Relocation orders for voluntary relocation issued 2

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					                                                  Japanese                        Italians                    Germans

Detention/       Start Date: 12/7/41            16,849 processed by            3,278 processed          10,905 processed by the
Internment                                       the I.N.S. (Had they            by the I.N.S. (not         I.N.S. (not necessarily
             The FBI handled Internment          not been interned,              necessarily                interned)
             starting on December 7,             they would have been            interned)                This number includes
             1941 when previously                relocated.)                    This number                voluntary internees and
             identified aliens who were         This number includes            includes voluntary         German nationals sent
             believed to pose a threat           voluntary internees             internees and              from Latin America to
             were taken into custody.            and Japanese                    Italian nationals          the U.S.
                                                 nationals sent from             sent from Latin
             The most famous                     Latin America to the            America to the
             internment camps for                U.S.                            U.S.
             Japanese, Italians, and
             Germans were: Ft.
             Missoula, Ft. Lincoln,
             Crystal City, Ellis Island

Relocation      Start Date: 2/15/1942           112,300 Japanese               Unknown                  Unknown number of
                                                 aliens and Japanese-            number of Italian         German aliens were
             Relocation orders for               Americans.                      aliens were               relocated.
             “voluntary relocation” issued      The most famous                 relocated.               The original intent of the
             2/15 and 2/ 24/42. This             relocation camps               The original              government was to
             was initially an                    include Manzanar and            intent of the             relocate German aliens
             “exclusion” program for             Tule Lake.                      government was            as well as the Japanese.
             all enemy aliens.                  There were two ways             to relocate Italian      As late as 5/20/42
                                                 out of Relocation               aliens as well as         General DeWitt was still
             Executive Order 9066                camps. They were:               the Japanese.             announcing his intention
             issued February 19, 1942            enlisting in the military      As late as                to relocate thousands of
             gave the power to manage            or getting sponsored            5/20/42 General           German aliens from the
             relocation to the army.             to move and work in             DeWitt was still          West Coast.
                                                 the East.                       announcing his
             March 1, 1942 US Army              Most Japanese and               intention to
             decides to make relocation          Japanese Americans              relocate
             mandatory for Japanese              remained in camps               thousands Italian
             and Japanese-Americans.             until released late in          aliens from the
             What to do with the Italians        the war.                        West Coast.
             and Germans still under
Exclusion      Start Date: 2/15/1942           All West Coast           Unknown                  Unknown number of
            West Coast exclusion                persons of Japanese       number of                 individual German-
            zones were: From the                ancestry were             individual Italian-       American citizens and
            Canadian border to Mexico,          relocated.                American                  some aliens were
            as well as the border                                         citizens and              excluded.
            counties of Arizona. The                                      some aliens              Exclusions continued
            Canadian and Mexican                                          were excluded.            through 1944.
            governments also                                             Exclusions
            established exclusion                                         continued until
            zones.                                                        October 12,
            East Coast exclusion zones
            included: All Eastern states.

            Southern exclusion zones
            included: All states
            bordering Mexico and the
            Gulf of Mexico.

            In mid-May 1942, with the
            Japanese headed for
            relocation camps,
            exclusion became an
            individual program for
            Italians and Germans

            FDR revokes the exclusion
            order for Japanese and
            Japanese Americans on
            December 17, 1944.

                                                                                                                         Stephen Fox

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