CHAPTER IV


4.1    Introduction

       In this chapter, study will focus on the justification of methodology used to
collect the relevant data from the industry players. There are two stages of data
collection. Firstly, a pilot study in questionnaire form aims to obtain consent from
the industry regarding to the issues of important control of construction client in
project performance, and to identify the construction client attributes. Detail of the
pilot study that has been done and the result will be discussed in this chapter. Second
stage of data collection will involve another set of questionnaire which aims to
obtain the relative important of all the construction client attributes and following
with the evaluation to the construction client on the possession of necessary
attributes. Further discussion on the sampling of respondent and forming of second
questionnaire will be further discussed in this chapter. When all relevant data have
been collected, it will be analyzed, interpreted and presented in the appropriate form.

4.2    Methodology

       The best method to use to collect data from the industry players will be
setting of questionnaire survey, and distributing to them through postage or by hand,
as the survey mainly focused around Johor area. Due to the survey coverage area
limited to Johor state, interview session to some of the respondents are possible. A
semi-structure questionnaire has been set to gain more detail idea, especially self
opinion from the qualified respondents.

       Most of the construction client attributes listed in the chapter 3 was obtained
through literature review from previous researches done in oversea. To identify
whether these attributes are applicable and suited to our local industry environment,
a pilot study with forming a semi-structure questionnaire has been carried out to
obtain the opinion from qualified respondents. Few numbers of pre-qualified
respondents have been selected from different party such as architect firm,
engineering consultant and Construction Company, to answer to the semi structure

       When the identification of construction client attributes has been done,
further work to obtain the relative importance of each attribute and evaluation to
construction client in possessing the necessary attributes was proceeded. These were
to fulfill the third, fourth and fifth objective of this dissertation set in the chapter
one. To achieve the objectives, another questionnaire has been created and
forwarded to qualified respondents from a group of sample randomly selected from
the population. The sample needs to provide a good representation of the population.
Two sampling methods have been adopted for this survey, namely cluster sampling
and simple random sampling. Figure 4.1 chart the whole feature of the methodology
used to acquire necessary data.

                                                     Listing all the construction client
                      Literature Review               attributes obtained through the
                                                      previous researches done.

                                                     Create semi-structure questionnaire
                        Pilot Study                   and distribute to 5 pre-qualified
                                                      respondents to answer it.

                                                     Sample will be selected from
                         Sampling                     population in 2 methods which
                                                      include cluster sampling and
                                                      simple random sampling without

                       Questionnaire                 Another semi-structure
                        Distribution                  questionnaire set and distribute to
                                                      the sample of respondent selected.

                 Figure 4.1 Flow Chart of Data Collection Methodology

4.2.1   Pilot Study

        A pilot study has been carried out with the purpose to identify the
 construction client attributes that will affect the project performance in local
 construction industry. A list of the construction client attributes has been extracted
 from the journal done by oversea researchers such as Komenta et al, (1994) and
 Bresnen et al, (1991). Then it has been modified to add in additional attributes
 which the author and some of the industry professionals have agreed, as per figure
 3.2 in chapter three. A semi-structure questionnaire has been created as listed in
 Appendix A, to confirm the attributes are suitable and applicable in our local
 construction environment. This semi-structure questionnaire contains two parts
 where Part A is to get respondent’s background information especially year of
 experience in construction and the company type. Part B contained 4 questions

related to the importance of construction client and their aims for each question as
listed below:

      Question 1 aims to get consent from respondent regarding to the construction
       client as a main key person who will contribute significantly to project
       performance and how the client can affect it.

      Question 2 aims to list the important issue or attributes that construction
       client must have in order to achieve the successful project performance.

      Question 3 aims to let the respondent identify all the main attributes listed
       earlier are exactly and applicable attributes in our local construction industry.

      Question 4 aims similar to question 3 above, but tested on the sub-attributes
       which elaborated from the main attributes.

