CHAPTER IV DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Introduction In this chapter, study will focus on the justification of methodology used to collect the relevant data from the industry players. There are two stages of data collection. Firstly, a pilot study in questionnaire form aims to obtain consent from the industry regarding to the issues of important control of construction client in project performance, and to identify the construction client attributes. Detail of the pilot study that has been done and the result will be discussed in this chapter. Second stage of data collection will involve another set of questionnaire which aims to obtain the relative important of all the construction client attributes and following with the evaluation to the construction client on the possession of necessary attributes. Further discussion on the sampling of respondent and forming of second questionnaire will be further discussed in this chapter. When all relevant data have been collected, it will be analyzed, interpreted and presented in the appropriate form. 50 4.2 Methodology The best method to use to collect data from the industry players will be setting of questionnaire survey, and distributing to them through postage or by hand, as the survey mainly focused around Johor area. Due to the survey coverage area limited to Johor state, interview session to some of the respondents are possible. A semi-structure questionnaire has been set to gain more detail idea, especially self opinion from the qualified respondents. Most of the construction client attributes listed in the chapter 3 was obtained through literature review from previous researches done in oversea. To identify whether these attributes are applicable and suited to our local industry environment, a pilot study with forming a semi-structure questionnaire has been carried out to obtain the opinion from qualified respondents. Few numbers of pre-qualified respondents have been selected from different party such as architect firm, engineering consultant and Construction Company, to answer to the semi structure questionnaire. When the identification of construction client attributes has been done, further work to obtain the relative importance of each attribute and evaluation to construction client in possessing the necessary attributes was proceeded. These were to fulfill the third, fourth and fifth objective of this dissertation set in the chapter one. To achieve the objectives, another questionnaire has been created and forwarded to qualified respondents from a group of sample randomly selected from the population. The sample needs to provide a good representation of the population. Two sampling methods have been adopted for this survey, namely cluster sampling and simple random sampling. Figure 4.1 chart the whole feature of the methodology used to acquire necessary data. 51 Listing all the construction client Literature Review attributes obtained through the previous researches done. Create semi-structure questionnaire Pilot Study and distribute to 5 pre-qualified respondents to answer it. Sample will be selected from Sampling population in 2 methods which include cluster sampling and simple random sampling without replacement. Questionnaire Another semi-structure Distribution questionnaire set and distribute to the sample of respondent selected. Figure 4.1 Flow Chart of Data Collection Methodology 4.2.1 Pilot Study A pilot study has been carried out with the purpose to identify the construction client attributes that will affect the project performance in local construction industry. A list of the construction client attributes has been extracted from the journal done by oversea researchers such as Komenta et al, (1994) and Bresnen et al, (1991). Then it has been modified to add in additional attributes which the author and some of the industry professionals have agreed, as per figure 3.2 in chapter three. A semi-structure questionnaire has been created as listed in Appendix A, to confirm the attributes are suitable and applicable in our local construction environment. This semi-structure questionnaire contains two parts where Part A is to get respondent’s background information especially year of experience in construction and the company type. Part B contained 4 questions 52 related to the importance of construction client and their aims for each question as listed below: Question 1 aims to get consent from respondent regarding to the construction client as a main key person who will contribute significantly to project performance and how the client can affect it. Question 2 aims to list the important issue or attributes that construction client must have in order to achieve the successful project performance. Question 3 aims to let the respondent identify all the main attributes listed earlier are exactly and applicable attributes in our local construction industry. Question 4 aims similar to question 3 above, but tested on the sub-attributes which elaborated from the main attributes. Five pre-qualified respondents have been selected to answer the simple questionnaire and then follow with short interview to each of the respondent, in order to get clearer explanation. From five of the selected respondents, one was architect; one was from consulting engineer and three from Construction Company. They were selected through the working network of author, whom has a lot of working experience in the industry. Average years of respondents’ experience in construction industry are 17 years and they are from senior executive to director category in their organization. Thus it shows the reliability of the information given by respondents for this pilot study. Further discussion on result of the pilot study will be in section 4.3.1 Result of Pilot Study. 