heterogeneity by 0L4UyZ65

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									  Nov-09
NOTES:

           The papers listed here have been obtained by search SPE and IPTC papers post 2005 on the SPE's OnePetro
           The papers relating to reservoir engineering have been catergorised for inclusion on the   reservoirengineering.org.uk website
           The affiiations searched were;

                                                                    Total No Papers     Reservoir Engineering Related
                      BP                                                   551                      175
                      Shell                                                575                      279
                      Chevron                                              482                      238
                      ConocoPhillips                                       191                       68
                      Marathon                                             55                        37
                      Total                                                255                      129
                      Schlumberger                                        1130                      563
                      Imperial College, London                             95                        53
                      Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh                    235                      175
                      (Anywhere in Article)
                                                      Total               3569                          1717



                      Total number of papers published post 2005 =             10,000

                                                                   35% of papers published categorised
                               Paper
Organisation             Source No.            Chapter                   Section
CHEVRON                   IPTC    12877    Reservoir Description       Heterogeneity
SCHLUMBERGER               SPE   101126    Reservoir Description       Heterogeneity
CHEVRON                    SPE   102435    Reservoir Description       Heterogeneity
SHELL                      SPE   115347    Reservoir Description        Permeability
SHELL                      SPE   101807   Reservoir Development Modelling - Integrated Asset
Heriot Watt University     SPE   100223     Reservoir Modelling  Heterogeneity - Subgrid

CHEVRON                   SPE    119183    Reservoir Modelling     Heterogeneity Modelling
SCHLUMBERGER              SPE    112926    Reservoir Modelling     Heterogeneity Modelling
BP                        SPE    103760    Reservoir Modelling           Upscaling
Heriot Watt University    SPE    100951       Well Testing           Numerical Analysis
            Subject
             Analysis
   Formation Evaluation Methods
               NMR
       Representative scale
          Heterogeneity
     Uncertainty Management

Multiscale Finite Volume Formulation

           Heterogeneity
           Heterogeneity
                                            Title
Static Connectivity and Heterogeneity (SCH) Analysis and Dynamic Uncertainty Estimation
Methods for Real-Time and High-Resolution Formation Evaluation and Formation Testing of Thinly Bedded Reservoirs in Explo
NMR Petrophysics in Thin Sand/Shale Laminations
Finding the Continuum Scale in Highly Heterogeneous Rocks: Example of a Large Touching Vug Carbonate
Application of Critical Technologies Enabling Low-Cost Development of Thin-Bedded Heterogeneous Gas Reservoirs in the No
Quantification of Uncertainty Due to Subgrid Heterogeneity in Reservoir Models

Multiscale Finite Volume Formulation for the Saturation Equations
Unconventional Reservoir Modeling of a Gas Field in the Nile Delta of Egypt
A New Practical Method for Upscaling in Highly Heterogeneous Reservoir Models
Fighting Against Nonunique-Solution Problems in Heterogeneous Reservoirs Through Numerical Well Testing
                                Author                                      Abstract
Hong Tang, SPE, Chevron and Ning Liu, SPE, Chevron                           Abstract Based on previous studies multiple SCH
                                                                             Abstract Thinly bedded reservoirs are increasingly
M. Claverie, Schlumberger; S. Aboel-Abbas, C.S. Mutiara; and H. Harfoushian, S. Hansen, and R. Leech, Schlumberger
C.C. Minh, Schlumberger, and P. Sundararaman, Chevron                        Abstract We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NM
                                                                             Abstract Many the world's oil fields and aquifers
Narayan Nair, SPE, Steven L. Bryant, SPE, and James W. Jennings*, SPE, The University of Texas at Austin
                                                                             Abstract CS Mutiara
L. Alessio, C. Howells, J. Chu, S.A. Abbas, B. Wade, and S. Ball, Carigali Shell Mutiara PetroleumPetroleum is a Petronas Cari
                                                                             Abstract Due to the lack of Christie, SPE, Heriot-W
H. Okano, SPE, Heriot-Watt U. and Japan Oil, Gas and Metals Natl. Corp.; G.E. Pickup, SPE, and M.A. data a reservoir engin
H. Zhou, SPE, Stanford University; S.H. Lee, SPE, Chevron Energy
Technology Company; and H.A. Tchelepi, SPE, Stanford University              Abstract Recent advances in multiscale methods
                                                                             Abstract and Sami Bustami, Nile Delta of Schlum
Ahmed Daoud, SPE, Osama Hegazy, Yasser Hazem, Mohamed Lotfy, Samir Yousef,Gas reservoirs in theAramco, SPE,Egypt a
                                                                             Summary Geologists often generate
Pinggang Zhang, SPE, BP Exploration; and Gillian Pickup, SPE, and Mike Christie, SPE, Heriot-Watt University highly hetero
Zheng Shi-Yi, SPE, Heriot-Watt U.                                            Abstract Numerical well testing started in about a
 evious studies multiple SCH parameters are used to quantify reservoir performance. �Static connectivity is quantified by fraction of conne
 ed reservoirs are increasingly a target of offshore exploration in the Malay Basin. These reservoirs exhibit heterolithic interbedding with vertic
clear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging to help with the petrophysical evaluation of thin sand-shale laminations. NMR helps to 1) detect thin
 world's oil fields and aquifers are found in carbonate strata. Some of these formations contain vugs or cavities several centimeters in size. F
  Petroleum is a Petronas Carigali – Shell Malaysia joint operating company formed in 2001 operating since then the PM301 and PM302 ex
 lack of data a reservoir engineer needs to calibrate unknown petrophysical parameters based on production history. However because the

