patterns.
    Incorporate chunking by using familiar word parts to identify unknown words.


                                              2
      Cross-check and experiment to see what makes sense in a sentence, and try again if
       it doesn’t make sense.
      Recognize and comprehend sight vocabulary (word wall words) from second grade
       materials based on textbooks and sight word list.
      Use table of contents to locate a selection.
      Select picture clues from text to aid in comprehension.
      Understand and demonstrate proper reading skills.
      Identify a purpose for reading – get information, appreciate literature, or learn about a
       viewpoint.
      Read fluently at a minimum rate of 90 words per minute with 98% accuracy.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Use increasing knowledge of letter clusters, vowel patterns, affixes and roots.
    Independently search, predict, and cross-check using semantic, syntactic, and
       graphophonic cues.
    Use chunking to identify increasingly complex words.
    Expand vocabulary beyond sight word lists. Use reference materials to locate
       information.
    Locate specific information by skimming and scanning.
    Use text aids such as headings, bold print, and italics.
    Read fluently at a minimum rate of 110 words per minute with 98% accuracy.
    Vary expression and speed when reading aloud.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Read fluently at a minimum rate of 118 words per minute with 98% accuracy.

Performance Standard A.2: Read, interpret, and critically analyze literature.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Name the main characters in a story.
    Identify the beginning, middle, and end of an age-appropriate story.
    Participate orally with books that have repeating key phrases.
    Use picture clues to interpret the story.
    Answer specific questions based on the story read aloud.
    Compare and contrast.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Name the setting and characters in a story.
    Summarize and retell stories in their own words.
    Answer who, what, where and when questions about a story.
    Recall 3 – 5 details of a story in proper sequence.
    Respond to stories in a variety of ways such as artistically or dramatically.
    Orally participate with and read along with predictable books.
    Memorize pattern and easy read Kindergarten books.
    Use picture clues to read words in stories.
    Understand that the purpose of reading is to gain meaning.
    Take books home to read and return when finished.
                                                3
      Make text-to-self connections.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Identify story events using details (plot, setting, characters, sequence and outcome)
    Develop literal and simple inferential comprehension skills.
    Make text-to-self connections.
    Make text-to-text connections.
    Distinguish between reality and fantasy/fable.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Predict before and during reading. Read and reread to check predictions and clarify
       meaning
    Retell story recalling characters, setting, plot, problem, and solution.
    Organize up to six story events in proper sequence.
    Draw conclusions, make inferences, and form opinions on literary materials using a
       variety of literature
    Identify relationships between characters.
    Recognize cause and effect relationships.
    Compare and contrast information between stories and within a story and to personal
       experiences
    Discern narrator of a selection.
    Recognize author’s humor.
    Understand, summarize, and execute written directions.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Recognize the main idea.
    Retell the main points to demonstrate understanding.
    Make text-to-text connections.
    Make text-to-self connections.
    Make text-to-world connections.
    Compare and contrast story elements.
    Understand cause and effect relationships.
    Identify different narrative forms.
    Make inferences.
    Demonstrate understanding of the author’s purpose.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
   

Performance Standard A.3: Read and discuss literary and nonliterary texts in order to
understand human experience.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Recite nursery rhymes, songs, and fingerplays orally.
    Identify fiction vs. non-fiction.
    Makes text-to-self connections.


                                              4
By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Connect life experiences to stories.
    Identify fiction vs. nonfiction
    Read own dictated or inventive spelling stories.
    Participate in reciting poems, rhymes, fingerplays, and songs.
    Show expression through drama, or puppets.
    Use book language when pretending to read prior to actual reading.
    Requests someone to read to him/her, enjoys shared reading experiences.
    Choose books of interest to read and or look at.
    Demonstrate the correct use and care of Library and classroom books.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Recall details from text and the main idea.
    Enjoy and appreciate various forms of literature. (poems, rhymes, songs and other
       forms of print)
    Relate reading topics to personal experience.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Interpret events and ideas and make the connection to all types of texts and life
       experiences
    Discriminate between fantasy and reality literature
    Compare and contrast information between stories and within a story and to personal
       experience
    Identify fact and fiction in text
    Identify and summarize main idea and key points from literature, informational texts,
       and other sources
    See and make recommendations for books to read
    Select appropriate level of reading material when given free choice

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Make generalizations based on information in text.
    Distinguishes between fact and opinion, fiction and non-fiction.
    Understand and interpret charts, graphs, and other visual representations.
    Read materials on a variety of topics.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
   

Performance Standard A.4: Read to acquire information.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Choose classroom books on thematic topics.
    Identify first name, environmental print, and logos. (McDonalds, Pizza Hut)
    Look at picture books and ask questions or make comments.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Use books to investigate topics of interest and to find information.