53 4.2.2 Sampling There are many parties involved in construction industry. Thus the author needs to select respondent from different parties to contribute good representation of the population and more sensible data. The construction client who is the main key person was excluded from the respondent list, because this study aims to obtain opinion and need evaluation from other industry players toward construction client. So the author has targeted main respondents will be formed from architect, engineering consultant, construction company, quantity surveyor and land surveyor firm, material supplier and multi-disciplinary practice such as project management consultant, planner and etc. A cluster sampling has been adopted to obtain the contact list of different parties from the organization listed below:- 1. Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia (PAM) 2. Association of Consulting Engineer, Malaysia (ICEM) 3. Construction Industry Development Board, Malaysia (CIDB) 4. Master Builders Association Malaysia (MBAM) 5. Building Materials Distributors Association of Malaysia (BMDAM) 6. The Board of Quantity Surveyors Malaysia (LJBM) Besides the source from above organization, author has obtained the additional list through the working network, because the survey only limited within Johor state area and not all firms will be registered with the above organization (i.e. engineering consultant firm). In second stage of sampling, one hundred respondents were selected with adopting simple random sampling without replacement method, to the contact list from cluster sampling. The detail breakdown of each type of sample as listed in the table 4.1 below. 54 Table 4.1 Breakdown Sample Type Type of sample Percentage Architect Firm 30% Construction Company 30% Engineering Consultant 15% Quantity Surveyor / Land Surveyor Firm 15% Material Supplier 5% Multi-Disciplinary Practice / Others 5% Total 100% 4.2.3 Questionnaire Survey A formal questionnaire had been formed as attached in APPENDIX B to obtain the data from the industry players. There were three major sections in this questionnaire to acquire the necessary information. Section-A aims to obtain information on the background of both the respondent and the respondent’s company. This was to make sure that qualified respondents were being chosen to give reliable data for this dissertation. The Section-B contained three questions, which aim to obtain the relative important of the construction client’s main attributes and sub-attributes, which will affect the construction project performance. The first and second question required respondent to scale each of the main and sub attributes. A Rikert scale of 1 to 7 were used to measure the importance of each attribute, where “1” represent the lowest level of importance and “7” a very important level. Third question, the respondents were asked on their opinion, to list the first three most important main attributes found in question one and follow with individual explanatory. The purpose of this 55 subjective question is not to make ranking against the main attributes but is to gather individual opinion on the attributes. The section-C aim to evaluate the current local construction client, whether they possess the necessary attributes which will enable them to establish their organization and ability to accomplish the project development with successful project performance. A descriptive statement which incorporated the main attributes and sub attributes from the earlier questions were listed, and respondents were required to rate the degree of consent of each statement, with the rikert scale from 1 to 7, where 1 represent very disagree and 7 represent very agree. 100 questionnaires were posted to the selected sample list on 1st of December 2004, with a cover letter. All selected respondents were given 20 days duration to fill up the questionnaire that is deemed to be sufficient time for them to complete and return the questionnaire with the attached pre-stamped envelope. 4.3 Data Collection and Analysis 4.3.1 Result of Pilot Study QUESTION 1: All respondents agreed that construction client as a main key person who will contribute significantly to the project performance during the construction cycle. The summary of respondent’s comments on how construction client will contribute significantly to a project performance as listed below:- Client’s decision making must be firm, fast and correct, in order to ensure the project can move smoothly. 