Manufacturing L1 Formal writing at work

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					Manufacturing



Level 1: Writing

Module: Formal writing at work
Module aims
We are learning to write formal reports at work using a range of simple, compound
and complex sentences.

Main aim
We are learning to:
      write in the passive voice
      write the past perfect form of the past tense
      use reported speech in formal writing.




                                                                                    1
Main aim: We are learning to write formal reports at work using a range of simple,
compound and complex sentences.

Aim: We are learning to write in the passive voice.
     The operative checked the machine.

     The machine was checked by the operative.

These two clauses mean the same thing.
In the first example, the operative is the active part of the clause. The operative is
doing the checking. The clause is in the active voice.
In the second example, the machine is receiving the action. The machine is being
checked. The clause is in the passive voice.

In the Level 1 reading materials, there is a text on Health and safety at work in the
Health and safety information module. This piece of text is based on it. Some of the
text has been written in the passive voice.




                              Health and safety at work

 Our responsibility to you is taken very seriously. A guide to the health and safety
 law is provided by this leaflet. We have a duty to ensure your health, safety and
 welfare at work. Safe systems of work have been set out for you. All Personal
 Protective Equipment (PPE) is provided.

 Any problems, risks or hazards should be reported to your supervisor. You can
 discuss any issues with your supervisor or the site safety representative. Further
 information may be obtained from the Health and Safety Executive.




Making passives from actives
Step 1 Move the subject of the active verb to the end of the clause. It becomes the
             passive agent. You put in the word by in front of the agent.

Step 2        Move the object of the active verb to the front of the clause. It
              becomes the passive subject.

Step 3        Change the active verb to passive by using the auxiliary verb be
              followed by the -ed participle.




                                                                                         2
                  Remember

 An auxiliary verb helps the main verb.




                                          Active

subject                         verb phrase                        object

The operative                   checked                            the machine.



                                          Passive

subject                         verb phrase                        agent

The machine                     was checked                        by the operative.

Participles

We use the ed form of the main verb to make a participle. This means adding ed to
the base form of the verb:

     talk           talked

Some participles do not follow the ed rule.

     infinitive         past participle               infinitive              past participle

to read               read                    to wear                       worn

to keep               kept                    to tell                       told

to know               known                   to do                         done

to write              written                 to be                         been

to bring              brought                 to buy                        bought

to find               found                   to have                       had




                                                                                                3
When to use the passive

You do not use the passive much in speech. You use it more in writing. The main use
of the passive is to take attention away from the subject in an active clause. This
means you can write in an impersonal way if you want to because you can leave out
the agent, too.

For example:

     You may obtain further information.

     Further information may be obtained (by you)

You will find the passive voice useful for writing reports like accident reports. For
instance, it is more formal and impersonal to write:

     Machines must be checked before use. (passive)

rather than:

     All operatives must check machines before use. (active)

You will see blue signs in factories that are written in the passive voice.

     Hair covering must be worn (by everyone).

     Safety overalls must be worn (by everyone).




                                                                                        4
Task 1: Make passives from actives
These sentences are in the active voice. Write them in the passive voice using the
three steps you learned. Remember you can leave out the agent if you like.


1.    This company provides lockers.



2.    You must not ignore the safety rules.



3.    Your employer provides welfare facilities.



4.    You must take reasonable care.



5.    You must wear a hard hat in the warehouse.



6.    You should report an accident to your supervisor.



7.    We will take disciplinary action for gross misconduct.



8.    Someone pulled the inspection tag off the fire extinguisher.



9.           You should discuss any problems with your manager.



10.   Employees must follow the health and safety rules.



11.   You must use work items correctly.



12.   We provide training and supervision for employees.




                                                                                     5
Making the past perfect form of the past tense

Aim: We are learning to write the past perfect form of the past tense.
In Entry 3 we learned how to make present perfect form of the verb.

     He has told his supervisor about the problems on the line.

Now you are learning to make the past perfect form of the verb. You write in the
past perfect form of the verb if you want to write about something that
happened in the past and the action is finished and over.

The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to make it clear
that one event happened before another in the past. It does not matter which event is
mentioned first – the tense makes it clear which one happened first.

     Mike was not surprised to hear there was a breakdown on Friday.

     He had told his supervisor about the problems on the line during the week.

The past perfect shows that Mike told his supervisor about the problems before the
line broke down. The past perfect shows one action happened before the other.

There are two steps to writing this form.

Step 1: We use the past tense of the base verb to have as an auxiliary verb.

       I had         We had

       You had       You had

       S/he had      They had

Step 2: We use the ed form of the main verb to make a participle. You learned the
rules for this in the last task on writing in the passive voice and at Entry 3.