ances in multiscale methods have shown great promise in modeling multiphase flow in highly detailed heterogeneous domains.�Existing m
 irs in the Nile Delta of Egypt are characterized vertically by its thin beds of sands and shale and laterally by severe variations in facies. These
   often generate highly heterogeneous descriptions of reservoirs containing complex structures which are likely to give rise to very tortuous f
well testing started in about a decade ago. The technique was developed to tackle well testing problems in heterogeneous reservoirs. Integra
 ivity is quantified by fraction of connected pore volume between wells. Static heterogeneity is defined by Dykstra-Parson Coefficient Lorenz
bit heterolithic interbedding with vertical heterogeneity and a wide range of layer flow properties. This paper describes methods of real-time a
  inations. NMR helps to 1) detect thin beds 2) determine fluid type and if hydrocarbon is present 3) establish the hydrocarbon type and volu
 avities several centimeters in size. Flow of fluids through such rocks depends strongly upon the spatial distribution and connectivity of the vu
 since then the PM301 and PM302 exploration PSCs. The company enjoyed a 100% exploration success rate in the North Malay basin and i
uction history. However because the observations cannot constrain all the subsurface properties over a field production forecasts for reser

                                                                                     OnePetro
eterogeneous domains.�Existing multiscale methods however solve for the flow field (pressure and total-velocity) only. Once the fine-sca
  by severe variations in facies. These challenges in the static modeling have a strong impact in the dynamic modeling which can be summar
re likely to give rise to very tortuous flow paths. However these models contain too many grid cells for multiphase flow simulation and the nu
 in heterogeneous reservoirs. Integration of geoscience and well testing for improved fluvial reservoir characterisation was the first project of
 Dykstra-Parson Coefficient Lorenz Coefficient weighted by cell volume. �Two-phase streamline simulation is used to exam the dynamic
per describes methods of real-time and high-resolution formation evaluation and formation testing used to characterize such reservoirs. The
ablish the hydrocarbon type and volume and finally 4) determine the permeability of the sands (as opposed to that of the sand-shale system
distribution and connectivity of the vugs. Enhanced oil recovery processes such as enriched gas drives and groundwater remediation efforts
s rate in the North Malay basin and is now rapidly transitioning into a development venture.� A total of six discoveries were made since 2
 field production forecasts for reservoirs are essentially uncertain. In general many parameters of the model must be adjusted in the histo


 mic modeling which can be summarized in the following points. First the vertical sequence of sands and shale leads to the difficulty in detec
multiphase flow simulation and the number of cells must be reduced by upscaling for reservoir simulation. Conventional upscaling methods o
 aracterisation was the first project of this kind supported by the oil industry that time. When approaching non-unique solution problems in het
ulation is used to exam the dynamic performances and validate the SCH analysis. The impact of static modeling parameters on flow respon
 o characterize such reservoirs. The formation evaluation of thinly bedded reservoirs has several objectives: identify the layers that may co
 sed to that of the sand-shale system). Formation evaluation in thin sand-shale laminations starts with their detection. NMR vertical resolution
and groundwater remediation efforts like soil venting operations depend on the amount of hydrodynamic dispersion of such rocks. Selecting a
of six discoveries were made since 2002 within the PM301 block. The nature of these discoveries: modest size stacked pay fluvio-marine tr
 model must be adjusted in the history-matching process and the amount of computation required to solve the inverse problem may be pro


d shale leads to the difficulty in detecting a single gas-water contact in the field. Second the vertical heterogeneity leads to the use of fine gri
n. Conventional upscaling methods often have difficulty in the representation of tortuous flow paths mainly because of the inappropriate assu
 non-unique solution problems in heterogeneous reservoirs the traditional analytical approach based on the ideal reservoir conditions failed.
modeling parameters on flow responses is studied. Geological factors include net-to-gross (NTG) interbed connectivity intrabed heterogene
 ives: identify the layers that may contain hydrocarbons verify productivity and fluid types with formation testing and sampling calculate net
heir detection. NMR vertical resolution is mainly controlled by the antenna aperture that is in the case of a high-resolution antenna 6 in. or 1
  dispersion of such rocks. Selecting a representative scale to measure permeability and dispersivity in such rocks can be crucial because the
est size stacked pay fluvio-marine transitional geological setting high heterogeneity partially sub-seismic resolution creates a range of tech
olve the inverse problem may be prohibitive. To address this issue we proposed a new methodology which restricts the parameter ranges