56 Client must make payment on time to ensure smooth work progress by contractor, and consultant will pay more attention to the project concerned. Client must always monitor the project from design till construction and completion with the necessary authorities’ approval to sell or use for the product he develops. Client should have certain level of construction knowledge and understand the authorities’ requirements. Client should be innovation acceptance, in order to improve project quality. A strong client (financial) will make contractor feel secure and will give their best to the project, and reduce the errors and mistakes. QUESTION 2: Summary of respondents’ opinion in the important issues or necessary attributes that a client must possess to achieve successful project performance as listed below: Decision making Cash flow Prompt payment Listen to all parties and discuss the issue openly Project monitoring Problem solving Environmentally responsible Good knowledge, mature thinking Confident in consultant, not interfere and influence too much of consultant decision Be fair to all. QUESTION 3: The numbers of respondent agree on the main attributes that are considered will affect project performance, as listed in table 4.2 below. Only one respondent disagree with the utilizing of advance facilities/tools as a main attribute because he 57 considered it may incur substantial cost which are considered not that important. However, majority of the respondents have identified these are the main attribute that client should emphasize on. Table 4.2 Identification of Main Attributes from Respondent Number of respondent Main Attributes YES NO Client Characteristics 5 0 Client's Organization quality 5 0 Client past experience 5 0 Client financial stability 5 0 Client's duties 5 0 Client past performance 5 0 Client attitude toward project development 5 0 Client management quality 5 0 Client utilizing of advance facilities/tools 4 1 QUESTION 4: The numbers of respondent agree on the sub attributes elaborated from each main attribute, that are considered will affect project performance, as listed in the table 4.3. The result shows some of the respondents have selected answer “No” for the sub attributes. However majority respondent which three over five people still recognized that all sub attributes listed are correct. Table 4.3 Identification of Sub Attributes from Respondent Number of respondent Main Attributes YES NO Type of client organization, e.g. public/private 5 0 Size of client organization 4 1 58 Other core business activities 3 2 Client's goodwill 5 0 Organization structure 5 0 Culture of organization 5 0 Coordination of people interfaces 4 1 Allocation of project responsibilities 4 1 Number of construction project involved 4 1 Experience of personnel 5 0 Involvement of construction activities 3 2 Type of project involved 4 1 Credit worthiness 5 0 Current liabilities 5 0 Solvency of client 5 0 Current asset 3 2 Setting of project definition & objectives 4 1 Seeking project finance (end/bridging financing) 5 0 Project implementation & management 5 0 Handling of political & social issue 4 1 Success & failure projects 4 1 Cost overrun for previous project 4 1 Time overrun for previous project 4 1 Project quality achieved 5 0 Process - oriented 4 1 Result – oriented 4 1 Commitment & support 5 0 Willingness to accept professional advice 5 0 Qualification of personnel 4 1 Project management knowledge 5 0 Implement quality assurance system e.g. ISO 3 2 Project auditing 4 1 Project management software 3 2 Investment in hardware & instrument 3 2 Information technology 3 2 Electronic database 3 2 59 Conclusion of the pilot study: The pilot study has succeeded to identify the construction client attributes. Majority of the professionals agreed that attributes list are correct. However for those attributes which only scored 3 polls upon 5, interview session with them found that they actually feel all attributes listed are right, but some of it was less important if compared to others. That was the reason they had selected the answer “NO”. So the author can conclude that all of the main and sub attributes have been tested to local construction professionals and find applicable to be used as construction client attributes which will affect a construction project performance. 4.3.2 Response of Questionnaire Survey Total of 100 questionnaires had been sent to the sample of respondent, and only 25 were returned with complete answered, this was giving a response rate of 25 %. Two incomplete questionnaires were received, and cannot be used for analysis. Telephone calls had been made to the respondents, who have not yet replied, but various excuses were given by them and most common excuses were: “Regretfully as the Manager is very busy and do not have time to answer for the questionnaire” “The competent person to fill the questionnaire is not available” The response of local construction industry was not encouraging, but it was still fall within the expected response rate of 20-30%. Table 4.4 shows the summary of responses from this questionnaire survey. 