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					Semicolons, Colons and
       Hyphens
   Andrew Rohm, John Hagee
Bad grammar and poor punctuation is not a laughing matter.
                   Semicolons
 A semicolon is used to separate complete ideas that could stand
 alone as sentences; however, the ideas are related, so the author
                   wants to put them together.
                            •    Independent Clauses
                            •    A semicolon is used to separate complete ideas
                                 that could stand alone as sentences; however,
                                 the ideas are related, so the author wants to put
                                 them together.
                            •    Many times these independent clauses have
                                 joining words between them:
                                  • Also, finally, instead,             besides, for
                                      example, on the contrary, consequently,
                                      however, still, even so, in addition,
                                      therefore.

                     Examples:
I made it through my              My grandmother seldom goes
exam; finally, my class           to bed this early; she's afraid
is over.                          she'll miss out on something.
         To help sort out a monster list:
                                 • When a list contains
                                   commas to separate items,
                                   the parts of the sentence
                                   should be separated by
                                   semicolons.
Examples:
There were citizens from Bangor, Maine; Hartford, Connecticut; Boston,
Massachusetts; and Newport, Rhode Island.

Last night, Leno’s guests included Mel Gibson, star of stage, screen and squad
car; Bertrand Russell, renown as the world champion of Philosophers; and
William Shakespeare, sometimes called the “Bard of Avon” or simply “Bard.”
The HYPHEN
      HYPHENS
  Use a hyphen to form compound
            modifiers.

       COMPOUND MODIFIER:

The Definition: Two or more words are
 acting as a single modifier for a noun.

The Clue: They belong together. They
  are not part of a series that can
   separately describe the noun.


    I think Steve is a well-
    intentioned volunteer.
                                           NOTE: If you can remove
    Steve is a helpful, supportive         one of the descriptors from
    volunteer.
                                           the string, it is not a
    The 20-year-old man was too            compound modifier and so
    young to buy alcohol.                  does not need hyphens
                 COLONS
Colons are used to introduce whatever follows them in a sentence.

USE IN THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS:
After a complete statement in order to introduce one or more directly related
    ideas, such as a series of directions, a list, or a quotation or other
    comment illustrating or explaining the statement.
• The daily newspaper contains four sections: news, sports, entertainment,
    and classified ads.
• The strategies of corporatist industrial unionism have proven ineffective:
    compromises and concessions have left labor in a weakened position in
    the new "flexible" economy.
In a business letter greeting.
• Dear Ms. Winstead:
Between the hour and minutes in time notation.
• 5:30 p.m.
Between chapter and verse in biblical references.
• Genesis 1:18
                         Works Cited

• “The Tongue Untied, A Guide to Grammar, Punctuation and Style.”
  University of Oregon . 3 July 2008
       <http://grammar.uoregon.edu/punctuation/hyphen.html>


• “Brief Overview of Punctuation: Semicolon, Colon, Parenthesis, Dash,
  Quotation Marks, and Italics.” Purdue University Online Writing Lab. 3 July
  2008
        <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_overvw.html>

• “The Semicolon.” Guide to Grammar and Writing. 6 July 2008
       <http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/marks/semicolon.htm

				
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posted:9/15/2012
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