For most verbs, you just add ed to the base form of the verb:

     harm            harmed

If the verb ends with an e, just add a d:

     hope            hoped

     tie             tied




                                                                                     6
For most verbs that ends with a consonant followed by a vowel (a e i o u) followed by
a consonant (CVC verbs), double the last letter and add ed:

vowel                                                                Word check
       ▼                                                       Verbs that end in w or x
                                                               do not double the letter
f      i    t           fit           fitted
                                                               before ed.
▲           ▲
                                                               mixed      borrowed
consonant

If the verb ends with a y, drop the y and add ied:

       carry           carried

When you use the -ed form of the main verb to make the past perfect, it is called a
participle.


Task 2: Pick out the past perfect
 Read this text Fire at a factory. Underline the past perfect verb forms. The first one is
done for you.


                                     Fire at a factory


    One hundred firefighters had tackled a blaze at a plastics factory in Nottingham
    last week. Local residents were moved to safety and schoolchildren were sent
    home. The fire had started in the early hours of Friday morning and was reported
    when a factory operative had raised the alarm. Firefighters had rushed to the
    scene in minutes and had fought the blaze for most of the day.

    The three-storey building was evacuated. An eye-witness said later that the roof
    and both ends of the building had collapsed. There were no reports of any injuries.
    We believe that all 19 members of staff had escaped the fire.

    Residents living close to the scene were moved back to a safe distance and
    electricity supplies to scores of homes in the area were hit.

    Children from nearby schools were sent home as thick black smoke billowed
    across the area.




                                                                                          7
Task 3: Changing present to past perfect
These sentences are in the present tense. Write them in the past perfect form by
changing the verb using the two steps we have shown you. Remember that some
participles may not follow the ed rule. Here is an example for you.

      She phoned the supervisor in the morning.

      She had phoned the supervisor in the morning.


1.     There is a problem.



2.     They clock on at the office.



3.     The workers take care of the equipment.



4.     Jojo reads the health and safety leaflet.



5.     The manager knows about the misconduct.



6.     Hiresh works with Novak.



7.     Misha writes the accident report.



8.     Sokol wears his hard hat in the warehouse.



9.            They use the facilities properly.



10.    Azi tells his manager about the risk.




                                                                                   8
Direct and reported speech

Aim: We are learning to use reported speech in formal writing.
Sometimes, when you write reports of things that happen at work, you need to write
things that people have said.

Direct speech

When you write the words exactly as someone has said them, it is called direct
speech. When you write direct speech, you use speech marks “_” either side of the
words to show they were spoken. Speech marks are used to show that it is an
accurate record of the words spoken.

                        Pat, did you see Tran’s accident today?
                        Pat, did you see Tran’s accident today?


                    Yes, he tripped and banged his
                    Yes, he tripped and banged his
                     head on the bailing machine.
                     head on the bailing machine.




     I asked Pat “Did you see Tran’s accident today?”

     Pat said “Yes, he tripped and banged his head on the bailing machine.”

The verb form in direct speech is in the past tense when you write a report because
the conversation was in the past. When you write in direct speech, you need to start
a new line or paragraph for each speaker.




                                                                                       9
                          Remember the paragraph rules

We covered the rules for paragraphs in Entry 3. Paragraphs can mark:


      an introduction – the start of a piece of writing



      a change of person



      a new speaker



      a change of place


      a change of subject



      a change of time




                                                                       10
Task 4: Using speech marks and paragraphs
Rewrite the text below using speech marks and new paragraphs where you think
they should be.


 There was an accident in the factory today. I was supervising the line when Ola
 said Pat has cut her finger. I went over to the machine where Pat was working.
 She was holding her finger and she was in pain. I asked her What happened? She
 said I caught my finger in the machine. I was clearing a jam. Did you turn the
 machine off? I asked. She replied Yes, but it was still slowing down. I checked that
 the machine had been switched off and I sent her to first aid to get her hand
 bandaged. I said to her line supervisor She’s a bit impatient at times. She needs
 to wait until her machine stops before she tries to clear a jam. She said I agree. I
 think I’ll put her name down for a refresher course in health and safety. I said Yes,
 that’s a good idea. When Pat comes back from first aid, ask her to come to the
 office and I’ll do the accident report form with her. I think she’ll need to go home
 for the rest of the day. The supervisor said I’ll make sure she sees you.



 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________




                                                                                     11
Reported speech

When you write a report of things that have been spoken, you are more likely to use
reported speech. Reported speech does not need speech marks. It is a narrative
record of what was said.


                                    Word check

 A narrative is a record of something that has happened. It is written in the order
 that the events happened.


                                 Did you wait for the machine to
                                 Did you wait for the machine to
                                        slow down Pat?
                                        slow down Pat?