60 Table 4.4 Response from the Questionnaire Survey Number Percentage % Number of replies received 27 27% Number of usable replies 25 25% Note: 100 sets of questionnaire sent 4.3.3 Result of Questionnaire Survey In section A of the questionnaire, the profile of the respondent was asked for record, however it is not compulsory to the respondent to give their full detail. Three compulsory questions had been asked to verify the eligibility of the respondent. The questions were: 1. Which of the following company background most accurately describes your organization? 2. How long your company has involved in construction industry and how many current projects are ongoing now? 3. What is the average value of the construction cost per project, that your company takes part? Table 4.5 shows the breakdown number of the 25 respondents’ company background. The construction company has become the major data contributor which a total of 10 numbers have been received. Second is engineering consultant with 6 numbers, architect firm and surveyor with 4 numbers each, and lastly supplier with 1 only. Figure 4.2 will show the percentage of each type of organization in contributing to the database. 61 Table 4.5 Respondents' Company Background Number of Respondent Type of Organization Sent Replied Architect Firm 30 4 Construction Company 30 10 Engineering Consultant 15 6 Quantity Surveyor/Land Surveyor 15 4 Material Supplier 5 1 Multi-Disciplinary Practice/Others 5 0 Total 100 25 Respondents' Com pany Background: Multi- Material Disciplinary Supplier Practice/Others Quantity 4% 0% Surveyor/Land Architect Firm Surveyor 16% 16% Engineering Consultant Construction 24% Company 40% Figure 4.2 Percentage of Type of Organization The experience of respondents’ company involved in construction industry was range from minimum 3 years to maximum 30 years, which showing the respondents were from very wide range of young company to very old experienced company. The average year of experience was 13.2 years and mode was 20 years. All the respondents are considered actively involved in construction industry as average 10 numbers of current projects are on going for each company. All respondents also replied that average value of the construction cost per project, that their company takes part is above Ringgit Malaysia one million. These three criteria are fulfilled the selection of eligible respondent, where the respondents are dealing 62 with moderate to big size of Client Company; actively involved in construction with secure more then 3 current projects; and possess more than 3 years experience in local construction industry. Table 4.6 shows the experience of respondents’ company involved in construction industry and number of current project that the companies have taken part. Table 4.6 Year of Company Experience and Number of Current Projects Variable Data Year of experience Number of current Projects Range from Min. to Max. 3 to 30 3 to 30 Average 13.2 10.4 Mode 20 10 In section B of the questionnaire survey, respondents were asked to scale the importance of the 9 main attributes and 36 sub attributes highlighted earlier. The relative importance of the 9 main attributes affecting the project performance was assessed separately while the sub-attributes were assessed under their respective main attributes. The importance index will be based on formulae below: Relative important index = ∑µ ----------- AXN Where, µ is weighting given to each factor by respondents; A is the highest weight (based on Likert scale used i.e. 7); N is the total number of respondent. The relative important index ranges from 0 to 1, and Figure 4.3 is showing the nominal scale used for analyzing the scoring of attributes given by the respondent. There are three categories which are whatever attributes score equal or lower than 3 will indicate a weak effect on project performance; scores 4 means at moderate level and 5 or above will indicate a strong effect on project performance. 63 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Score <3 indicate Moderate Score> 5 indicate weak effect on effect strong effect on performance performance Figure 4.3 Nominal Scale 1 The ranking for the 9 main attributes based on the individual relative important scored, are shown in the Table 4.7. Client financial stability ranked the first most important attribute, followed by client attitude toward project development. Although the client management quality, client characteristic and client organization quality ranked third, fourth and fifth respectively, but the percentage of respondent scoring are same for three of them, which 8% of the respondents rate it 4 and 92% of respondents rate it 5 and above. The client’s performance of their duties, client past experience and client past performance are ranked sixth, seventh and eighth respectively and lastly the client utilizing of advance facilities and tools. Table 4.7 Ranking of Client’s Main Attributes Affect Project Performance. Relative Number / percentage of respondent Client Main Attributes Importance Rank rating Index ≤3 4 ≥5 Client financial stability 0.926 1 0 0.0% 1 4.0% 24 96.0% Client attitude toward project development 0.863 2 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 25 100.0% Client