       Five pre-qualified respondents have been selected to answer the simple
questionnaire and then follow with short interview to each of the respondent, in
order to get clearer explanation. From five of the selected respondents, one was
architect; one was from consulting engineer and three from Construction Company.
They were selected through the working network of author, whom has a lot of
working experience in the industry. Average years of respondents’ experience in
construction industry are 17 years and they are from senior executive to director
category in their organization. Thus it shows the reliability of the information given
by respondents for this pilot study. Further discussion on result of the pilot study
will be in section 4.3.1 Result of Pilot Study.

4.2.2   Sampling

        There are many parties involved in construction industry. Thus the author
 needs to select respondent from different parties to contribute good representation
 of the population and more sensible data. The construction client who is the main
 key person was excluded from the respondent list, because this study aims to obtain
 opinion and need evaluation from other industry players toward construction client.
 So the author has targeted main respondents will be formed from architect,
 engineering consultant, construction company, quantity surveyor and land surveyor
 firm, material supplier and multi-disciplinary practice such as project management
 consultant, planner and etc. A cluster sampling has been adopted to obtain the
 contact list of different parties from the organization listed below:-

 1. Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia (PAM)
 2. Association of Consulting Engineer, Malaysia (ICEM)
 3. Construction Industry Development Board, Malaysia (CIDB)
 4. Master Builders Association Malaysia (MBAM)
 5. Building Materials Distributors Association of Malaysia (BMDAM)
 6. The Board of Quantity Surveyors Malaysia (LJBM)

Besides the source from above organization, author has obtained the additional list
through the working network, because the survey only limited within Johor state
area and not all firms will be registered with the above organization (i.e. engineering
consultant firm).

        In second stage of sampling, one hundred respondents were selected with
adopting simple random sampling without replacement method, to the contact list
from cluster sampling. The detail breakdown of each type of sample as listed in the
table 4.1 below.

                         Table 4.1 Breakdown Sample Type

                           Type of sample                  Percentage
             Architect Firm                                   30%
             Construction Company                             30%
             Engineering Consultant                           15%
             Quantity Surveyor / Land Surveyor Firm           15%
             Material Supplier                                 5%
             Multi-Disciplinary Practice / Others              5%
             Total                                            100%

4.2.3   Questionnaire Survey

        A formal questionnaire had been formed as attached in APPENDIX B to
obtain the data from the industry players. There were three major sections in this
questionnaire to acquire the necessary information. Section-A aims to obtain
information on the background of both the respondent and the respondent’s
company. This was to make sure that qualified respondents were being chosen to
give reliable data for this dissertation.

        The Section-B contained three questions, which aim to obtain the relative
important of the construction client’s main attributes and sub-attributes, which will
affect the construction project performance. The first and second question required
respondent to scale each of the main and sub attributes. A Rikert scale of 1 to 7 were
used to measure the importance of each attribute, where “1” represent the lowest
level of importance and “7” a very important level. Third question, the respondents
were asked on their opinion, to list the first three most important main attributes
found in question one and follow with individual explanatory. The purpose of this

subjective question is not to make ranking against the main attributes but is to gather
individual opinion on the attributes.

          The section-C aim to evaluate the current local construction client, whether
they possess the necessary attributes which will enable them to establish their
organization and ability to accomplish the project development with successful
project performance. A descriptive statement which incorporated the main attributes
and sub attributes from the earlier questions were listed, and respondents were
required to rate the degree of consent of each statement, with the rikert scale from 1
to 7, where 1 represent very disagree and 7 represent very agree.

          100 questionnaires were posted to the selected sample list on 1st of December
2004, with a cover letter. All selected respondents were given 20 days duration to
fill up the questionnaire that is deemed to be sufficient time for them to complete
and return the questionnaire with the attached pre-stamped envelope.