                                              5
      Share books from home on thematic topics.
      Identify environmental print and logos (McDonalds, Pizza Hut).
      Recognize familiar characters and authors (Clifford, Dr. Seuss).

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Recognize word wall words from first grade material based on textbook selections,
       library books, and sight word list.
    Summarize key details of text materials.
    Use books to investigate topics of interest and to find information.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Use books to investigate topics of interest and to find information.
    Locate answers to questions in the selection.
    Seek information through investigation of non-fiction materials.
    Summarize key details of text materials.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Read materials to match personal interest.
    Relate content to personal experience and knowledge.
    Paraphrase factual information from text.
    Use reference materials to locate information.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Summarize key details of informational text, connect new information to prior
       knowledge.
    Identify a topic of interest and seek information about it by investigating available text
       resources.


STRAND B. ~ WRITING

Content Standard: Students in the Albany School District will write clearly and effectively to
share information and knowledge, to influence and persuade, to create and entertain.

Rationale: Written communication skills are central to learning. Whether in academic life, in
the workplace, or in personal life, they offer a powerful advantage in a world in which people
must constantly learn new information. To become confident and effective writers, students
need to learn how to write for various purposes and audiences. They need to try different
approaches and to reconsider what they have written through revision and editing. To ensure
that their writing is understood and well-received, students need a working knowledge of
language as well as grammatical structures, diction and usage, punctuation, spelling, layout,
and presentation. This knowledge is also invaluable for discussing, critiquing, revising, and
editing written communication in almost any form.

Performance Standard B.1: Create or produce writing to communicate with different
audiences for a variety of purposes.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
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      Use drawings to represent thoughts or ideas.
      Contribute to shared and interactive writing activities.
      Dictate words, phrases, rhymes, and sentences.
      Write first name.
      Use letters to represent language.
      Use proper prehension (C pencil grasp).
      Establish hand dominance.
      Strengthen fine motor muscles through a variety of writing tasks.
      Use scribble writing to communicate ideas or thoughts.
      Begin to progress through stages of writing.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Use proper prehension.
    Copy age appropriate shapes.
    Print first name from memory.
    Print last name with a model.
    Legibly print upper and lowercase letters.
    Begin to use proper letter formations.
    Copy words and sentences.
    Type letters on the computer.
    Use computer mouse efficiently.
    Use inventive spelling to label pictures or express thoughts.
    Progress through all stages of writing.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Print legibly using correct spacing and form.
    Write a complete sentence.
    Write a short paragraph.
    Write a short story consisting of about four sentences.
    Write a letter using a friendly letter format.
    Use imagination in writing.
    Make-up and write simple stories about pictures they are shown.
    Write a variety of ways in both timed and non-timed situations.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Write in a variety of situations that are both timed and untimed.
    Write a short paragraph describing an object or picture.
    Write a short report on a topic that has been researched.
    Identify parts of a friendly letter (heading, greeting, body, closing, and signature).
    Place, punctuate, and capitalize the parts of a letter properly on a paper when copying
       or writing a friendly letter.
    Correspond and communicate with another person through the use of friendly letters
    Express self creatively by writing short stories and/or poems on a given subject such
       as “summer fun”, ”Halloween”, etc.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Write in a variety of situations that are both timed and untimed.

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      Use pen and paper as well as computers to publish writing.
      Construct simple sentences to make up a paragraph, report, or story.
      Determine whether a group of words is a simple sentence when writing a paragraph,
       report, or story.
      Write friendly letters using all required parts (heading, greeting, body, closing, and
       signature) with appropriate punctuation and capitalization.
      Write non-fiction, expressive, and creative sentences, paragraphs, and stories using
       detail and appropriate voice.
      Recognize audience/situation when writing and tailors content, style, and structure
      Show pride in work created.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
   

Performance Standard B.2: Plan, revise, edit, and publish clear and effective writing.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    N/A

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Draw pictures and write words and sentences to express thoughts and ideas.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Write a topic or idea with a well-thought out written paper.
    Produce a final project including pictures and/or sentences for publication for different
       audiences.
    Make corrections in writing after a conference with the teacher.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Proofread to find capitalization errors and ending punctuation; i.e., question marks,
       periods, and explanation marks.
    Proofread to find and correct spelling errors.
    Perform revisions in writings and explain reasons in a conference with the teacher.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Write and rewrite to effectively communicate with a specific audience
    Proofread to find errors in capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
    Edit writing and explain reasoning in a conference with the teacher.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Explain revisions in writing in a conference with the teacher.
    Develop, organize, and complete a writing assignment in a given amount of time.