management quality 0.840 3 0 0.0% 2 8.0% 23 92.0% Client Characteristics 0.834 4 0 0.0% 2 8.0% 23 92.0% Client's Organization quality 0.829 5 0 0.0% 2 8.0% 23 92.0% Client's duties 0.789 6 0 0.0% 4 16.0% 21 84.0% Client past experience 0.754 7 2 8.0% 4 16.0% 19 76.0% Client past performance 0.754 8 3 12.0% 3 12.0% 19 76.0% Client utilizing of advance facilities/tools 0.697 9 4 16.0% 5 20.0% 16 64.0% 64 Table 4.8 is showing the important index of each sub attributes and will be listed under its main attribute, according to their ranking. The sub attribute for client attitude toward project development, willingness of client to accept professional advice and the commitment & support from client have obtained equal relative important index and also the highest index scoring among all the sub attributes, which is 0.897. Thus the ranking will be based on the percentage of respondent scoring 5 and above. Table 4.8 Ranking of Sub Attributes Under Its Main Attributes Number / % of Respondent Rating Attributes / Sub Attributes Rank R.I.I. ≤3 4 ≥5 Client Financial Stability Credit worthiness 0.863 1 1 4% 2 8% 22 88% Solvency of client 0.851 2 0 0% 2 8% 23 92% Current liabilities 0.846 3 1 4% 1 4% 23 92% Current asset 0.749 4 3 12% 5 20% 17 68% Client Attitude Toward Project Development Willingness to accept professional advice 0.897* 1 0 0% 0 0% 25 100% Commitment & support 0.897* 2 0 0% 1 4% 24 96% Result - oriented 0.806 3 1 4% 3 12% 21 84% Process - oriented 0.743 4 1 4% 7 28% 17 68% Client Management Quality Project management knowledge 0.840 1 1 4% 1 4% 23 92% Qualification of personnel 0.760 2 0 0% 6 24% 19 76% Project auditing 0.657 3 5 20% 7 28% 13 52% Implement quality assurance system e.g. ISO 0.651 4 6 24% 4 16% 15 60% Client Characteristics Client's goodwill 0.811 1 0 0% 4 16% 21 84% Type of client organization, e.g. public/private 0.794 2 1 4% 3 12% 21 84% 65 Size of client organization 0.646 3 4 16% 9 36% 12 48% Other core business activities 0.560 4 10 40% 8 32% 7 28% Client Organization Quality Coordination of people interfaces 0.857 1 0 0% 1 4% 24 96% Allocation of project responsibilities 0.846 2 0 0% 2 8% 23 92% Culture of organization 0.783 3 0 0% 3 12% 22 88% Organization structure 0.771 4 2 8% 3 12% 20 80% Client Duties Setting of project definition & objectives 0.851 1 1 4% 1 4% 23 92% Seeking project finance (end/bridging financing) 0.834 2 0 0% 2 8% 23 92% Project implementation & management 0.806 3 0 0% 2 8% 23 92% Handling of political & social issue 0.703 4 2 8% 10 40% 13 52% Client Past Experience Experience of personnel 0.840 1 1 4% 2 8% 22 88% Involvement of construction activities 0.754 2 0 0% 5 20% 20 80% Type of project involved 0.749 3 0 0% 6 24% 19 76% Number of construction project involved 0.714 4 3 12% 6 24% 16 64% Client Past Performance Project quality achieved 0.800 1 0 0% 5 20% 20 80% Success & failure projects 0.777 2 2 8% 5 20% 18 72% Cost overrun for previous project 0.760 3 1 4% 5 20% 19 76% Time overrun for previous project 0.754 4 1 4% 5 20% 19 76% Client Utilizing of Advance Tools / Facilities Information technology 0.669 1 5 20% 5 20% 15 60% Project management software 0.663 2 3 12% 9 36% 13 52% Investment in hardware & instrument 0.634 3 7 28% 5 20% 13 52% Electronic database 0.629 4 6 24% 8 32% 11 44% * Equal relative importance indices ranked in accordance with percentage of respondents scoring 5 and above. 66 Third question in section B, respondents were required, in their own opinion to select three of the most important attributes, from nine main attributes listed in question 1, and put in priority. Then they were required to give short explanation of their selection. However, most of the questionnaires received, the respondents had only listed three main attributes without further explanation. Only few respondents have given their explanation. The financial stability emerged as the most important attributes with 16 people have selected it as first priority. Some respondents have given reason that client financial stability is crucial as from their experience, most of the abandoned projects were due to financial problem, and without sufficient fund nothing can be done. A strong financial backup can give confident to all project team members to work harder and contribute the best effort to project. Besides that, client can engage more experienced and competence consultant or contractor to carry the design and construction work. It should be expected a better project performance for the client with strong financial ability. Table 4.9 showing the result of priority vote to the first three most important client’s main attributes as listed earlier. In Table 4.10 lists all the explanation given by the respondents based on further interview session with them, to obtain the reason of important of each attributes. Table 4.9 Priority Vote for First Three Most Important Client’s Main Attributes Priority vote of respondent Main Attribute First Second Third Client financial stability 16 4 1 Client attitude toward project development 3 5 4 Client's Organization quality 3 1 5 Client Characteristics 2 1 2 Client management quality 1 5 6 Client past performance 0 4 2 Client's duties 0 2 5 Client past experience 0 2 0 Client utilizing of advance facilities/tools 0 1 0 Total respondent 25 25 25 67 Table 4.10 List of Respondents Explanation of Importance for Each Attribute No. Client main attributes Explanation of importance 1 Client financial stability 1. Strong cash flow can ensure work run smoothly. 