SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE SPANISH COLONIES by pptfiles

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									         SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE SPANISH COLONIES:
         Most power, fewest people: Peninsulares: people born in Spain and immigrated to the Spanish colonies in
         Latin America


         Criollos/Creoles: people of European descent born in the colonies


         Mestizos: people of mixed Native American and European descent (on same level as mulattoes)


         Mulattoes: people of mixed African and European descent (on same level as mestizos)


         Most people, least power: Indigenos & Africanos: Native Americans and people of African descent


         INVENTED RACIAL CATEGORIES ACCORDING TO SPANISH COLONIES &
                        PORTRAYED IN CASTAS PAINTINGS
Casta                            Origin or meaning                                Ethnic Makeup
                          ****                                                  Two "white" Spanish Parents* or one
Spanish/Espanol/Criollo          A Criollo was a Spaniard born in the colonies.
                                                                                Spanish parent and one Castizo parent
                                                                                  Offspring of one (white) Spanish parent
Mestizo                          Literally, a person of "mixed" ethnic heritage
                                                                                  and one Indian parent
                                                                                  Offspring of one Spanish parent and one
Castizo&                         From the word "casta" or caste
                                                                                  Mestizo parent
                                 From "mule": a reference to the interbreeding
                                 of horses and donkeys. At one time, people       Offspring of one Spanish parent and one
Mulatto**
                                 believed Mulattos (like the animal with which    African/Black parent
                                 they were compared) would be sterile.
                                                                                  Offspring of one Mulatto parent and one
Morisco**                        From Spanish moro, "Moor"
                                                                                  Spanish parent
                                 From albino: total or partial absence of         Offspring of one Morisco parent and
Albino
                                 pigmentation                                     one Spanish parent
                                                                                  Offspring of one Mulatto parent and one
Ahi te estas                     Mexican localism: "stay where you are"
                                                                                  Coyote parent
                                                                                  Offspring of either one Mestizo parent
Coyote**                         From Nahuatl: coyotl, "coyote"
                                                                                  and one Indian parent
                                                                                  Offspring of:
                                                                                  Black/African and Indian
Lobo**                           From Latin lupus, "wolf"                         Mulatto and Indian
                                                                                  Torna-atras and Mulatto
                                                                                  or several others***
                                                                                  Offspring of one Black or Mulatto
Zambo                            From Latin strambus: "bowlegged"
                                                                                  parent and one Indian parent
                                                                                Offspring of one Spanish parent and one
                                 "turn back," a throw back to the African/Black
Torna-atras                                                                     Albino parent, one Lobo parent and one
                                 "race"
                                                                                Indian parent, or one Mestiso parent and
                                                                                                                                         one Mulatto parent
fas-history.rutgers.edu/block/castaspainting.jpg
*
  Although Spanairds and Criollos often referred to themselves as "pure blooded" and white, the facts of cross-cultural mating in Medieval
Spain make wholly "white" heritage quite unlikely.
***
   For a complete list, see Garcia Saiz, Maria Concepcion. 1989. Las Castas Mexicans. Milan: Olivetti
****"Spanish and Castizo produce Spanish" Picture cited from: Ilona Katzew, 1996. Casta Painting and Social Stratification in Colonial
Mexico. http://www.utsa.edu/laberinto/fall/1997/casta1997.htm
& "Mestiso and Spanish produce Castiso" Originally from El Museo Nacional de Etnologia (Madrid), located at http://www.tam.itesm.mx/art/colonial/icolon01.htm

								
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