4.3       Data Collection and Analysis

4.3.1 Result of Pilot Study

All respondents agreed that construction client as a main key person who will
contribute significantly to the project performance during the construction cycle.
The summary of respondent’s comments on how construction client will contribute
significantly to a project performance as listed below:-

         Client’s decision making must be firm, fast and correct, in order to ensure the
          project can move smoothly.

      Client must make payment on time to ensure smooth work progress by
       contractor, and consultant will pay more attention to the project concerned.
      Client must always monitor the project from design till construction and
       completion with the necessary authorities’ approval to sell or use for the
       product he develops.
      Client should have certain level of construction knowledge and understand
       the authorities’ requirements.
      Client should be innovation acceptance, in order to improve project quality.
      A strong client (financial) will make contractor feel secure and will give their
       best to the project, and reduce the errors and mistakes.

Summary of respondents’ opinion in the important issues or necessary attributes
that a client must possess to achieve successful project performance as listed below:

      Decision making
      Cash flow
      Prompt payment
      Listen to all parties and discuss the issue openly
      Project monitoring
      Problem solving
      Environmentally responsible
      Good knowledge, mature thinking
      Confident in consultant, not interfere and influence too much of consultant
      Be fair to all.

The numbers of respondent agree on the main attributes that are considered will
affect project performance, as listed in table 4.2 below. Only one respondent
disagree with the utilizing of advance facilities/tools as a main attribute because he

considered it may incur substantial cost which are considered not that important.
However, majority of the respondents have identified these are the main attribute
that client should emphasize on.

           Table 4.2 Identification of Main Attributes from Respondent

                                                          Number of respondent
                      Main Attributes
                                                            YES            NO
 Client Characteristics                                       5              0
 Client's Organization quality                                5              0
 Client past experience                                       5              0
 Client financial stability                                   5              0
 Client's duties                                              5              0
 Client past performance                                      5              0
 Client attitude toward project development                   5              0
 Client management quality                                    5              0
 Client utilizing of advance facilities/tools                 4              1

The numbers of respondent agree on the sub attributes elaborated from each main
attribute, that are considered will affect project performance, as listed in the table
4.3. The result shows some of the respondents have selected answer “No” for the
sub attributes. However majority respondent which three over five people still
recognized that all sub attributes listed are correct.

            Table 4.3 Identification of Sub Attributes from Respondent

                                                           Number of respondent
                      Main Attributes
                                                            YES             NO
 Type of client organization, e.g. public/private             5              0
 Size of client organization                                  4              1

Other core business activities                     3   2
Client's goodwill                                  5   0
Organization structure                             5   0
Culture of organization                            5   0
Coordination of people interfaces                  4   1
Allocation of project responsibilities             4   1
Number of construction project involved            4   1
Experience of personnel                            5   0
Involvement of construction activities             3   2
Type of project involved                           4   1
Credit worthiness                                  5   0
Current liabilities                                5   0
Solvency of client                                 5   0
Current asset                                      3   2
Setting of project definition & objectives         4   1
Seeking project finance (end/bridging financing)   5   0
Project implementation & management                5   0
Handling of political & social issue               4   1
Success & failure projects                         4   1
Cost overrun for previous project                  4   1
Time overrun for previous project                  4   1
Project quality achieved                           5   0
Process - oriented                                 4   1
Result – oriented                                  4   1
Commitment & support                               5   0
Willingness to accept professional advice          5   0
Qualification of personnel                         4   1
Project management knowledge                       5   0
Implement quality assurance system e.g. ISO        3   2
Project auditing                                   4   1
Project management software                        3   2
Investment in hardware & instrument                3   2
Information technology                             3   2
Electronic database                                3   2

Conclusion of the pilot study:

        The pilot study has succeeded to identify the construction client attributes.
Majority of the professionals agreed that attributes list are correct. However for
those attributes which only scored 3 polls upon 5, interview session with them found
that they actually feel all attributes listed are right, but some of it was less important
if compared to others. That was the reason they had selected the answer “NO”. So
the author can conclude that all of the main and sub attributes have been tested to
local construction professionals and find applicable to be used as construction client
attributes which will affect a construction project performance.