2. Based on past experience, most of projects were shelved / abandoned due to financial problem. 3. Financially strong may give confidence to full teams. 4. Can engaged experience / quality contractor / consultant. 5. Nothing can be done without financial support. 6. With sound financial status, client has more command and will have more contractors to choose and full support will be given by consultant, contractor and supplier. 2 Client attitude toward 1. Right attitude will lead to right direction to complete the project development works. 2. Client attitude should be helpful, cooperative and sympathetic toward his contractors, and must be reasonable and fair in all dealings. 3. Committed client will give immediate responses for all queries, to ensure project run smoothly and hence increase the efficiency of project. 4. Correct client attitude will create a good working environment and build up team spirit. 3 Client's organization 1. Good organization quality will attract more business quality opportunity and people have confident to deal with the client. 2. Good planning is important in affecting the project implementation, thus a good leader who has much experience in project implementation will help project performance. 4 Client Characteristics 1. Client commitment towards project development compare to other core business. 2. Well recognized company (goodwill) will ease the process of getting approval and running any kind of works. 68 5 Client management 1. Good management quality will ensure works run quality systematically and according to specification and requirements. 2. May ensure that project objective to be achieved. 3. Good and right people will help to deliver project. 4. Good management will have higher efficiency of works. 6 Client past performance 1. As indicative sign for smoothness in construction and payment. Hence to give confident to all people. 2. Review the past project can ensure the success of project and learn from all mistake / experience. 3. Past Performance will lead a better future performance and good track record will draw more potential clients. 7 Client's duties 1. Client most important duty is to fund the project. A prompt progress payment lighten contractor burden and avoid contractor run into cash flow problems hence cutting corners in work. 2. Responsible client will always provide improvement / upgrade the previous completed project. 3. Client must set very clear objectives what they want; financial allocation before starting any project is needed. Some social problem such as squatters problem will need political influence to resolve the issue, thus client handling of political and social issue are very important. 8 Client past experience 1. Without experience, client will have no alternative but to accept the advice right or wrong from consultants and contractors. With experience personnel, project will efficiently managed and they can foresee the problems ahead and necessary rectification can be done earlier. 2. Good past experience, will estimate accurately in planning of workforces required, machineries and schedule of material delivery, defect work will be substantially reduced. 3. Immediate decision can be given with part experience. 9 Client utilizing of 1. Good IT network will help to ease working process. advance facilities/tools 2. Communication process will be much easier and efficient. 69 In section C, respondents were required to evaluate the current construction client in possessing the necessary attributes. Nine statements which incorporated all main and sub attributes have been listed. The respondents need to rate their degree of consent of each statement. A scale from 1 to 7, where 1 represent very disagree and increasingly to 7, which showing very agree with the statement. Average scoring of each statement with range from 1 to 7, representing the current client in possessing the necessary attributes, where 1 is the lowest rate of and 7 the highest rate. Below is the formula used to calculate the average scoring and figure 4.4 showing the nominal scale to rate the construction client in possessing the necessary attributes. Average Scoring = Σ µ where, --------- µ is the rating given by each respondent, N N is the total respondent i.e. 25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Score <3 very poor Moderate Score> 5 very good in possessing rate in in possessing necessary attribute possessing necessary attribute attribute Figure 4.4 Nominal Scale 2 Result showing that only one main attribute obtain average score of five and above, which is client have positive attitude toward project development with giving full support and high level of commitment in solving problem and decision making. However, only one attribute’s average scoring below 4, which is clients nowadays are not fully equipped