                       I’m sure II did.
                        I’m sure did.




 I asked Pat if she had waited for the machine to slow down. She said that she was
 sure she had.


When you write in reported speech, it is helpful to have a range of verbs that describe
speaking. Otherwise you might find that you use said all the time and your text
becomes boring to read.


 I asked Pat if she had waited for the machine to slow down before she cleared the
 jam. She said that she was sure she had. I said that she should always make sure
 the machine had come to a dead stop in future. She said she would.




                                                                                      12
Other words for say...she said...he was saying...they had said:

For instance:




For instance:


 There was an incident in the canteen today between Jim and Ivan. Jim had been
 teasing Ivan all morning. Ivan took offence. At lunch time, Jim started teasing him
 again. Ivan asked him to stop. One of the other workers told Jim he had gone too
 far. Jim became very angry and more abusive. He was swearing at Ivan and was
 very aggressive. Two of his friends were trying to calm him down. I asked Jim to
 come to the office with me and he did.


You read in the paragraph that Jim swore. When you write reported speech, it is not
necessary to write the bad language or swear words that each person said. In formal
reports, it is enough to describe what happened.




                                                                                       13
Useful words to describe bad behaviour




For instance:


 Jojo came to see me yesterday afternoon. She has been concerned because one
 of the other workers, Brian, has been harassing her. She told me that the
 harassment began shortly after she started work at the factory.

 Brian has been making jokes and remarks about her appearance. She tried to
 deal with it herself and has asked him to stop. When he continued, she used
 Maria as a witness. She warned Brian that if he did not stop, she would make a
 formal complaint.

    Today Brian made some racially offensive remarks to Jojo and she came to the
    office to make an official complaint about his behaviour.




                                                                                   14
Task 5: Turning direct speech into reported speech
Read the conversation between these two workers. The conversation is in direct
speech. Write a short report about the conversation turning it into reported speech.

1. There has been an accident in the factory today. Rob is asking Jack about what he
saw.

                       Did you see the accident today, Jack?



             “Yes I did see it from where I was working. Tran slipped on
            the floor. We saw some water there afterwards, so someone
                                 must have spilt some...”

                     “What? You mean and not cleaned it up?”



           “It looked that way...Tran slipped and banged his head as he
           fell forward. He caught it on the side of the bailing machine.”


                               “What happened next?”


           “Tran passed out. I called for the first aider and she called the
                                    ambulance.”


                            “Where were you working?”


                     “In section 2 loading the bailing machine.”



            “OK. I’ve had a word with the hospital. They’re doing some
               tests to be on the safe side. They’re keeping him in
                                    overnight.”




                                                                                       15
Write the report for Rob:


 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________




                                                                     16
2. Boris is having lunch in the canteen. He sits at a table with friends. Ken is sitting at
another table.


            “Oh look. It’s Boris again. Laughing with your mates. Shame
                   you can’t be more pleasant when you work.”


                 “I don’t know what you mean Ken. I always try to be
                                      pleasant.”


            “Pleasant my ******** . You don’t know the ********** meaning
                      of the word. You and your *******mates.”


             “Come on Ken. Calm it down a bit. Please don’t talk to me
                                   that way.”



               “I’ll ******* well speak to you how I ******* well like. I was
                 working here first....before you and your ***** mates.”


            “Ken, I’m asking you in front of other people to stop talking to
              me like that. It’s offensive and if you carry on, I’ll report it.”




                             “*********** well report it then!”




                                                                                        17
Boris is reporting the incident. Write the report for him.


 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________




Fact and opinion
When you write a report at work about an incident or an accident, you need to decide
what to include in your report. You should always stick to the facts about what
happened and not make judgements or offer your thoughts and opinions.



                   It’s better to write:

                   Mike Johnson did not check the machine had
                   stopped before he removed the guard.

                   not...

                   Mike Johnson was sloppy today and he did not
                   check the machine had stopped before he                X
                   removed the guard.


                                                                                  18
If you do need to express an opinion, make sure it is clear from the language you
use.

     Mike Johnson did not check the machine had stopped before he removed the
     guard possibly because he was distracted at the time.How did you get on?



Task 6: What is fact and what is opinion?
Look at these conversations about an incident. Make a list of the things that are facts
and the things that are feelings, thoughts or opinions.

1.

                 “What do you think about the accident this morning?”


                “I heard Tina caught her finger in the machine again.”


           “Yeah...she’s really careless that girl. Didn’t wait for the machine
                          to stop before she cleared the jam.”

             “Her mind always seems to be on other things. Did she hurt
                                 herself badly?”

          “She’s been to first aid. She’s OK but her finger is badly bruised.”


