The aim of this Study Unit is to help you understand the figures

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					The aim of this Study Unit is to help you understand the figures of speech used in poetry.
In your book Literature, Criticism and Style and in your Course Pack you will find
information that will try to explain the figures of speech like simile, metaphor,
onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance etc. While you are reading the contents of this
study unit, you will be asked to do tasks. Each task will try to help you to gain a better
insight in to the concepts that you need to know about poetry and do exercises.

One of the first questions that arise when reading poetry is the poet's use of language.
The poet usually makes use of ordinary language in a manner that is different than its
normal usage. The figures of speech are examples of the poet's use of language without
understanding these special kind of language we may not be able to understand poetry
at all. We know that poetry tries to convey its ideas through association and suggestion.
The purpose of poetry is not to give information but to create an atmosphere and
suggest a mood, draw pictures and impressions in the mind of the reader and tell them
about attitudes and emotions; may be most important of all to give pleasure to the
reader.


Poetry in trying to do so many things in such a small literal place is necessarily
concentrated; therefore, puzzling to the reader. Many of these puzzles can be solved by
understanding figures of speech and the reason why the poet has used them.




What is' imagery'and ‘imagery' in poetry?


Read page 56 of your book ‘Language, Literature and Style' and our course pack. Try to
understand what is meant by ‘imagery and imagery'.


Verbal imagery is a use of words that appeals to the senses; different types of imagery appeal to
particular senses. Visual imagery evokes a picture of something; auditory imagery suggests a
sound: "her voice could etch glass."


E. J. Pratt's poem, "Overheard by a Stream," contains examples of many of these kinds of imagery


--


          Overheard by a Stream
         Here is the pool, and there the waterfall;
         This is the bank; keep out of sight, and crawl
         Along the side to where that alder clump
         Juts out. 'Twas there I saw a salmon jump,
         A full eight feet, not fifteen minutes past.
         Bend low a bit! Or else the sun will cast
         Your shadow on the stream. Still farther; stop!
         Now joint your rod; reel out your line, and drop
         Your leader with the "silver doctor" on it,
         Behind that rock that's got the log upon it.


         There's nothing here; the water is too quiet;
         You need a pool with rapids flowing by it;
         Plenty of rush and motion, heave and roar,
         To turn their thoughts from things upon the shore;
         The day's too calm-I told you that before.


         Just mind your line! I tell you that he's there.
         I saw him spring up ten feet in the air-
         Twelve pounder, if an ounce! Great Mackinaw!
         Look! Quick! He's on! The "doctor in his jaw. . .
         Snapped! Gone! You big fool: Worse than any fool!
         What did you think to find here in this pool-
         A minnow or a shiner-that you tried
         With such a jerk to land him on the side
         Of this high bank? That was a salmon-fool!
         The biggest one that swam within this pool:
         The one I saw that jumped twelve feet-not lower;
         Would tip the scales at fourteen pounds or more.
         Lost-near that rock that's got the rock upon it.
         Gone-with the leader and the "doctor" on it.


The first stanza is based on visual imagery , the second on auditory imager y, the third on kinetic
imagery . In the last stanza the angler's disappointment is revealed in his exaggeration of the
height of the salmon's jump (from eight to twelve feet), and a related to imagery in the estimation
of the weight of the "lost" salmon. The "one that got away" becomes a symbol of lost hopes, as the
initial fishing lesson of the poem turns in an ironic reversal into blaming.


--


Please note that sometimes the image of a poem can be expressed with words, but sometimes the
poets use physical shapes to express the image of the poem.
Now look at the two poem.
                               Poem 1


                               EASTER WINGS

                                   Lord, who createdst man in wealth and store,
                                         Though foolishly he lost the same,
                                                 Decaying more and more
                                                     Till he became
           George Herbert                                 Most poor
            (1593-1633)                                   With thee
                                                       O let me rise
                                                 As larks, harmoniously,
                                          And sing this day thy victories:
                                     Then shall the fall further the flight in me.


                                         My tender age in sorrow did begin:
                                        And still with sicknesses and shame
                                            Though didst so punish sin,
                                                     That I became
                                                       Most thin.
                                                        With thee
                                                     Let me combine,
                                            And feel this day thy victory;
                                           For, if I imp my wing on thine,
                                       Affliction shall advance the fight in me




----


        Poem 2
                                                                                William
        A CHRISTMAS TREE                                                        Burford
                                                                                  (b.
                                         Star,                                   1927)
                                     If you are
                               A love compassionate,
                         You will walk with us this year.
                     We face a glacial distance, who are here
                                        Huddld
                                     At your feet.
        Perrine , Laurence. 1974. POETRY: The Elements of Poetry . Harcourt
        Brace Jovanovich,Inc: New York . p. 789

       1. Did you notice the physical figure of poem 1?
       2. Did you notice the physical figure of poem 2?
       3. How do the physical shape of the poems parallel the subject matter of the
       poems?
--




What is meant by ‘figures of speech' in poetry?