4.3.2   Response of Questionnaire Survey

        Total of 100 questionnaires had been sent to the sample of respondent, and
only 25 were returned with complete answered, this was giving a response rate of 25
%. Two incomplete questionnaires were received, and cannot be used for analysis.
Telephone calls had been made to the respondents, who have not yet replied, but
various excuses were given by them and most common excuses were:

“Regretfully as the Manager is very busy and do not have time to answer for the

“The competent person to fill the questionnaire is not available”

        The response of local construction industry was not encouraging, but it was
still fall within the expected response rate of 20-30%. Table 4.4 shows the summary
of responses from this questionnaire survey.

                Table 4.4 Response from the Questionnaire Survey
                                        Number                    Percentage %

Number of replies received                 27                          27%
Number of usable replies                   25                          25%

Note: 100 sets of questionnaire sent

4.3.3   Result of Questionnaire Survey

        In section A of the questionnaire, the profile of the respondent was asked for
record, however it is not compulsory to the respondent to give their full detail. Three
compulsory questions had been asked to verify the eligibility of the respondent. The
questions were:

   1. Which of the following company background most accurately describes your
   2. How long your company has involved in construction industry and how
        many current projects are ongoing now?
   3. What is the average value of the construction cost per project, that your
        company takes part?

        Table 4.5 shows the breakdown number of the 25 respondents’ company
background. The construction company has become the major data contributor
which a total of 10 numbers have been received. Second is engineering consultant
with 6 numbers, architect firm and surveyor with 4 numbers each, and lastly supplier
with 1 only. Figure 4.2 will show the percentage of each type of organization in
contributing to the database.

                 Table 4.5 Respondents' Company Background
                                                             Number of Respondent
              Type of Organization
                                                              Sent                   Replied
     Architect Firm                                             30                     4
     Construction Company                                       30                     10
     Engineering Consultant                                     15                     6
     Quantity Surveyor/Land Surveyor                            15                     4
     Material Supplier                                              5                  1
     Multi-Disciplinary Practice/Others                             5                  0
     Total                                                     100                     25

                             Respondents' Com pany Background:

                                       Material     Disciplinary
                                       Supplier   Practice/Others
                      Quantity           4%              0%
                   Surveyor/Land                                    Architect Firm
                     Surveyor                                           16%

                         Consultant                                 Construction
                            24%                                      Company

                  Figure 4.2 Percentage of Type of Organization

       The experience of respondents’ company involved in construction industry
was range from minimum 3 years to maximum 30 years, which showing the
respondents were from very wide range of young company to very old experienced
company. The average year of experience was 13.2 years and mode was 20 years.
All the respondents are considered actively involved in construction industry as
average 10 numbers of current projects are on going for each company. All
respondents also replied that average value of the construction cost per project, that
their company takes part is above Ringgit Malaysia one million. These three criteria
are fulfilled the selection of eligible respondent, where the respondents are dealing

with moderate to big size of Client Company; actively involved in construction with
secure more then 3 current projects; and possess more than 3 years experience in
local construction industry. Table 4.6 shows the experience of respondents’
company involved in construction industry and number of current project that the
companies have taken part.

   Table 4.6 Year of Company Experience and Number of Current Projects
       Variable Data          Year of experience      Number of current Projects
Range from Min. to Max.              3 to 30                      3 to 30
Average                                13.2                           10.4
Mode                                    20                            10

       In section B of the questionnaire survey, respondents were asked to scale the
importance of the 9 main attributes and 36 sub attributes highlighted earlier. The
relative importance of the 9 main attributes affecting the project performance was
assessed separately while the sub-attributes were assessed under their respective
main attributes. The importance index will be based on formulae below:

       Relative important index =     ∑µ
Where, µ is weighting given to each factor by respondents;
       A is the highest weight (based on Likert scale used i.e. 7);
       N is the total number of respondent.