Performance Standard B.3: Understand the function of various forms, structures, and
punctuation marks of standard American English and use them appropriately in
communications.



                                               8
By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Begin to use writing tools to make marks and letters.
    Write own name with capital letter.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Understand figure-ground associations.
    Progress through the stages of writing from scribble to more mature writing.
    Use lines on the paper appropriately.
    Work from left to right and top to bottom.
    Recognize and copy periods and question marks.
    Capitalize names.
    Copy or write letters and words with appropriate spaces between letters and words.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Master basic spelling skills and words.
    Use auditory recognition of beginning and ending sounds of words.
    Write one-syllable words by memory or phonetic decoding.
    Learn and write the names of colors.
    Learn and write the names for numbers.
    Recognize suffixes added to base words.
    Capitalize first words in sentences, proper nouns, and titles.
    Use proper punctuation in sentences.
    Recognize different forms of words. (plurals, possessives, etc.)
    Practice choosing correct word forms for one or more than one.
    Practice using apostrophes to show possession.
    Practice recognition of phrases compared to complete sentences.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Use proper word forms in sentences.
    Recognize and use appropriately past and present tense of verbs, such as, give/gave,
       go/went/gone, do/did/done, come/came.
    Ad –s and –es to words to make plurals.
    Recognize ‘s as showing ownership.
    Recognize and identify nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adjectives in sentences.
    Identify and write complete sentences.
    Use commas correctly to punctuate appositives and lists.
    Use decoding skills, such as long and short vowels, blends, and digraphs to spell
       words correctly in written work.
    Transfers knowledge of spelling rules and patterns to written work.
    Uses resources (dictionary, thesaurus, spell-check, etc) to spell correctly.
    Capitalize proper nouns; i.e. names, cities, states, countries, streets, months, days of
       the week, holidays, etc.
    Use capital letters at the beginning of sentences.
    Use periods after abbreviations, such as Dr., Mr., Mrs., Ms.
    Demonstrate the use of correct grammar in writing.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:

                                              9
      Combine sentences with conjunctions, use punctuation marks, and separates run-on
       sentences.
      Use commas correctly to punctuate appositives and lists.
      Spell all of the third grade word wall words correctly.
      Transfers knowledge of spelling rules and patterns to written work.
      Uses resources (dictionary, thesaurus, spell-check, etc) to spell correctly.
      Recognizes nouns, verbs, and adjectives in sentences.
      Supply appropriate word uses as a noun, verb, or adjective in a sentence.
      Distinguish between statements, questions, and commands.
      Identify complete subjects and complete predicates.
      Capitalize proper nouns, titles, and beginning words of sentences.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will
    Use proper agreement related to number, gender, and case.
    Identify and use parts of speech including nouns (singular and plural), pronouns,
       verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.
    Capitalize proper nouns, titles, and initial words in sentences.
    Combine sentences with conjunctions using appropriate punctuation as well as
       separating run-on sentences.
    Identify, punctuate, and use correct word order to distinguish statements, questions,
       exclamations, and commands.


STRAND C. ~ ORAL LANGUAGE

Content Standard: Students in the Albany School District will listen to understand and will
speak clearly and effectively for diverse purposes.

Rationale: The spoken word, essential to our individual and social development, remains a
central means of communication. Whether in informal interactions or more formal settings,
speakers are required to communicate clearly in a manner that befits the occasion. Listening
is the most used and least understood of all communication skills. We spend approximately
45 percent of all communication time and as much as 57 percent of school instruction time
listening. The ability to listen and to follow instructions is highly prized in the workplace.

Performance Standard C.1: Orally communicate information, opinions, and ideas
effectively to different audiences for a variety of purposes.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Speaks in complete sentences using four to five words with utterances.
    Participates in songs, fingerplays, and rhymes.
    Tells about personal experiences.
    Begin to use conversation skills to participate in classroom activities.
    Answer wh- questions (who, what, where, etc.).
    Uses appropriate voice, tones, and expression.
    Uses eye contact when speaking to peers and adults.
    Recites first and last name.

