CAFTA and Access to Medicines by 59hl91hv

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 29

									              Corporate accountability
•       “Hard law” offers limited tools

•     “Soft law” includes CSR, voluntary codes and initiatives, consumer
      awareness campaigns, certification schemes
    –    Upsides:
        • Codes of conduct are useful, but require action by NGOs,
              consumers to hold them to codes (Rodriguez-Garavito
              2006)

    –      Downsides:
          • Fox tending the henhouse
          • Whose information is credible?
          • Vast power differences
              Corporate accountability
•       Many soft law initiatives today rely on market-based
        campaigning: new possibilities, but also new questions for
        human rights
•       http://walmartstores.com/Video/?id=1417

•       Possibility: direct consumer action
•       Concerns
    –      How does this change role of human rights organization:
           product promoters?
    –      Independence
    –      Credibility of information
Trade Agreements and Human
           Rights
     Trade and Human Rights
1. Why is trade a human rights issue?
2. At the heart of the debate= visions of
   development
3. Human rights concerns in trade
   agreements
4. Case study of IP in CAFTA
 1. Why is trade a human rights
              issue?
• Trade sanctions can (arguably) be a means of
  enforcing human rights
• Trade and investment flows affect the economy,
  can provide solutions for human rights
  challenges
• Structure of trade relations determines who
  benefits: how is trade conducted?
• Often the debates about trade center around
  FTA’s, but in fact FTA’s are just one piece of the
  puzzle
    International Commercial Law
•    Overlapping legal orders
    – National legislation, sometimes passed as
      condition of foreign aid or loans
    – WTO
    – International commercial treaties
    2. At the heart of the trade
              debate
• Development model based on market-driven
  growth
  – Benefits some sectors (there are winners and losers
    in LatAm)

• Limits national decisionmaking about economy
  – Leads to concerns about sovereignty
  – Challenge to alternate development models
  Guadalupe Urbina, “A Hundred Free Birds”
                                   The donkey tied up
El burro amarrado, y el tigre
   suelto                          And the tiger loose
                                   The wife married
La esposa casada, el marido
   soltero                         And the husband single
La patria ofrece mano de obra      The country offers cheap labor
   barata                          To whatever foreign industry
A industria extranjera que         that wants to buy it
   quiera comprarla
El burro amarrado                  The donkey’s tied up
Y el tigre suelto                  And the tiger is loose
Yo haciendo la tierra              I’m tilling the earth
Arañando los mares                 Combing the seas
Enciendo las maquinas, curo        I turn on the machines, I cure
   los cuerpos,                    the bodies,
Yo enciendo la patria y el tigre   I turn on the country and the
   anda suelto                     tiger is loose
Más valen 100 pájaros libres     Better a hundred free birds,
  volando bajo este cielo        flying in these skies
Que a veces tiene tormentas,     Even though the skies
  nubarrones, pero es            sometimes cloud up with storms,
  nuestro                        they’re ours
Más vale 100 pájaros libres      A hundred free birds are worth
  que uno atado de la pata       more than one tied up by the
Apagado en una jaula sin         foot
  agua, sin luz, sin cielo       Locked in a cage without water,
                                 without light, without sky
Hay cosas que en casa
No caminan bien                  There are things that aren’t
Aquí adentro hace falta          going well at home
  oxígeno                        We need oxygen in here
Pero las maquilas no limpian     But the maquiladoras don’t clean
  mi aire                        the air
Su tigre anda suelto y mi casa   Their tiger is loose and my
  se cae                         house is falling down
Mi patria es pequeña, pero me    My country may be small, but it’s
   ha costado                    taken work to construct
Por ella he pagado impuestos     For her I’ve paid taxes, done
   y carreras                    duties
A mi me pertenece su energia     Her electric energy, her water
   electrica, su sistemas de     systems, and her health systems
   agua
y los de la salud.       belong to me.

Más valen cien pajaros libres
   Better a hundred free birds,
Volando bajo este cielo
         flying in these skies
Que a veces tiene tormentas,     Even though the skies
  nubarrones, pero es            sometimes cloud up with storms,
  nuestro
                       they’re ours
Más valen cien pajaros libres
   A hundred free birds are worth
Que uno atado de una pata
       more than one tied up by the
O apagado o en una jaula sin     foot
  agua, sin luz sin cielo.       Locked in a cage without water,
                                 without light, without sky
Hay reglas que guardo 
             There are rules I keep
                                    And weapons I don’t buy
y armas que no compro

                                    Wars I don’t finance
Guerras que no pago                 And that I can’t invent
y no puedo inventar

                                    Everything I eat, I plant in my
Todo lo que como lo siembro en      garden
  mi patio

                                    It’s not easy to keep this peace
Me cuesta muy caro conservar mi
  paz

                             And if we’re talking about
Y si de tratados se trata decido
   treaties,
                                    I decide for myself what I want to
Por mi propia cuenta lo que
                                    give up
  quiero dar