       The relative important index ranges from 0 to 1, and Figure 4.3 is showing
the nominal scale used for analyzing the scoring of attributes given by the
respondent. There are three categories which are whatever attributes score equal or
lower than 3 will indicate a weak effect on project performance; scores 4 means at
moderate level and 5 or above will indicate a strong effect on project performance.

                   1         2   3                 4           5      6     7

             Score <3 indicate             Moderate           Score> 5 indicate
             weak effect on                effect             strong effect on
             performance                                      performance

                                     Figure 4.3 Nominal Scale 1

          The ranking for the 9 main attributes based on the individual relative
important scored, are shown in the Table 4.7. Client financial stability ranked the
first most important attribute, followed by client attitude toward project
development. Although the client management quality, client characteristic and
client organization quality ranked third, fourth and fifth respectively, but the
percentage of respondent scoring are same for three of them, which 8% of the
respondents rate it 4 and 92% of respondents rate it 5 and above. The client’s
performance of their duties, client past experience and client past performance are
ranked sixth, seventh and eighth respectively and lastly the client utilizing of
advance facilities and tools.

   Table 4.7 Ranking of Client’s Main Attributes Affect Project Performance.

                                        Relative                   Number / percentage of respondent
     Client Main Attributes            Importance      Rank                      rating
                                         Index                     ≤3             4             ≥5
Client financial stability               0.926          1      0    0.0%     1     4.0%    24    96.0%
Client attitude toward project
development                              0.863          2      0    0.0%     0     0.0%    25   100.0%
Client management quality                0.840          3      0    0.0%     2     8.0%    23    92.0%
Client Characteristics                   0.834          4      0    0.0%     2     8.0%    23    92.0%
Client's Organization quality            0.829          5      0    0.0%     2     8.0%    23    92.0%
Client's duties                          0.789          6      0    0.0%     4     16.0%   21    84.0%
Client past experience                   0.754          7      2    8.0%     4     16.0%   19    76.0%
Client past performance                  0.754          8      3    12.0%    3     12.0%   19    76.0%
Client utilizing of advance
facilities/tools                         0.697          9      4    16.0%    5     20.0%   16    64.0%

         Table 4.8 is showing the important index of each sub attributes and will be
listed under its main attribute, according to their ranking. The sub attribute for client
attitude toward project development, willingness of client to accept professional
advice and the commitment & support from client have obtained equal relative
important index and also the highest index scoring among all the sub attributes,
which is 0.897. Thus the ranking will be based on the percentage of respondent
scoring 5 and above.

           Table 4.8 Ranking of Sub Attributes Under Its Main Attributes

                                                             Number / % of Respondent Rating
        Attributes / Sub Attributes                  Rank
                                            R.I.I.               ≤3          4              ≥5
Client Financial Stability
Credit worthiness                           0.863      1     1    4%     2       8%    22    88%
Solvency of client                          0.851      2     0    0%     2       8%    23    92%
Current liabilities                         0.846      3     1    4%     1       4%    23    92%
Current asset                               0.749      4     3    12%    5       20%   17    68%

Client Attitude Toward Project
Willingness to accept professional advice   0.897*     1     0    0%     0       0%    25    100%
Commitment & support                        0.897*     2     0    0%     1       4%    24    96%
Result - oriented                           0.806      3     1    4%     3       12%   21    84%
Process - oriented                          0.743      4     1    4%     7       28%   17    68%

Client Management Quality
Project management knowledge                0.840      1     1    4%     1       4%    23    92%
Qualification of personnel                  0.760      2     0    0%     6       24%   19    76%
Project auditing                            0.657      3     5    20%    7       28%   13    52%
Implement quality assurance system e.g.
ISO                                         0.651      4     6    24%    4       16%   15    60%

Client Characteristics
Client's goodwill                           0.811      1     0    0%     4       16%   21    84%
Type of client organization, e.g.
public/private                              0.794      2     1    4%     3       12%   21    84%