                                              10
      Uses plurals and pronouns correctly in speech.
      Begin to use past tense correctly in speech.
      Speaks in sentences using correct word order and sentence structure.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Use eye contact when speaking with peers and adults.
    Use appropriate voice volume in different settings.
    Speak in complete sentences with appropriate syntax (word order).
    Ask and answer wh- questions (who, what, where, when, why).
    Use correct voice tones and expressions.
    Use the correct forms of irregular verbs (be).
    Uses conversation skills to participate in cooperative play.
    Communicate thoughts in complete sentences using six to eight words.
    Participate in choral chants, fingerplays, songs, and echoes.
    Use conversation skills to participate in classroom activities.
    Relate personal experiences in sequence.
    Recite and days of the week and months of the year.
    Recite full name, address, and phone number.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Communicate information orally making proper eye contact, volume, rate, and
       articulation.
    Practice oral reading using different voice and tone for exclamatory, declarative, and
       interrogative sentences.
    Share objects and experiences during classroom activities.
    Participate in choral and group readings.
    Read play parts effectively.
    Distinguish between fact and opinion and provide support opinions.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Speak to others in a clear and audible manner.
    Share written work and artistic work with other students.
    Speak in complete sentences.
    Distinguish between fact and opinion and provide evidence to support opinions.
    Read aloud effectively from previously-read material.
    Use correct grammar in speech.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Recite information and text in front of class.
    Understand criteria for effective presentations: eye contact, projection, tone, volume,
       rate, and articulation.
    Read aloud from previously-read material.
    Use notes/brief outline to relate specific information and accurate instructions
       sequentially.
    Use appropriate visual aids to enhance presentation
    Recounts autobiographical or fictional stories to large and small groups.
    Participate in group readings: choral, echo, and shadow reading.

                                             11
      Perform dramatic readings and presentations.
      Recognizes differences between fact and opinion and uses evidence to support
       argument.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
   

Performance Standard C.2: Listen to and comprehend oral communications.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Show understanding of concept words and sequence of events.
    Demonstrate understanding and listening skills by attending and responding
       appropriately.
    Use turn taking skills in conversations.
    Follow simple one to two step directions.
    Listens and responds to communication with others.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Follow multi-step directions.
    Successfully perform a task after listening to oral directions.
    Identify key points in an oral story.
    Retell an age appropriate story from memory.
    Sequence a four to six part story.
    Predict outcomes of stories.
    Answer comprehension questions and recall details about a story.
    Distinguish between fact and fantasy.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Identify and summarize key points of a story.
    Practice distinguishing reality or fantasy in a given situation.
    Follow multi-step directions.
    Retell stories and reports of events in proper sequence.
    Predict outcomes and draw conclusions.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Listen effectively and follow oral multi-step directions.
    Identify and summarize the key points of a story.
    Be introduced to a variety of word structures; affixes, roots, homonyms, antonyms,
       synonyms, and word analogies, metaphors, and similes.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Identify and summarize key points of a story.
    Comprehend increasingly complex sentence structures.
    Understand a variety of word structures; affixes, roots, homonyms, antonyms,
       synonyms, word analogies, metaphors, and similes.
    Retell events of story/report in order to predict and draw conclusions.


                                               12
By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Indentify and summarize the points of the story or discussion.
    Discuss stories and reports with proper sequence, character development, predicting
       outcomes, and drawing conclusions.
    Demonstrates knowledge and uses a variety of word structures.
    Understand increasingly complex sentence structures.

Performance Standard C.3: Participate effectively in discussion.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Verbally respond appropriately when asked questions.
    Participate in group discussions in classroom setting.
    Makes eye contact with speaker.
    Participate in daily conversations during conversation times.
    Be courteous towards others and use good manners.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Volunteer relevant information, ask relevant questions and answer questions directly
       at the Kindergarten level.
    Begin to use appropriate eye contact and other nonverbal cues.
    Participate in daily conversations during conversation times.
    Be courteous towards others and use good manners.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Become an effective speaker and listener through use of appropriate eye contact and
       non-verbal cues.
    Use appropriate strategies to keep a discussion going.
    Summarize information conveyed through discussion.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Contribute to class discussions voluntarily or when called upon
    Become and effective speaker through use of appropriate eye contact and non-verbal
       cues
    Use appropriate strategies to keep a discussion going
    Summarize information conveyed through discussions

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Use appropriate strategies to keep a discussion going.
    Summarize information conveyed through discussion.
    Volunteer relevant information, asks related questions, and answers directly.
    Add to ideas of others in a thoughtful manner.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Volunteer relevant information and ask relevant questions.
    Listen and reflect on ideas and opinions of others and respond respectfully.
    Asks for clarification, explanation of unfamiliar words and ideas.
    Summarize information conveyed through discussion.

