DOPING: WHY DO THEY DO IT?

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DOPING: WHY DO THEY DO IT? Powered By Docstoc
					WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE


             By Michele Colucci
     www.colucci.eu - info@colucci.eu
 University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
           Spring Semester 2008



                                              1
Something to think about...
 “The goal of those involved in
 professional sports, Whitman says, is
 to win – now and at virtually any
 cost. The financial and social benefits
 gained from on-field success and the
 rapidly diminishing time window for
 athletes to achieve that success
 contribute to a modern sports culture
 that emphasizes the ends over the
 means – victory over integrity!”

                           Josh Whitman, 2008




                                                2
                DOPING
• Definition: the use and abuse of
  performance enhancing substances in elite
  sport.
• Derivation: from the Dutch word “dop”, a
  beverage that Zulu warriors used prior to
  battle.
• Term became current ~ start of 20th
  century in reference to illegal drugging of
  racehorses
                                            3
             DOPING - History
• Egyptian slaves fed elixirs (likely from khat
    leaves) thought to relieve stress
•   Slaves of the Incas worked better after chewing
    coca leaves
•   A century ago, marathoners & cyclists used
    strychnine, and cyclists used caffeine, cocaine,
    and even alcohol for an advantage.



                                                       4
           DOPING - History
• 1928 – IAAF bans doping (use of stimulants)
1966 – FIFA (football) & UCI (cycling) introduce
  drug testing at championships
• 1968 – drug testing first used in Olympic Games
• 1976 – IOC bans anabolic steroids
• 1979 – testing for illegal drugs by IOC begins
• 1986 – IOC bans blood doping
• 1999 – World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)
  founded
• 2000 - first Olympics testing for EPO
                                                    5
Motivations for Use of DOPING
   • To enhance performance
      –Increased strength, endurance,
        alertness, aggression
      –Decreased reaction time, fatigue,
        anxiety, muscle tremor
   • Belief that others are using PES
     (performance enhancing substances)
   • Coping with pain and injury rehabilitation


                                                  6
Prevention of DOPING
• Acknowledge that athletes use PES
• Education about PES at all levels
  – Education of athletes, coaches, parents,
    public
• Marketing to sell the concept of “clean”
  sports” and condemnation of PES use
• Penalties – financial and no-compete
• Appeal to Ethics
• Attention to athlete’s non-sports issues
                                               7
World Anti-Doping Agency

WADA is responsible for:
  – The World Anti-Doping Program, including the World Anti-
    Doping Code
  – Worldwide out of comp testing program
  – Research
  – Education and Ethics
  – Independent Observers




                                                               8
The World Anti-Doping Program

Purpose:

• To protect athletes’ fundamental right to participate in
  doping-free sport.

• To ensure harmonised, coordinated and effective anti-
  doping programs.




                                                             9
            The WADA Code



“The purpose of the Code is to ensure the
 fight against drugs in sport is intensified,
   accelerated, harmonised and unified.”

                Dick Pound, WADA President – March 2003




                                                          10
Structure of the WADP

• Level 1 – The “Code” itself

• Level 2 - International Standards


• Level 3 – Models of Best Practice


                                      11
                 The Code


• Harmonisation of doping rules will level
  the playing field.
• Principles-based document.
• Includes rules and responsibilities.



                                             12
                     The Code


PART   1   –   DOPING CONTROL
PART   2   –   EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
PART   3   –   ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
PART   4   –   ACCEPTANCE AND COMPLIANCE




                                            13
      International Standards


• Standard for The Prohibited List.
• Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions.
• Standard for Testing
• Standard for Laboratories.



                                         14
        Models of Best Practice

• Being prepared by WADA & tailored to
    stakeholder needs.
•   Compliant with the Code and International
    Standards.
•   Not mandatory - provide alternatives from which
    stakeholders may select.

    – Model Rules of Best Practice for IFs are available on
      the WADA website.


                                                              15
     Acceptance of the Code


– At the World Conference on Doping in Sport
  in Copenhagen, 5 March 2003.

– Accepted by all major sports federations, key
  stakeholders and 60 Government.
– New Revised Code (entry into force: January
  1, 2009)

                                                  16
Key Issues under the Code

DOPING CONTROL
   • Anti-Doping Rule Violations
   • Mandatory Sanctions
   • The List
   • Therapeutic Use
   • Athlete Whereabouts
   • WADA Clearinghouse



                                   17
 Key Issues – the Code
• The Definition of Doping
– Anti-doping rule violations:
   – ‘Current’ Violations (presence of, use, refusals):
   – New violations:
       • relating to athlete whereabouts.
       • Evasions
       • Admissions under ‘attempted use’
   – Improved provisions for:
       • Trafficking, possession, administration etc.



                                                          18
SANCTIONS
Basic sanctions for a 1st and 2nd offence
        –Mandatory 2 years and life unless exceptional
        circumstances apply.
   ‘Exceptional Circumstances’
        Provide for a sanction to be waived/reduced if no
        fault/no significant fault can be established.
Lesser penalties for ‘specified substances’
Sanctions for other A-D rule violations.




                                                             19
ANTI-DOPING RULE VIOLATIONS
& CORRESPONDING SANCTIONS

 CONSEQUENCES:
     –Positive Test Result
     –For Teams

 –PERIOD OF INELIGIBILITY




                              20
VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS
• For Prohibited Substances and Methods:
   – The presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites in a
     specimen.
   – Use or attempted use, including admissions.
   – Possession.

           – First violation: 2 years
           – Second violation: lifetime,
           – However ‘exceptional circumstances’ clause may be invoked.