Size of client organization                  0.646   3   4    16%   9    36%   12       48%
Other core business activities               0.560   4   10   40%   8    32%   7        28%

Client Organization Quality
Coordination of people interfaces            0.857   1   0    0%    1    4%    24       96%
Allocation of project responsibilities       0.846   2   0    0%    2    8%    23       92%
Culture of organization                      0.783   3   0    0%    3    12%   22       88%
Organization structure                       0.771   4   2    8%    3    12%   20       80%

Client Duties
Setting of project definition & objectives   0.851   1   1    4%    1    4%    23       92%
Seeking project finance (end/bridging
financing)                                   0.834   2   0    0%    2    8%    23       92%
Project implementation & management          0.806   3   0    0%    2    8%    23       92%
Handling of political & social issue         0.703   4   2    8%    10   40%   13       52%

Client Past Experience
Experience of personnel                      0.840   1   1    4%    2    8%    22       88%
Involvement of construction activities       0.754   2   0    0%    5    20%   20       80%
Type of project involved                     0.749   3   0    0%    6    24%   19       76%
Number of construction project involved      0.714   4   3    12%   6    24%   16       64%

Client Past Performance
Project quality achieved                     0.800   1   0    0%    5    20%   20       80%
Success & failure projects                   0.777   2   2    8%    5    20%   18       72%
Cost overrun for previous project            0.760   3   1    4%    5    20%   19       76%
Time overrun for previous project            0.754   4   1    4%    5    20%   19       76%

Client Utilizing of Advance Tools /
Information technology                       0.669   1   5    20%   5    20%   15       60%
Project management software                  0.663   2   3    12%   9    36%   13       52%
Investment in hardware & instrument          0.634   3   7    28%   5    20%   13       52%
Electronic database                          0.629   4   6    24%   8    32%   11       44%

* Equal relative importance indices ranked in accordance with percentage of
respondents scoring 5 and above.

        Third question in section B, respondents were required, in their own opinion
to select three of the most important attributes, from nine main attributes listed in
question 1, and put in priority. Then they were required to give short explanation of
their selection. However, most of the questionnaires received, the respondents had
only listed three main attributes without further explanation. Only few respondents
have given their explanation. The financial stability emerged as the most important
attributes with 16 people have selected it as first priority. Some respondents have
given reason that client financial stability is crucial as from their experience, most of
the abandoned projects were due to financial problem, and without sufficient fund
nothing can be done. A strong financial backup can give confident to all project
team members to work harder and contribute the best effort to project. Besides that,
client can engage more experienced and competence consultant or contractor to
carry the design and construction work. It should be expected a better project
performance for the client with strong financial ability. Table 4.9 showing the result
of priority vote to the first three most important client’s main attributes as listed
earlier. In Table 4.10 lists all the explanation given by the respondents based on
further interview session with them, to obtain the reason of important of each

         Table 4.9 Priority Vote for First Three Most Important Client’s
                                        Main Attributes
                                                       Priority vote of respondent
                      Main Attribute
                                                       First    Second     Third
        Client financial stability                        16       4          1
        Client attitude toward project development        3        5          4
        Client's Organization quality                     3        1          5
        Client Characteristics                            2        1          2
        Client management quality                         1        5          6
        Client past performance                           0        4          2
        Client's duties                                   0        2          5
        Client past experience                            0        2          0
        Client utilizing of advance facilities/tools      0        1          0
        Total respondent                                  25      25         25