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STRAND D. ~ LANGUAGE

Content Standard: Students in the Albany School District will apply their knowledge of the
nature, grammar, and variations of American English.

Rationale: The essential basis of English language arts is language. Language exists in
many variations, and the ability to use it well is frequently a source of power, respect, and
financial success. However, if students are unaware of how language works, they may be
unable to use it effectively.

Performance Standard D.1: Develop personal vocabulary of words, phrases, and
idioms as a means of improving communication.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Names and describes objects, places and illustrations.
    Describes similarities and differences.
    Uses position words and temporal words.
    Use new vocabulary words in spontaneous speech from thematic units, stories, and
       classroom discussions.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Recall the meaning of new vocabulary words.
    Use new vocabulary words in spontaneous speech.
    Be exposed to new vocabulary words through thematic units, books, and classroom
       discussions.
    Be exposed to literature rich in vocabulary.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Use proper grammar skills in spontaneous speech.
    Practice putting words in alphabetical order.
    Practice using simple dictionary skills.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Consult dictionaries to find definitions and spell words correctly.
    Use knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to understand the meaning of words.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Consult reference sources such as dictionaries and thesauruses to find definitions,
       alternative words, and to spell words correctly.
    Identifies common figures of speech and uses them appropriately.
    Use knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to comprehend meaning of words.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Use reference sources such as dictionaries, thesauruses, spell checkers, and
       computers to locate and compare definitions, alternative words, and to spell words
       correctly.
    Use knowledge of roots and affixes to interpret the meaning of words.
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      Identify and use common figures of speech.

Performance Standard D.2: Recognize and interpret various uses and adaptations of
language in social, cultural, regional, and professional situations, and learn to be
flexible and responsive in their use of English.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Be exposed to multicultural literature.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Demonstrate responsibility for getting notes and newsletters to and from parents and
       care for and return book buddies and library books.
    Be exposed to a wide variety of cultures, settings, and language through literature.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Read stories and books containing various styles of American English, (regional
       dialect, African American, slang, professional jargon, etc.)
    Discuss the author’s purpose (entertain/inform) and be exposed to the various writing
       styles. (prose, poetry, play, etc.)

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Read stories and books containing various styles of American English (regional
       dialect, African / American, inner city language, slang, professional jargon)
    Identify the author’s purpose (entertain, inform) and recognize the various writing
       styles (prose, poetry, plays)

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Read stories and books containing various styles of American English that appears in
       different social, cultural, regional, and professional environments.
    Identify author’s purpose (entertain, inform, etc.) and recognizes various writing styles
       (prose, play, poetry)

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Read materials containing various styles of American English such as regional dialect,
       slang, inner city, African American and professional jargon.
    Identify author’s purpose (entertain, inform, etc.) and recognizes various writing styles
       (prose, play, poetry)


STRAND E. ~ MEDIA & TECHNOLOGY

Content Standard: Students in the Albany School District will use media and technology
critically and creatively to obtain, organize, prepare and share information; to influence and
persuade; and to entertain and be entertained.

Rationale: In a technological world in which thought is increasingly dominated by media,
such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, movies, computer software, and electronic
networks, students need to understand the impact of media on daily life. To use media

                                               15
effectively, students must be able to evaluate information and match the information with the
appropriate medium for a specific audience. In order to do this, they must recognize how
communication changes from one medium to another.

Performance Standard E.1: Use computers to acquire, organize, analyze, and
communicate information.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Locate the computer in the classroom.
    Take turns using the computer.
    Begin to manipulate the mouse.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Identify parts of a computer: mouse, monitor, keyboard, screen.
    Manipulate the mouse and place the cursor at a specific location, click and double
       click.
    Identify the location of keys: enter, space bar, backspace, letters in their name.
    Use correct computer terminology: cursor, font.
    Demonstrate proper computer care and etiquette: clean hands, take turns, light touch,
       no food or drink.
    Navigate and operate through CD programs and websites selected by the teacher.
    Use basic drawing programs.
    Observe the teacher using basic word processing programs as a tool such as making
       class books or newsletters.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Use computers with care and respect.
    Locate and use letter and number keys.
    Control and operate the mouse.
    Start up and shut down programs.
    Locate and use function keys: control, alt., delete, return, space bar, escape, shift, and
       eject disk.
    Learn and use the appropriate terms for the computer and parts.
    Use the CD disks correctly putting them in and out of the computer.
    Use a variety of CD’s, programs, and websites.
    Use correct computer terminology.
    Work independently on a computer activity after the directions are given and enough
       practice is done.
    Place graphic and font choices into a document.
    Create and print simple student documents.
    Use media and technology to share information.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Use media and technology to share information.
    Use computers with care and respect.
    Use common media and technology terminology and equipment.
    Use a variety of CD’s, programs, and websites.
    Use correct computer terminology.

