PowerPoint Presentation - ANTHROPOLOGY 3 INTRODUCTION TO ARCHAEOLOGY by eFTvs7

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    IN 461 Social Sciences 1
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Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
                   Unit 1 Quiz on WebCT
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Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
          Webcast Lectures and PPT
            Notes now on Web Site
          http://ic.ucsc.edu/~judith/anth3/

Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
  Archaeologists study material remains

   physical traces of human action in the
      world…
    Artifacts: humanly-touched things
    Features: human modifications in landscape
    (houses, hearths, pits, fields, roads,etc.)
    Ecofacts: objects of non-cultural origin
    (seeds, pollen, bones, shell, etc.)
                  Is “Material Culture” Culture?
Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
   Material remains meaningless outside of
       temporal and spatial context…
   Sites: loci of past human activities; three dimensional
    association of artifacts, features, and ecofacts.
   Cultural Landscapes: two dimensional association of sites
    and features.

  Vertical associations = relationships through time.
  Horizontal associations = relationships across space.
  Excavation and Survey: techniques for reconstructing vertical
    and horizontal associations between artifacts, ecofacts,
    features, and sites




Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
  The World as Seen by Archaeologists:

        Material remains are by-products of learned, shared,
         cognitively structured behavior.
        Patterning in material record reflects cultural behavior
         in a systematic way.
        Task of archaeology is to reconstruct these patterns
         and explain their meaning--i.e. To tell stories about
         the past.




Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
   Unit 1, Lecture 2

The Enlightenment Roots of
        Archaeology
       Archaeology’s peculiar way of “seeing
       and learning” about the past is recent
              and unique to the West


 By-product of radical
  intellectual and cultural
  developments in
  Europe during the 16th
  through 18th century--
  Renaissance and
  Enlightenment.

Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
                         Radical Idea No. 1

        Humans are part of Nature and subject
         to its Laws and Conditions.
        Laws and Conditions discovered
         through Rational Inquiry--observation,
         experiment, analogy.
        Human Society legitimate subject of
         Rational Inquiry.


Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
                         Radical Idea No. 2
        Material conditions of Human existence
           differ significantly across space and
           have changed through time.


                Interest in Classical Antiquity
                Industrial Revolution--notion of Progress
                European Colonial Encounters-- “primitive
                others” “living fossils”



Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
           Radical Idea No. 3
 Material remains or
 “antiquities” could be used
 to document material
 conditions in the past.
   Recognition of Pre-Roman past
   Nationalist antiquarian societies
   Recognition of Stone Tools as
    human artifacts
   Three Age System (C. Thomsen)

  **Artifacts more than mere
    curiosities; independent source
    of information about the past**     Wm. Stuckley’s
                                        Stonehenge
       Recognition of Stone Tools as
            Human Artifacts
By analogy with indigenous
Americans’ tools:
  "I doubt not but you have
  often seen of those Arrow-
  heads they ascribe to elfs or
  fairies, they are just the same
  as the chip'd flints the natives
  of New England head their
  arrows with at this day: and
  there are also several stone
  hachets found in this
  kingdom, not unlike those of         Stone tool found in France
  the Americans.” William Lhwyd,
  Keeper of Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
           Emergence of a Discipline

        Several conceptual and methodological
         advancements in the 18-19th c. were
         critical to development of Archaeology
         as formal discipline.
        Made possible the systematic study of
         material remains of past human
         societies in their temporal and spatial
         contexts.

Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
         Advances in Geology
 18th century applied
  geology (canals,
  mines, etc.)
 Use of stratigraphy
 Layers in earth laid
  down successively
  in time
 Earth processes are
  regular, predictable
                 William “Strata” Smith and “The
                 Map that Changed the World”
      Advances in Paleontology
        (17th-19th Centuries)
 Fossils seen as remains
  of organisms
 Evidence for extinct
  species accepted
 Specific fossils assoc. w/
  specific strata-- gradual,
  not catastrophic change
  through time.
         Realization of the Antiquity
           of the Human Species
    Association of Stone Tools w/
     Extinct Fauna
    Discovery of pre-modern
     human fossils (Neanderthal,
     Germany) Thomas Huxley--
     “The Missing Link”

   Whole of Human history can not be
    accounted for by Biblical time scale-
    -The Idea of “Prehistory”.
                                           Stratigraphic section from Abbeville, France
Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
        Hoxne, Suffolk, England
         Excavated by John Frere, 1790




   "The situation in which these weapons were found may
   tempt
     us to refer them to a very remote period indeed; even
   beyond
   that of the present world..."
Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
                Sommes Gravels, Near
                  Abbeville France
    Excavated by
    Jacques Boucher
    des Perthes,
    French Customs
    Inspector
           “antediluvian axes...”

Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
  A Test of Human Antiquity:
  British Royal Society (1859)
Creates Commission of Experts*

  Check B de P’s French evidence
  Dig a site with undisturbed stratigraphy



*antiquarians & geologists, including Charles Lyell
Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
Test of Human Antiquity at Abbeville
               1859
              Boucher des Perthes’ claims verified
             stratigraphically by British Royal Society
                                           knives hatchets of flint




Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
    Brixham Cave, Windmill Hill, England



                                           Brixham Cave




      Chosen for excavation: stalagmite layer
     sealed underlying archaeological deposits
Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
          Brixham Cave Test: Relevant
           Evidence & Their Meanings
  Stone artifacts = human handiwork
  Fossil bones = extinct Ice Age species =
      Ice Age date
  Stratigraphic order = time sequence
  Association in 1 stratum = contemporary
  A long span of human “pre-history” widely
      accepted by scholars
Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
   Development of Systematic Techniques of
    Excavation, Classification, and Dating in
      Europe and N. America (1880-1920s)

         Less emphasis on spectacular
          discoveries and treasures of antiquity
         Careful systematic recordings of finds
          and their spatial relationships
         Used to determine temporal ordering
          and interpretation of human behavior
          through pattern and association.

Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC
            Development of Systematic
                  Techniques:
        General Augustus Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers--
         Cranborne Chase, England (1880-1890s)
        A.V. Kidder--Pecos Pueblo, New Mexico
         (1915-1929)

       **Archaeology is established as a unique way of
         seeing and learning about the past



Judith Habicht-Mauche, Spring 2005, UCSC

								
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