erogeneity leads to the use of fine gridding especially in the vertical direction to accurately simulate the fluid flow in the reservoir. Third the la
nly because of the inappropriate assumptions concerning the boundary conditions. An accurate and practical upscaling method is therefore r
 the ideal reservoir conditions failed. An option to get an approximate solution for the problem is to solve the non-linear pressure diffusivity eq
bed connectivity intrabed heterogeneity and reservoir log cutoff. Intrabed heterogeneity is usually misrepresented due to maximum entropy a
n testing and sampling calculate net pay thickness and uncertainty range. The evaluation is complex because of bed geometry and lithology
  a high-resolution antenna 6 in. or 15 cm. Within that distance NMR tools will cumulatively measure all layers of shales and all layers of san
uch rocks can be crucial because the connected vug lengths can be longer than typical core diameters. Large touching vug (centimeter-scal
 ic resolution creates a range of technical and economical challenges. The application of a number of specific technologies notably to reser
which restricts the parameter ranges of the calibration by using physically based prior information extracted from geological and petrophysic


 uid flow in the reservoir. Third the lateral variation in facies forces to use different saturation functions at different parts of the reservoir. The
ctical upscaling method is therefore required to preserve the flow features caused by highly heterogeneous fine scale geological description.
  the non-linear pressure diffusivity equation through well test numerical modelling and simulation. Well test analysis and interpretation condu
presented due to maximum entropy assumption stationary assumption of geostatistics and upscaling. The intrabed heterogeneity is modele
ecause of bed geometry and lithology. The reservoir beds are often thinner than the resolution of the formation evaluation logs. They exhibit
layers of shales and all layers of sands regardless of their individual thicknesses. Because NMR relaxation time in shales is much faster than
 Large touching vug (centimeter-scale) Cretaceous carbonate rocks from an exposed rudist (caprinid) reef buildup at the Pipe Creek Outcro
pecific technologies notably to reservoir characterization are seen key to unlock the potential of these discovered volumes.� Technically
 cted from geological and petrophysical input. The aim of the work is to have a sound basis for forecasting uncertainty in reservoir productio


t different parts of the reservoir. The dynamic behavior of pressure and production performance from few wells (total seven wells) producing
us fine scale geological description. In this paper the problems encountered in routinely used upscaling approaches are outlined and a mo
est analysis and interpretation conducted on this basis is called numerical well testing. This technique has been proved through study and re
he intrabed heterogeneity is modeled by Vdp based permeability multiplier. The flow responses of these modeling factors are examined by a
mation evaluation logs. They exhibit a silty lithology and fine grain texture and require high quality borehole resistivity images to characterize
on time in shales is much faster than in the productive sands thin sand-shale laminations appear on NMR logs with the characteristic bimod
eef buildup at the Pipe Creek Outcrop in Central Texas were studied at three different scales. Single-phase airflow and gas-tracer experimen
scovered volumes.� Technically in the early stages the seismic attribute-based prediction of gas sand using a simultaneous inversion t
ng uncertainty in reservoir production. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology using quarter five-spot pattern waterflooding m


ew wells (total seven wells) producing from this field show severe vertical discrepancy in pressure gas and water production. This adds anoth
 g approaches are outlined and a more accurate and practical way of performing upscaling is proposed. The new upscaling method Well Dr
as been proved through study and research in the past few years to be an effective way to solve the problems not only for single phase flow
e modeling factors are examined by a D-optimal design. The study is applied to a shallow marine reservoir in the South Africa. The study indi
 ole resistivity images to characterize their geometry. The exploration well offers the best chance to evaluate the prospect but operational an
MR logs with the characteristic bimodal relaxation distribution. The thin laminations are often below the resolution of conventional logs that h
 ase airflow and gas-tracer experiments were conducted on 2.5 in. diameter by 5 in. long cores (core-scale) and 5- to 10-ft-radius well tests (f
 nd using a simultaneous inversion technique was the key enabler for exploration success allowing to map the presence of coal versus wat
 er five-spot pattern waterflooding models. The petrophysical properties to be adjusted in this paper are coarse-scale relative permeabilitie


nd water production. This adds another challenge in the dynamic modeling and leads to dividing the field into three main reservoirs that are c
 The new upscaling method Well Drive Upscaling (WDU) employs the wells and the actual reservoir boundary conditions (e.g. faults and p
oblems not only for single phase flow in heterogeneous formation but also for multi-phase (heterogeneous fluid properties) flow in heterogen
oir in the South Africa. The study indicates that SCH study is particularly useful
uate the prospect but operational and economical
resolution of conventional logs that have a typical vertical
ale) and 5- to 10-ft-radius well tests (field-scale). Zhang et al. (2005)
map the presence of coal versus water and gas sands. Now success through
e coarse-scale relative permeabilities. Coarse-scale models have


d into three main reservoirs that are compl
oundary conditions (e.g. faults and physical boundaries of the geological mod
ous fluid properties) flow in heterogeneous formation. Thi

								
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