                                                                          21
VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS
• For ‘Specified’ Substances:
  – Substances susceptible to ‘inadvertent doping’.

     – First violation: At a minimum, a warning and reprimand
       and no period of ineligibility from future Events, and at
       a maximum, 1 year
     – Second violation: 2 years
     – Third violation: Lifetime

     – Exceptional circumstances may apply.


                                                                   22
VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS

• Refusing or failing to commit to sample
    collection, including evasion.
•   Tampering.

          – First violation: 2 years
          – Second violation: lifetime
          – Exceptional circumstances may apply.




                                                   23
VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS
• Trafficking
• Administration of Prohibited Substances or Methods.
• Assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, covering up

          – First violation: minimum 4 years up to a lifetime of ineligibility
          – Athlete support personnel who violate non-sporting laws may be
            reported to authorities.




                                                                                 24
VIOLATIONS & SANCTIONS

• Failure to provide required whereabouts information
• Missed tests which are declared based on reasonable
  rules
      • May either be intentional or negligent conduct of the Athlete

           – First violation: minimum 3 months and at a maximum 2 years
           – Subsequent period established in anti-doping organisations rules




                                                                                25
CONSEQUENCES OF A POSITIVE TEST RESULT
• At competition and multi-race events
      • Automatic disqualification of the results
      • Disqualified from all events, eg at Olympics.

• For teams

      • One team member in a Team Sport: Target Testing for the Event
      • More than one team member: subject to disqualification or other
        disciplinary action




                                                                          26
PERIOD OF INELIGIBILITY
• Starts on the date of the hearing decision, or if
  justified at an earlier date, and athlete:

     • Should not participate in any capacity
     • Some or all sport-related financial support or other
       sport-related benefits withheld
     • Mutual Recognition
     • Available for out of competition testing
     • Provide whereabouts information



                                                              27
          The Prohibited List

• Single list, based on evidence and
  research.
• 2 of 3 criteria must be satisfied for
  inclusion.
        – Performance Enhancing
        – Pose unnecessary risk of harm
        – Violate the ‘spirit of sport’
• Exemptions are not permitted but IF can
  recommend additions to the basic List

                                            28
 Key Issues

Therapeutic Use Exemption

• “Permission to use, for therapeutic purposes, drugs
  which are otherwise prohibited in sporting competition”




                                                            29
     Therapeutic Use Exemption
             Standard

• Mandatory
• Criteria and process for TUE
• Retrospectivity – emergency medical
  treatment
• IF/NF Responsibilities



                                        30
•Athlete Whereabouts
  •Athletes are responsible for providing correct and accurate
  whereabouts information to the responsible organisation.
  •Failure to do so amounts to an anti-doping rule violation
  under the Code.

•WADA is the central Clearing House
  •for all doping control information.




                                                                 31
Other Key Points under the Code

   • Testing & Analysis
   • Results Management
   • Right to a Fair Hearing & Appeals
   • National/international level athletes
   • Roles and Responsibilities
   • Acceptance and Implementation




                                             32
      Testing Standards


• Ensure that athletes are tested in the same
 manner wherever they are

• Maintain the integrity, identity, and security
 of samples.




                                               33
                    Standards
Testing Standards

    • Planning of testing
    • Selection of athletes
    • Notification of athletes
    • Sample collection
    • Transport of samples.



                                 34
                 Standards

Laboratory accreditation standard

  – Ensure a world wide system where results
    may apply across boundaries.

  – Achieve uniform results and reporting
    standards.


                                               35
               Key Points

• Results Management

• Right to a Fair Hearing

• Appeals


                            36
                 Key Points

National/International Level Athletes
  – Different requirements re:
     • TUEs
     • Registered Testing Pools
     • Appeals




                                        37
   Clarification of Responsibilities


Clarification of Responsibilities
• Coordination of Testing & Results
  – Event testing – only 1 organisation initiates and directs tests at
    events
  – Out-Of-Competition Testing – WADA coordinates
• Mutual recognition – testing, TUE, hearings and
  appeals: recognised and respected by all
  signatories


                                                                         38
EDUCATION & RESEARCH


–Each anti-doping organisation should plan,
implement and monitor information and
education programs, at a minimum on:
   •Substances & methods on the Prohibited List
   •Health consequences of doping
   •Doping Control procedures
   •Athletes' rights and responsibilities




                                                  39
Roles and Responsibilities
   –Relationship between the NF & IF.
       •NF will interact with the Code through IF.
       •IF is now clearly responsible for ensuring consistent response from
       the NF.

   –Harmonisation of rules
       •Vertical uniformity will ensure that athletes are not subject to
       different rules within the same sport.

   –Recognition of athletes and their support personnel.




                                                                              40
Acceptance & Compliance

•Acceptance and implementation of the Code
  •Each IF shall accept and implement the Code on or before
  Athens Olympic Games.

•Consequences of non-compliance
  •By a government or NOC,
  •shall result in consequences with respect to the Olympic Games,
  World champs or major events.




                                                                     41
  THE FIGHT AGAINST DOPING IN
            THE USA
• The Mitchell report (December 2007)...beyond simple
  recommendations...

• “The minority of players who used (performance
  enhancing) substances were wrong. They violated
  federal law and baseball policy, and they distorted the
  fairness of competition by trying to gain an unfair
  advantage over the majority of players who followed the
  law and the rules.
They – the players who follow the law and the rules – are
  faced with the painful choice of either being placed at a
  competitive disadvantage or becoming illegal users
  themselves. No one should have to make that choice.

                                                          42
“In doping, the war is never won”

                  Juan Antonio Samaranch
                     former IOC president




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