                                    There are no real negotiations
No hay negocioaciones cuando        with such disadvantages
  hay desventajas
                  David may not be Goliath, but he
David no es Goliat pero sabe        knows how to think
  pensar
A quien se le ocurre              Who’d ever think of
abandonar la casa,                Abandoning the home you own,
                                  Leaving it for others and going

Dejar que entren otros e irse
                                  to rent elsewhere?
a alquilar
.... el tigre anda
suelto

                                  …. The tiger is loose
Pero no hay burro tonto que       But even the donkey knows
no se sepa sentar

               how to sit down and refuse to
A quien se le ocurre un río sin   move.
cauce

                                  Who’d ever think of a river
Un grano sin campo para           without a watershed
florecer
                         Grains without a plain on which
A quien se le ocurre intentar     to flourish?
ser otro

                                  Who’d ever think of pretending
En lugar de ser lo que
                                  to be someone else
realmente es?
                                  Instead of being what you really
                                  are?
Más valen cien pajaros libres

                                 Better a hundred free birds,
Volando bajo este cielo
         flying in these skies
Que a veces tiene tormentas,
nubarrones, pero es nuestro
     Even though the skies
                                 sometimes cloud up with
Más valen cien pajaros libres
   storms, they’re ours
Que uno atado de una pata

                                 A hundred free birds are
O apagado o en una jaula sin     worth more than one tied up
agua, sin luz, sin cielo…        by the foot

                                 Locked in a cage without
                                 water, without light, without
                                 sky…
                          Sí al TLC

•   http://youtube.com/watch?v=EPRpYZKEPiw
  3. Human Rights concerns in
      free trade agreements
Free trade = removal of tariffs and barriers and
    other “market distortions”
In theory, this should produce:
      •   Reduced prices
      •   Wider consumer choices
How does this mesh with human rights reality?
1. In practice, a lot of what gets called free trade
   is not
   – Bottom line: look beyond the label “free trade” to
     actual policies
2. Should everything be a commodity?
Trade Agreements in the Americas
Human rights concerns:
• Lack of parity (e.g., agricultural subsidies) =>
  dumping
• Establish institutions that circumvent democratic
  checks and balances
     • Investor-state arbitration (Chapter 11 of NAFTA, Chapter 10
       of CAFTA)
• In some cases, limit state’s ability to provide
  services in ways that may threaten soc/ec rights
• Labor, environmental chapters weak
Trade Agreements in the Americas
Growing controversy around “free” trade model in Americas

Model currently stalled:
•   NAFTA 1994
•   US- Chile 2003
•   CAFTA 2005
•   US- Peru 2007
•   Agreements with Colombia, Panama (yet to be ratified)
•   FTAA originally scheduled for January 1, 2005; stalled
Intellectual Property, Medicines, and
          the Right to Health:
        A CAFTA Case Study
         Intellectual property
• Why is this a human rights issue?

• History of IP
  • WTO TRIPS Agreement 1994
  • Doha Declaration 2001
  • “TRIPS-plus provisions” in free trade
    agreements began after Doha
  Intellectual property in Central America
                                     CAFTA
WTO                      Doha        negotiations
TRIPS                  declaration   conclude
1994 1995            2000 2001        2003


     Central       Deadline for                 Central
     America         Central                  American
   joins WTO,       American                   countries
      adopts       countries to             begin to adopt
      TRIPS          become                   reforms to
                     TRIPS-                  comply with
                    compliant                   CAFTA
    HIV/AIDS in CAFTA countries
• Prior to CAFTA: 1 in 6 people
  who need antiretrovirals
  received them

• Generic treatment: $230 per
  patient, per year
• Brand-name drugs: $2,000-
  2,500 per patient, per year
            Patent requested                    Under TRIPS

                               Patent granted




                                                                Product enters
                                                                market
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23…


                Preclinical Clinical Clinical     Clinical Health
Synthesis
                  phase     Phase    Phase        Phase registry.                Monopoly
                                I        II          III
            Patent requested                Under TRIPS-plus

                                Patent granted




                                                                       Product enters
                                                                                            Test data




                                                                       market
                                                                                            protection
                                                                                                                  Patent
                                                                                                (5 years)        extension

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23…
                                                                                        1   2    3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11…
                  Preclinical Clinical           Clinical   Clinical Health
Synthesis
                    Phase     Phase              Phase      Phase registry
                                  I                  II        III                                    Monopoly
    Who opposes IP rights in FTA’s?
•   Amnesty International
•   Oxfam
•   Doctors without Borders
•   World Health Organization
•   11 members of US Congress in January 2005
    “The test data secrecy/market exclusivity rules will slow the introduction of
    generic drugs, decrease competition, raise prices, and hinder access to life-
    saving medicines in the DR-CAFTA countries.”

• 13 members of US Congress in November 2005
• Ministers of health in 10 South American
  countries in May 2006
 What do defenders of TRIPS-plus
      say to such critiques?
USTR: “CAFTA expressly states that
 nothing in the agreement will affect a
 country’s ability to take measures
 necessary to protect public health.”

Argument that CAFTA/AFTA increase
  access by encouraging major
  pharmaceuticals to register drugs in small
  markets
What’s at stake?
Their lives are not for sale

								
To top