Poetry like many other literary works use literary devices that are called ‘figures of
speech'. There are a great number of figures of speech used in literature. These devices
are not only used by poetry but other genres in literature as well. However, in this study
unit we selected only a few main figures of speech and tried to explain these by using
poetry. In this task you will find the ones that are included in your books.

What is ‘simile'?


Read page 56 of your book ‘Language, Literature and Style' and our course pack. Try to
understand what is meant by ‘simile'.


--


DREAM DEFERRED

What happens to a dream deferred?
Does it dry up
like raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore-
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over-
like a syrupy sweet?
 Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load.
Or does it explode ?


     Poem 2
                                                                               Richard
     ENTICER                                                                   Armour
                                                                                 (b.
                                                                                1906)
    A married man who begs his friend,
    A bachelor, to wed and end
    His lonesome, sorry state,
    Is like a bather in the sea,
    Goose-pimpled, blue from neck to knee,
    Who cries, “The water's great!”

    Perrine , Laurence. 1974. POETRY: The Elements of Poetry . Harcourt
    Brace Jovanovich,Inc: New York . p.626

In these two poems, it should be easy for you find out the similes. The best way to spot
simile is to find out is there is a comparison made using ‘like' or ‘as'.




What is a ‘metaphor'?


Read page 56 of your book ‘Language, Literature and Style' and our course pack. Try to
understand what is meant by ‘metaphor'.


Metaphor compares two things that are alike in some way in order to clarify our
understanding of one of them. Poets use metaphor to make their readers see an aspect
of something they have not noticed before; writers of prose often use metaphor to make
a difficult idea easier to understand, by comparing something unfamiliar to something
familiar;in ordinary speech. People use metaphors for emphasis. What all metaphors
have in common, however, is that they do not announce the fact that they are
comparing one thing to another. They say "A is B," and leave the reader or hearer to
figure out in what way A is like B. The difference between metaphor and simile is that in
metaphor the comparison is implied, while in simile it is explicit.


Here is an example.
Thomas Campion's poem, "There is a Garden in Her Face," uses an extended metaphor .



                         There is a Garden in Her Face

                         There is a garden in her face,
                         Where roses and white lilies grow,
                         A heavenly paradise is that place,
                         Wherein these pleasant fruits do flow.
                         There cherries grow, which none may buy
                         Till "Cherry ripe!" themselves do crythese pleasant
                         fruits do flow.
                         There cherries grow, which none may buy
                         Till "Cherry ripe!" themselves do cry.


                         These cherries fairly do enclose
                         Of orient pearl a double row,
                         Which when her lovely laughter shows,
                         They look like rosebuds filled with snow.
                         Yet them no peer nor prince can buy,
                         Till "Cherry ripe!" themselves do cry.


                         Her eyes like angels watch them still;
                         Her brows like bended bows do stand,
                         Threatening with piercing shafts to kill
                         All that presume with eye or hand
                         Those sacred cherries to come nigh,
                         Till "Cherry ripe!" themselves do cry


                         a double row,
                         Which when her lovely laughter shows,
                         They look like rosebuds filled with snow.
                         Yet them no peer nor prince can buy,
                         Till "Cherry ripe!" themselves do cry.


                         Her eyes like angels watch them still;
                         Her brows like bended bows do stand,
                         Threatening with piercing shafts to kill
                         All that presume with eye or hand
                         Those sacred cherries to come nigh,
                         Till "Cherry ripe!" themselves do cry.
                         Till "Cherry ripe!" themselves do cry.




                         These cherries fairly do enclose
                         Of orient pearl a double row,
                         Which when her lovely laughter shows,
                         They look like rosebuds filled with snow.
                         Yet them no peer nor prince can buy,
                         Till "Cherry ripe!" themselves do cry.


                         Her eyes like angels watch them still;
                         Her brows like bended bows do stand,
                         Threatening with piercing shafts to kill
                         All that presume with eye or hand
                         Those sacred cherries to come nigh,
                         Till "Cherry ripe!" themselves do cry.


Few readers would actually imagine that there is really a garden in her face. Faced with
such an illogical statement, we cast around for an interpretation that makes some kind of

				
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