Table 4.10 List of Respondents Explanation of Importance for Each Attribute

No.   Client main attributes                       Explanation of importance
1     Client financial stability   1. Strong cash flow can ensure work run smoothly.
                                   2. Based on past experience, most of projects were shelved
                                       / abandoned due to financial problem.
                                   3. Financially strong may give confidence to full teams.
                                   4. Can engaged experience / quality contractor / consultant.
                                   5. Nothing can be done without financial support.
                                   6. With sound financial status, client has more command
                                       and will have more contractors to choose and full
                                       support will be given by consultant, contractor and
2     Client attitude toward       1. Right attitude will lead to right direction to complete the
      project development              works.
                                   2. Client attitude should be helpful, cooperative and
                                       sympathetic toward his contractors, and must be
                                       reasonable and fair in all dealings.
                                   3. Committed client will give immediate responses for all
                                       queries, to ensure project run smoothly and hence
                                       increase the efficiency of project.
                                   4. Correct client attitude will create a good working
                                       environment and build up team spirit.
3     Client's organization        1. Good organization quality will attract more business
      quality                          opportunity and people have confident to deal with the
                                   2. Good planning is important in affecting the project
                                       implementation, thus a good leader who has much
                                       experience in project implementation will help project
4     Client Characteristics       1. Client commitment towards project development
                                       compare to other core business.
                                   2. Well recognized company (goodwill) will ease the
                                       process of getting approval and running any kind of

5   Client management          1. Good management quality will ensure works run
    quality                         systematically and according to specification and
                               2. May ensure that project objective to be achieved.
                               3. Good and right people will help to deliver project.
                               4. Good management will have higher efficiency of works.
6   Client past performance    1. As indicative sign for smoothness in construction and
                                    payment. Hence to give confident to all people.
                               2. Review the past project can ensure the success of project
                                    and learn from all mistake / experience.
                               3. Past Performance will lead a better future performance
                                    and good track record will draw more potential clients.
7   Client's duties            1. Client most important duty is to fund the project. A
                                    prompt progress payment lighten contractor burden and
                                    avoid contractor run into cash flow problems hence
                                    cutting corners in work.
                               2. Responsible client will always provide improvement /
                                    upgrade the previous completed project.
                               3. Client must set very clear objectives what they want;
                                    financial allocation before starting any project is needed.
                                    Some social problem such as squatters problem will
                                    need political influence to resolve the issue, thus client
                                    handling of political and social issue are very important.
8   Client past experience     1. Without experience, client will have no alternative but to
                                    accept the advice right or wrong from consultants and
                                    contractors. With experience personnel, project will
                                    efficiently managed and they can foresee the problems
                                    ahead and necessary rectification can be done earlier.
                               2.   Good past experience, will estimate accurately in
                                    planning of workforces required, machineries and
                                    schedule of material delivery, defect work will be
                                    substantially reduced.
                               3. Immediate decision can be given with part experience.
9   Client utilizing of        1. Good IT network will help to ease working process.
    advance facilities/tools   2. Communication process will be much easier and

        In section C, respondents were required to evaluate the current construction
client in possessing the necessary attributes. Nine statements which incorporated all
main and sub attributes have been listed. The respondents need to rate their degree
of consent of each statement. A scale from 1 to 7, where 1 represent very disagree
and increasingly to 7, which showing very agree with the statement. Average
scoring of each statement with range from 1 to 7, representing the current client in
possessing the necessary attributes, where 1 is the lowest rate of and 7 the highest
rate. Below is the formula used to calculate the average scoring and figure 4.4
showing the nominal scale to rate the construction client in possessing the necessary

        Average Scoring = Σ µ              where,
                              ---------     µ is the rating given by each respondent,
                                 N           N is the total respondent i.e. 25.

