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					Adduct
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

   See also adduction, one of the anatomical terms of motion.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules,
resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components. [1] The resultant is considered a distinct
molecular species. Examples include the adduct between hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate to give sodium
percarbonate, and the addition of sodium bisulfite to an aldehyde to give a sulfonate.
Adducts often form between Lewis acids and Lewis bases. A good example is the formation of adducts between the Lewis
acid borane and the oxygen atom in the Lewis bases, tetrahydrofuran (THF): BH 3 •O(CH2 ) 4 or diethyl ether:
BH 3 •O(CH3 CH2 ) 2 .




 THF molecule                  BH3 molecule                   Lewis adduct between BH3
                                                              and THF,

Compounds or mixtures that cannot form an adduct because of steric hindrance are called frustrated Lewis pairs.
Adducts are not necessarily molecular in nature. A good example from solid-state chemistry is the adducts of ethylene or
carbon monoxide of CuAlCl 4 . The latter is a solid with an extended lattice structure. Upon formation of the adduct, a new
extended phase is formed in which the gas molecules are incorporated (inserted) as ligands of the copper atoms within the
structure. This reaction can also be considered a reaction between a base and a Lewis acid with the copper atom in the
electron-receiving and the pi electrons of the gas molecule in the donating role. [2]

Adduct ions
An adduct ion is formed from a precursor ion and contains all of the constituent atoms of that ion as well as additional atoms
or molecules. [3] Adduct ions are often formed in a mass spectrometer ion source.

See also
   Adductomics
   DNA adduct

References
   1. ^ Nic, M.; Jirat, J.; Kosata, B., eds. (2006–). "adduct" . IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (Online ed.).
      doi:10.1351/goldbook.A00138 . ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.
   2. ^ Capracotta, M. D.; Sullivan, R. M.; Martin, J. D. (2006). "Sorptive Reconstruction of CuMCl4 (M = Al and Ga) upon Small-
      Molecule Binding and the Competitive Binding of CO and Ethylene". Journal of the American Chemical Society 128 (41): 13463–
      13473. doi:10.1021/ja063172q . PMID 17031959 .
   3. ^ Nic, M.; Jirat, J.; Kosata, B., eds. (2006–). "adduct ion (in mass spectrometry)"   . IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology
      (Online ed.). doi:10.1351/goldbook.A00139 . ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.
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