MOTIVATION Presented to: Education 12 Class What is Motivation? • It is a process in which the individual’s attention and interest are aroused and directed toward definite tasks. • Elliot et al. (1996) defines motivation as consisting of three interrelated components: 1. goal 2. personal agency beliefs 3. emotions 2 What is Motivation? • Motivation means complexes of internal conditions which serve to direct the organism toward specific goals (Ruch). • Motivation is something that incites the organism to action or that sustains and gives direction once the organism has been aroused (Hilgard) What is Motivation? • Motivation may be defined as behavior instigated by needs within the individual and directed toward goals that can satisfy the needs. • Motivation may be regarded as explanation for action which influences behavior in many ways. What is Motivation? • Synonyms of motivation (Morgan) Wants Goals Strivings Aspiration Desires Drive Needs Wish Motives Aims • Its root word is MOTIVE. Motives are known to have three important functions in behavior: 1. Motives are energizing. 2. Motives have a directing function. 3. Motives have a selecting function. Motivation arouses, sustains, directs, and integrates behavior. Motivation as Differentiated from Motive and Incentive MOTIVATION is a process. MOTIVE – Disposition, tendency, desire, or aspiration – Drive or impulse, attitude that arouses interest – Within the individual, has a definite goal to achieve Motivation as Differentiated from Motive and Incentive INCENTIVE – External benefit or reward of some kind derived from an activity – Social approval, good grades, honors, scholarships, medals Classification of Motives 1. Biological and Physiological Drives – Innate/ inborn stimuli 2. Psychological Drives – Social drives which are acquired, learned or derived 3. Creativity or Self-actualization Drives – General/ unconscious drives or motives Self-actualization is the desire to do something exceptional for the good of humanity. Types of Motivation 1. Intrinsic motivation is the desire to do something for the joy of doing it, learning it, or other intangible result. 2. Extrinsic motivation is the desire to do something because of the promise or hope of a tangible result. Factors that Affect Motivation 1. Anxiety Sources of Anxiety: a. Teachers b. Examinations c. Peer relations d. Achievement settings e. Like or dislike or subjects Types of Anxiety: a. Situational anxiety b. Neurotic/ trait anxiety Factors that Affect Motivation 2. Attitude Factors that Affect Motivation 3. Locus of control INTERNAL EXTERNAL Alert Less attentive Competent Erratic in performance Able to resist influence Influenced by status Domineering Influenced by peers Achievement oriented Controlled by others Independent Low confidence in abilities Self-confident Random in reactions Skillful Erratic in performance Factors that Affect Motivation 4. Learned helplessness Importance of Motivation 1. To stimulate and facilitate learning activity. 2. Direct activities towards the achievement of a goal. 3. Controls and directs human behavior. 4. Inculcates spiritual and moral values in the minds of the young. 5. Gives satisfaction and happiness to the individual. Motivational Cycle 3RD STAGE 1ST STAGE Satisfaction of the individual Need Tension vanishes Motive Stability or equilibrium takes place Tension/Stress HOMEOSTASIS- absence of tension 2ND STAGE Motive (satisfied) Goal (achieved) The two major factors in school achievement are intelligence and motivation, and the latter is more important -- Turney That motivation is the control factor in every learning process. -- Book Thought and action occur largely in the service of wants, interest, and attitudes and are stimulated and guided by them. -- Thorndike Man works for an object. Remove the object, and you reduce him to inaction. -- Rizal Educational Implication 1. Since motivation is a strong driving force to behavior, people need to be well motivated. 2. Teachers and parents should motivate children to behave well. 3. Teachers should motivate the lessons so that children will learn. Educational Implication 4. Arousing interest in the subject matter is the best motivation. 5. Grades, audio-visual aids, rewards, and praise are incentives with positive valence. 6. Incentives may be used to reinforce motivation. 7. Teachers also need to be motivated so that they will perform their jobs effectively.
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