                    1     2       3           4             5     6      7

              Score <3 very poor          Moderate          Score> 5 very good
              in possessing               rate in           in possessing
              necessary attribute         possessing        necessary attribute

                                      Figure 4.4 Nominal Scale 2

        Result showing that only one main attribute obtain average score of five and
above, which is client have positive attitude toward project development with giving
full support and high level of commitment in solving problem and decision making.
However, only one attribute’s average scoring below 4, which is clients nowadays
are not fully equipped themselves with advance technology tools or keen to invest in

hardware and software to assist in project management. The rest of the attributes’
average scoring were in between 4 to 5, which showing that most of the respondent
feel the current client only deserve moderate or slightly above moderate rate in
possessing the necessary attributes. Table 4.11 showing the average scoring and
percentage of respondent rating in three categories (i.e. 3 and below; 4; 5 and above)
for each statement, which evaluates the client capability of possesses the needed

 Table 4.11 Evaluation of Current Construction Client in Possessing Necessary

     Evaluation of Current Construction           Average    Number & % of Respondent Rating
                     Client                       Scoring        ≤3             4              ≥5
1.   Most of the clients now have well
established reputation. They are strong and        4.84      2        8%   8        32%   15    60%
exist over a long period and actively
involve in the local construction industry.

2.   Most of the clients that you are dealing
with, possess good quality of organization         4.80      0        0%   13       52%   12    48%
structure, by means of they have complete
organization structure, good organization
culture, clear responsibility allocation of
each staff and well coordinated among the
people interfaces.

3.   Most of the clients now possess good
experience in the similar construction             4.96      2        8%   7        28%   16    64%
project, and actively involve during the
project cycle, and they are well versa in the
matters pertaining to the construction.
4.   Most of the clients that you are dealing
with are financially strong. They are rich in      4.68      5    20%      4        16%   16    64%
current asset and very solvent to meet any
due liabilities and they possess high credit

5.   Most of the clients that you are dealing
with are well carried out their duties and             4.60   5    20%   7   28%   13   52%
responsibilities. They have set clear and
good project definition and objective,
sourcing for finance, effectively handling
of political and social issue, to ensure the
project implementation successful.
6.   Most of the clients that you are dealing
with have positive attitude and giving full            5.00   3    12%   4   16%   18   72%
support to making the project success.
They have high level of commitment and
cooperative in solving problem and making
decision. They are effective in project
monitoring either with process or result
7.   Most of the clients that you are dealing
with, have good record of past project                 4.80   2    8%    6   24%   17   68%
performance.          Based   on     your     client
company background study, you found
most of them had achieved numerous
successful project performances in terms of
the basic performance measurement of
cost, time and quality.
8.   Most of the clients that you are dealing
with possess good management quality, by               4.60   4    16%   9   36%   12   48%
way      of   their     experience    in    project
management, employing high qualification
personnel       to      management          project,
implementing quality assurance system to
control product quality and effective
project auditing.
9.   Most of the clients that you are dealing
with, keen to invest in hardware and                   3.52   15   60%   4   16%   6    24%
software to assist in project management.
They use software in monitor work
progress, utilizing the IT to enhance
communication and electronic database for
recording, analysis and reporting.

4.4    Summary

       Data collection for the construction client attributes had been carried out by
two stages, which include a pilot study and a questionnaire survey. The pilot study
had successfully identified and tested the 9 main attributes and 36 sub attributes
were applicable in local construction industry. The response of questionnaire survey
in local construction is not very encouraging, as only 25% response rate. However it
was still within the expected response rate of 20% to 30%. The major data
contributor was Construction Company. Based on data analysis with relative
important index formula, the client financial stability rank first with obtained 0.926.
Then client attitude toward project development rank second and third was the client
management quality. In the evaluation part of current construction client in
possessing the necessary attributes, overall respondents were agreed that most of the
clients that they were dealing with have positive attitude and giving full support to
making the project success. Besides that, overall respondents feel that current client
only achieved moderate rate or slightly above moderate rate in possessing the
necessary attributes such as financial stability, quality of organization, experience in
construction industry, client perform duties, past project performance, management
quality and establishment of company reputation. However, overall respondents
were felt that most of the client lack of interest to invest in advance tools and
facilities to assist in project management. The questionnaire set for pilot study and
questionnaire survey have achieved the three objectives of this study which included
identification of various construction client’s attributes and sub attributes; to
establish relative importance index and evaluate the current construction client in
possessing the necessary important attributes.

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