Global warming, greenhouse effect, heat waves, floods and melting ice caps
are common weather events in our day.
On the radio, on television, in newspapers and especially the global network.
Scientists argue, but nobody has a convincing explanation for these facts.
Seeking in the physical sciences, We find the thermodynamics of the
atmosphere that perfectly explains the greenhouse effect as a natural
The thermodynamic study of the atmosphere starts with the assembly of
equipment in a container of measures it takes.
A hygrometer ...
A barometer ...
An anemometer ...
A GPS receiver ...
A radio transmitter .....
And a parachute attached to a helium balloon.
Connected equipment at the right time, loosens up, the balloon rising into the
atmosphere that will transmit data to a ground station.
At the ground station data are processed and stored in a digital database.
Data are presented in table form with approximately one sample per minute of
These data from the atmosphere are critical to flight safety. To predict the
formation of clouds and thunderstorms.
But, in table form is difficult to visualize and then created a chart called
Diagram Skew T / Log P or inclined temperature verses the logarithm of
The horizontal lines are the isobars. Lines of equal pressure depending on the
height of sea level and indicated in millibars.
These lines at 45 degrees is the isotherms, lines of constant temperature.
These lines, magenta or pink are isopleths showing the locations of the same
index or ratio of air / water vapor in grams of vapor per kilogram of air.
These lines slanted to the left are the dry adiabatic. Indicate points in space
where the dry air has the same amount of energy in joules per kilogram.
These vertical lines that start leaning to the left, are moist adiabatic. Indicate
points of space in the air with 100% humidity has the same energy.
Finally released in the graph the atmospheric sounding data.
The air temperature with height over sea level. Or-state temperature.
The dew point temperature that indicates the amount of water vapor in the
The speed and wind direction.
The meteorological factors which are provided through the rain, thunderstorms
Local poll: Airport civil field of Mars-São Paulo capital.
Zulu Time and date of the poll.
Entity that files these data .... Wyoming University, United States.
The University of Wyoming maintains a database of surveys of the major
airports in the world. With access by the Internet.
Let us see how the thermodynamics explains global warming in two scenarios.
A scenario with soil water.
The sun's rays warm the ground.
The portion of air in contact with the heated soil, remove part of this heat, by
hypothesis, warming 35 degrees Celsius and evaporates water from the soil
and increases the rate of mixing of the air parcel.
The portion of heated air, along with the water vapor rises into the atmosphere
following a dry adiabatic up to find the dew point isopleths. At this point the
water vapor starts condensing to form clouds and their transferring latent heat
to the portion of air that surrounds it. The air becomes humid, and from there
begins to climb the moist adiabatic until to meet the line of state’s temperature.
With this heat removed from the hot ground is released above 500 millibars and
goes into space. No longer returns to the ground.
This process handles between 40% and 60% of all energy that reaches the
Scenario two ........... no water in the soil.
The sun's energy that reaches the earth warms the soil.
The portion of air in contact with the soil warms (35 degrees Celsius by
hypothesis) and rises into the atmosphere by a dry adiabatic up to the line-state
temperature where it park, radiating heat and recirculating in the lower
That is, the greenhouse effect. Completely natural.
How to stop global warming?
Compute the temperature needed to dry surfaces as, asphalt, roofs, floors
cemented and others for this case in study. São Paulo September 13, 2010.
Let's raise a isopleths from the dew point to two meters of soil to reach a moist
adiabatic tangent at the right of line of the state’s temperature.
By crossing these lines, bow a dry adiabatic up to the soil line.
Here we find the temperature that the parcel of air must reach to win the
greenhouse effect. 40 degrees Celsius.
Compute the temperature must reach the surface to raise the temperature of
the parcel will be 40 degrees Celsius.
(Surface temperature + temperature) divided by two is equal to the temperature
of the parcel.
Tsurface = 2T parcel - T ambient = 56 degrees Celsius.
Proceeding now by trial and error, which seek a dry adiabatic temperature when
crossing the state, find one that satisfies the equation isopleths;
Isopleths plot = (isopleths ambient + 100% isopleths at ground level) divided by
Found; temperature of parcel = 29 degrees Celsius.
Isopleths parcel = 16 grams of steam per kilogram of air.
Calculating the surface temperature of 35 degrees Celsius wet encounter.
One difference from 56 to 35 = 21 degrees Celsius.
The thermodynamic analysis suggests that the atmosphere is lacking water in
Then measuring the speed of water penetration into the soil here in Manaus
found that this velocity varies with depth in the field and follows this table.
This suggests a sealing of 20 to 45 cm deep.
Verified in the Brazilian Cerrado, 2010 fire that burned 1,231 km2
Despite the rain, witnessed by pools of water, the soil was still dry.
The greenhouse effect is shown here in Manaus in these tables
Temperatures of 24 hours of the day May 9, 2010
Calculation of calorific energy correspondents.
Power dissipated by convection reached 616 watts per square meter.
The energy emitted by the atmosphere, and that there even at night,
corresponding to 480 watts per square meter (this is the greenhouse effect).
What can we do .........
-Fountain in the squares
-Water in Northeast Brazil. .......
-Water in the Sahara desert ......
To conclude we want to thank those who have always supported us and
encouraged us in the work of this research.
Dr Phelippe Daou our thanks.