themselves with advance technology tools or keen to invest in 70 hardware and software to assist in project management. The rest of the attributes’ average scoring were in between 4 to 5, which showing that most of the respondent feel the current client only deserve moderate or slightly above moderate rate in possessing the necessary attributes. Table 4.11 showing the average scoring and percentage of respondent rating in three categories (i.e. 3 and below; 4; 5 and above) for each statement, which evaluates the client capability of possesses the needed attributes. Table 4.11 Evaluation of Current Construction Client in Possessing Necessary Attributes Evaluation of Current Construction Average Number & % of Respondent Rating Client Scoring ≤3 4 ≥5 1. Most of the clients now have well established reputation. They are strong and 4.84 2 8% 8 32% 15 60% exist over a long period and actively involve in the local construction industry. 2. Most of the clients that you are dealing with, possess good quality of organization 4.80 0 0% 13 52% 12 48% structure, by means of they have complete organization structure, good organization culture, clear responsibility allocation of each staff and well coordinated among the people interfaces. 3. Most of the clients now possess good experience in the similar construction 4.96 2 8% 7 28% 16 64% project, and actively involve during the project cycle, and they are well versa in the matters pertaining to the construction. 4. Most of the clients that you are dealing with are financially strong. They are rich in 4.68 5 20% 4 16% 16 64% current asset and very solvent to meet any due liabilities and they possess high credit worthiness. 71 5. Most of the clients that you are dealing with are well carried out their duties and 4.60 5 20% 7 28% 13 52% responsibilities. They have set clear and good project definition and objective, sourcing for finance, effectively handling of political and social issue, to ensure the project implementation successful. 6. Most of the clients that you are dealing with have positive attitude and giving full 5.00 3 12% 4 16% 18 72% support to making the project success. They have high level of commitment and cooperative in solving problem and making decision. They are effective in project monitoring either with process or result oriented. 7. Most of the clients that you are dealing with, have good record of past project 4.80 2 8% 6 24% 17 68% performance. Based on your client company background study, you found most of them had achieved numerous successful project performances in terms of the basic performance measurement of cost, time and quality. 8. Most of the clients that you are dealing with possess good management quality, by 4.60 4 16% 9 36% 12 48% way of their experience in project management, employing high qualification personnel to management project, implementing quality assurance system to control product quality and effective project auditing. 9. Most of the clients that you are dealing with, keen to invest in hardware and 3.52 15 60% 4 16% 6 24% software to assist in project management. They use software in monitor work progress, utilizing the IT to enhance communication and electronic database for recording, analysis and reporting. 72 4.4 Summary Data collection for the construction client attributes had been carried out by two stages, which include a pilot study and a questionnaire survey. The pilot study had successfully identified and tested the 9 main attributes and 36 sub attributes were applicable in local construction industry. The response of questionnaire survey in local construction is not very encouraging, as only 25% response rate. However it was still within the expected response rate of 20% to 30%. The major data contributor was Construction Company. Based on data analysis with relative important index formula, the client financial stability rank first with obtained 0.926. Then client attitude toward project development rank second and third was the client management quality. In the evaluation part of current construction client in possessing the necessary attributes, overall respondents were agreed that most of the clients that they were dealing with have positive attitude and giving full support to making the project success. Besides that, overall respondents feel that current client only achieved moderate rate or slightly above moderate rate in possessing the necessary attributes such as financial stability, quality of organization, experience in construction industry, client perform duties, past project performance, management quality and establishment of company reputation. However, overall respondents were felt that most of the client lack of interest to invest in advance tools and facilities to assist in project management. The questionnaire set for pilot study and questionnaire survey have achieved the three objectives of this study which included identification of various construction client’s attributes and sub attributes; to establish relative importance index and evaluate the current construction client in possessing the necessary important attributes.
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