                                              16
      Create and print student documents.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Use media and technology to share information.
    Use computers to find information on the Internet.
    Become familiar with word processing programs.
    Use computers with care and respect.
    Use information obtained correctly (plagiarism) and exhibit ethical behavior.
    Introduced to cut and paste features.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Use media and technology to find and share information.
    Use computers with care and respect.
    Use information obtained correctly (plagiarism) and exhibit ethical behavior.
    Use correct computer terminology.
    Begin to use correct keyboarding techniques.
    Work independently on projects.
    Use graphics and cut and paste in projects.

Performance Standard E.2: Make informed judgments about media and products.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    N/A

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    N/A

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Make simple comparisons between reality/fantasy and fiction/nonfiction.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Be introduced to issues of technology, Internet safety, and etiquette.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Understand important issues of technology, Internet safety, and etiquette.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Introduce basic propaganda techniques.
    Obtain information on current events through newspapers and other media.
    Understand important issues of technology, Internet safety, and etiquette.

Performance Standard E.3: Create products appropriate to audience and purpose.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    N/A

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Dictate sentence typed into a word processing program.

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      Use drawing programs to create pictures.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Dictate sentence typed into a word processing program.
    Use drawing programs to create pictures.
    Use several types of media to create a product.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Use several types of media to create a product.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Create persuasive artifacts.
    Use several types of media to create a product.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Create media presentations for various audiences
    Use several types of media to create a product.

Performance Standard E.4: Demonstrate a working knowledge of media production
and distribution.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
        N/A

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
        N/A

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Identify a wide variety of current media formats (examples: videos, programs,
       magazines, software, audio cassettes, CD ROM, DVD, newspapers, books, and
       Internet.

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Identify a wide variety of current media formats (examples: videos, programs,
       magazines, software, audio cassettes, CD ROM, DVD, newspapers, books, and
       Internet.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Identify a wide variety of current media formats (examples: videos, programs,
       magazines, software, audio cassettes, CD ROM, DVD, newspapers, books, and
       Internet.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Identify a wide variety of current media formats (examples: videos, programs,
       magazines, software, audiocassettes, CD ROM, DVD, newspapers, books, and the
       Internet.




                                                18
Performance Standard E.5: Analyze and edit media work as appropriate to audience
and purpose.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    N/A

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    N/A

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    N/A

By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    N/A

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Generate and edit media work effectively.
    Provide feedback and participate in peer and self-evaluations.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Generate and edit media work effectively.
    Provide feedback and participate in peer and self-evaluations.



STRAND F. ~ RESEARCH AND INQUIRY

Content Standard: Students in the Albany School District will locate, use, and communicate
information from a variety of print and nonprint materials.

Rationale: Students acquire a wide range of abilities and tools for raising questions,
investigating ideas, and solving problems. Research involves posing interesting and
important questions, using multiple sources of information, analyzing and relating facts and
concepts, and arriving at conclusions or new understandings (adapted from the national
Standards for the English Language Arts).

Performance Standard F.1: Conduct research and inquiry on self-selected or assigned
topics, issues, or problems and use an appropriate form to communicate their
findings.

By the end of 4K, the student will:
    Ask questions.

By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    Ask open-ended questions.

By the end of 1st grade, the student will:
    Use research skills to answer questions and find information.
    Use a variety of sources to create a simple research report.
    Seek information from more than one source.

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By the end of 2nd grade, the student will:
    Use a variety of sources to create a research report.
    Propose questions and use a variety of resources to answer questions.

By the end of 3rd grade, the student will:
    Use a variety of sources to create research reports.
    Propose questions and use a variety of resources, including electronic sources, to
       answer questions.

By the end of 4th grade, the student will:
    Use a variety of sources to create extensive research reports.
    Propose questions and use a variety of resources, including electronic sources, to
       answer questions.




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