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GANGA ACTION PLAN AND NATIONAL GREEN TRIBUNAL

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					GANGA ACTION PLAN AND NATIONAL GREEN TRIBUNAL

1. NATIONAL GANGA RIVER BASIN AUTHORITY
Function and Power of NGRBA
The Authority has both regulatory and developmental functions. The Authority will take
measures for effective abatement of pollution and conservation of the river Ganga in keeping
with sustainable development needs. These include;

       Development of a river basin management plan;
      Regulation of activities aimed at prevention, control and abatement of pollution in Ganga
       to maintain its water quality, and to take measures relevant to river ecology and
       management in the Ganga basin states;
      Maintenance of minimum ecological flows in the river Ganga;
      Measures necessary for planning, financing and execution of programmes for abatement
       of pollution in the river Ganga including augmentation of sewerage infrastructure,
       catchment area treatment, protection of flood plains, creating public awareness;
      Collection, analysis and dissemination of information relating to environmental pollution
       in the river Ganga;
      Investigations and research regarding problems of environmental pollution and
       conservation of the river Ganga;
      Promotion of water conservation practices including recycling and reuse, rain water
       harvesting, and decentralised sewage treatment systems;
      Monitoring and review of the implementation of various programmes or activities taken
       up for prevention, control and abatement of pollution in the river Ganga;
      Issue directions under section 5 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for the
       purpose of exercising and performing these functions and for achievement of its
       objectives. .


2. GANGA ACTION PLAN
The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase - I which was taken up as 100% Centrally funded scheme
and aimed at preventing the pollution of river Ganga and to improve its water quality. The plan
was started in June 1985. The program of river cleaning was extended to other major rivers of
the country under two separate schemes of GAP Phase - II and the National River Conservation
Plan (NRCP). Yamuna and Gomati Action Plans were approved in April 1993 under Ganga
Action Plan Phase - II. Programs of other major rivers were subsequently approved in 1995
under NRCP. After launching of NRCP in 1995, it was decided to merge GAP II with NRCP. A
notification of this effect was issued on 5.12.96.

OBJECTIVE OF GANGA ACTION PLAN PHASE - I ..
At the time of launching, the main objective of GAP was to improve the water quality of Ganga
to acceptable standards by preventing the pollution load reaching the river. However, as decided
in a meeting of the Monitoring Committee in June, 1987 under the Chairmanship of Prof. M. G.
K. Menon, then Member, Planning Commission, the objective of GAP was recast as restoring the
river water quality to the 'Bathing Class' standard which is as follows:
                  Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)          3 mg/l maximum
                  Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                     5 mg/l minimum
                  Total Coliform                            10,000 per 100 ml
                  Faecal Coliform                           25,00 per 100 ml

States and Town Covered in Ganga Action Plan Phase-I:

Uttar Pradesh;
Hardwar Rishikesh, Faridabad&Fatehgarh, Allahabad, Kanpur, Varanasi, Mirzapur.
Bihar;
Chapra, Bhagalpur, Munger, Patna.
West Bengal
Baharampore, Nabadwip, Hugli Chinsura, Chandan Nagar, Serampore, Bally, Kalyani, Bhatpara,
Titagarh, Panihati, Howrah, Calcutta Corpn.Area, Baranagar, Kamarhati, Naihati.

OBJECTIVE OF GANGA ACTION PLAN PHASE - II ..

The Ganga Action Plan besides aiming at improving the water quality of river Ganga is to serve
as a model to demostrate the methodology for improving the water quality of other polluted
rivers. Though the river water quality of Ganga has shown discernible improvement, the full
impact of the action plan would be visible when the left out works in the 25 class I cities and the
works in other class II and class III towns along the river Ganga are taken up. The important
tributaries of river Ganga like,Yamuna,Gomati and Damodar which directly discharge into the
river Ganga and are heavily polluted are taken up for pollution abatement Programmes.

For this purpose, the second phase of Ganga Action Plan was started in stages between 1993 &
1996. Both Central & State Govt. Provided help and had equal Share that is 50:50 in the working
of Ganga Action Plan (Phase II). After April 1997 Central Govt. took the full responsibility of
this project & sanctioned the total cost Under Ganga Action Plan and other Plans like
Yamuna,Gomati and Damodar have also been accepted and the govt.has sanctionedd Rs.2285.48
crore for the same. This money will help in statrting 441 projects in 95 cities under the plan.
Implementation of the plan finally commenced w.e.f. 1.4.2001. The funding pattern was changed
to 70:30 between centre and state which is continuing at present.

State Covered in Ganga Action Plan Phase-II:

Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi, Haryana

3. National Green Tribunal (NGT)
The National Green Tribunal has been established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green
Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental
protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any
legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons
and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. It is a specialized body
equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-
disciplinary issues. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code
of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.
The Tribunal's dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters shall provide speedy
environmental justice and help reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts. The Tribunal
is mandated to make and endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6
months of filing of the same. Initially, the NGT is proposed to be set up at five places of sittings
and will follow circuit procedure for making itself more accessible. New Delhi is the Principal
Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other 4 place
of sitting of the Tribunal.

				
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