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AP English Long Form AP ENGLISH LITERATURE Title_____________________________________________ Genre________________________________ Author___________________________________________ # Pages______ Copyright Date____________ THE AUTHOR AND HIS OR HER TIMES: Born/Died: biographical information important to the understanding of the novel; important community, national and world events that influenced the author and the novel; other artistic or literary influences; critical responses and literary standing during lifetime and posthumously. FORM, STURCTURE, AND PLOT: How is the novel organized? Length? Chapters? Discuss such techniques as flashbacks or dream sequences, stream of consciousness, chronological order of events, foreshadowing, parallel events, multiple, complex or simple plot. How much time is covered? Compare and contrast beginning and ending. POINT OF VIEW (NARRATIVE PERSPECTIVE): Is the novel written in first ("I), second ("you") or third ('he/she") person point of view? Is it written in present or past tense? If in the first person, is he/she the protagonist or an observer? If in third person, is he/she omniscient (knowing everything), limited omniscient (knowing one character most often), or objective (no subjective commentary by the narrator)? Are there any shifts in point of view during the novel? (Shifts might come from the changed view(s) of the narrator or from different narrators) What effect does the author achieve with the point of view and what seems to be his/her purpose? CHARACTER: General comments: Flat/round? Static/dynamic? Believable? How are they revealed? How complex? How many? Protagonist/antagonist? Role of minor characters? Describe 4-6 central characters: name, age, three descriptive adjectives, appearance, personality, function in the novel, a key quote that reveals the character with an explanation of what that quote reveals. SETTING: Where and when does the novel occur? How is the environment described? Any symbolic meanings in the settings? How does the author use the setting? What atmosphere/mood is created by the setting? How important is setting to the novel? DICTION: Analyze the author’s word choices. First discuss the work in general: is the language formal, informal, vernacular…? Explain and give an example from the text. Does the author use much imagery? Metaphoric and / or ironic devices? Is the language plain? Flowery? Concise? Strong? Lyrical? Does diction indicate social status, education, region? How much dialogue is used? How different is the dialogue from the narrative voice? How distinct is the dialogue from character to character? Select three passages (minimum approximately one-half page) featuring three different plot segments. Copy the segments and include in your report. Close (close!) read the passages, then discuss the diction. Comment on how diction helps define character, set tone, further theme, etc. SYNTAX: (Word order, pattern) Analysis of sentence and phrase patterns. 1. Make some general observations: Are the sentences predominately simple or complex. What about length? Level of formality? Any fragments? Rhetorical questions? Parallel structure? Repetitions? Are sentences loose, periodic? Is there much variety to the sentence pattern? How does the author use syntax to create rhythm and flow of the language? How does the author use syntax to enhance effect and support meaning? 2. Using one f the same passages from the diction section above, focus on the author’s syntax. What effect is he/she creating? Comment on how these choices help define character, set tone, further theme, etc. CONCRETE DETAIL/IMAGERY: Words or phrases that appeal to the five senses – most commonly visual. Look for recurrent images. What function does the imagery seem to have? Use direct quotations from text to support observations. SYMBOLISM: When an image is used to suggest another meaning it becomes a symbol (i.e., dove for peace, red for passion). Is the novel highly symbolic? Allegorical? Point out images used as symbols. What function does symbolism seem to serve in the novel? Use direct quotations from the text to support your observations. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: Language is not literal. Metaphorical devices link meaning: most common devices include: METAPHOR, SIMILE, PERSONIFICATION AND ALLUSION. Point out examples (direct quotes) and discuss how they are used and how often. IRONIC DEVICES: Irony adds extra dimensions to meaning and sets up special understanding between reader and writer. The most common include VERBAL, SITUATIONAL, OR DRAMATIC IRONY, PARADOX, OXYMORON, EUPHEMISM, HYPERBOLE, or UNDERSTATEMENT. Point out examples and discuss how they are used and how often. TONE: Author’s attitude toward subject, characters and reader. Could be playful, serious, angry, ironic, formal, somber, satiric, etc. Generally an author uses a limited variety of tones, often two or three complementary ones. Discuss the book’s tone and observe how the author creates it through plot, diction, syntax, imagery, and figurative devices. Use direct quotations from text to support observations. THEME: The theme refers to the book’s controlling idea or central insight. Identify the book’s central theme. Identify any prominent secondary themes. Express as statement and predicate, not as a word or phrase (i.e. Wrong: "loyalty" or "loyalty to country"; Right: Loyalty to country often inspires heroic self-sacrifice”) Discuss any motifs you can identify. (Motifs: dominant ideas in a work of literature, a part of a major there. It may consist of a character, a recurrent image or a verbal pattern.) Discuss author’s intention. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE TITLE: What message does the author want to convey with the title? Does the meaning of the title change for the reader from pre to post reading? MEMORABLE QUOTES: Choose five to eight quotes from the novel that capture the essence of plot, character or style. Discuss their significance to the work. RESEARCH/LITERARY CRITICISM: Read at least two critiques or literary reviews. Be sure these come from substantial, reputable sources such as a New York Times review or academic sources and not Cliff’s Notes or Sparknotes or just some guy n the Internet who thinks he knows what he is talking about. Read and digest the information and write a short summary of what you gained from the reading. Please note that you are summarizing your reaction to the article not the article itself. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: Did you enjoy the novel? Strength, weaknesses, lingering questions? Does it relate to other books you have read? Any insights into human folly or triumph BIBLIOGRAPHY: Attach a bibliography of any outside sources you use.
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