               “I think we need to revise her health and safety training.”


                       “I hope she takes more notice this time.”




                  Facts                           Feelings, thoughts or opinions

________________________________             ________________________________
________________________________             ________________________________
________________________________             ________________________________
________________________________             ________________________________
________________________________             ________________________________
________________________________             ________________________________
________________________________             ________________________________
________________________________             ________________________________


                                                                                     19
2.


          “What happened to Katy this morning? I heard there was an
                       accident in the warehouse.”

         “Well, she was walking through the warehouse and tripped on
                              some loose wires.”

         “Why were there loose wires around the place? What on earth’s
                             going on over there?”

         “There has been an increase in the number of accidents there
                           recently. I think Ken, the manager, has a few
             problems at home and it’s taking his mind off the job.”

                            “What happened to Katy?”


        “She hit her face on a piece of machinery. She’s in first aid now.”


                            “Did you check the area?”

         “Yes I did. There were no covers over the wires and no warning
       signs but I’ve sorted it out now. I asked some of the workers about
       it but they all claimed not to know anything about it. I think they’re
                covering up for Ken. I think they feel sorry for him.”

           “OK. Let me know how Katy is and send Ken to my office.”



               Facts                           Feelings, thoughts or opinions

________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________




                                                                                20
3.


       “Well, thank goodness it’s all calmed down. What on earth went on
                                  this morning?”

         “It was when Jane clocked in this morning. She met Talia in the
                                 locker room.”

                             “Then what happened?”

        “Jane says Talia started winding her up about something she said
          yesterday. I’ve heard Talia’s not always great first thing in the
               morning. I think sometimes she’s a bit hung over.”

                   “Well, she needs to be fit to work each day.”

         “Yeah, well, Jane said she was a bit off. Anyway Jane had a go
             back at her and it all got a bit out of hand. They’ve had
                          disagreements in the past..”

                             “What happened then?”

         “It ended up in a real slanging match. Fortunately, Maria, their
         supervisor came in and put a stop to it. She’s had a word with
       them both and told them they’ll get an official warning if it happens
                                      again.”

        “Well. I think Talia may have some personal problems going on.”

          “That’s as may be but I think Jane’s got it in for her anyway.”



               Facts                          Feelings, thoughts or opinions

________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________
________________________________          ________________________________

                                                                               21
How did you get on?

Module 1: Formal writing at work

Task 1 answers

1.    This company provides lockers.

Lockers are provided (by this company).

2.    You must not ignore the safety rules.

Safety rules must not be ignored (by you).

3.    Your employer provides welfare facilities.

Welfare facilities are provided by your employer.

4.    You must take reasonable care.

Reasonable care must be taken (by you).

5.    You must wear a hard hat in the warehouse.

Hard hats must be worn in the warehouse (by you).

6.    You should report an accident to your supervisor.

Accidents should be reported to your supervisor (by you).

7.    We will take disciplinary action for gross misconduct.

Disciplinary action for gross misconduct will be taken (by us).

8.    Someone pulled the inspection tag off the fire extinguisher.

The inspection tag was pulled off the fire extinguisher (by someone).

9.           You should discuss any problems with your manager.

Any problems should be discussed with your manager (by you).

10.   Employees must follow the health and safety rules.

The health and safety rules must be followed (by employees).

11.   You must use work items correctly.

Work items must be used correctly (by you).

12.   We provide training and supervision for employees.

Training and supervision for employees is provided (by us).

                                                                        22
Task 2 answers



                                  Fire at a factory


 One hundred firefighters had tackled a blaze at a plastics factory in Nottingham
 last week. Local residents were moved to safety and schoolchildren were sent
 home. The fire had started in the early hours of Friday morning and was reported
 when a factory operative had raised the alarm. Firefighters had rushed to the
 scene in minutes and had fought the blaze for most of the day.

 The three-storey building was evacuated. An eye-witness said later that the roof
 and both ends of the building had collapsed. There were no reports of any injuries.
 We believe that all 19 members of staff had escaped the fire.

 Residents living close to the scene were moved back to a safe distance and
 electricity supplies to scores of homes in the area were hit.

 Children from nearby schools were sent home as thick black smoke billowed
 across the area.




                                                                                    23
Task 3 answers


1.    There is a problem.

There had been a problem.

2.    They clock on at the office.

They had clocked on at the office.

3.    The workers take care of the equipment.

The workers had taken care of the equipment.

4.    Jojo reads the health and safety leaflet.

Jojo had read the health and safety leaflet.

5.    The manager knows about the misconduct.

The manager had known about the misconduct.

6.    Hiresh works with Novak.

Hiresh had worked with Novak.

7.    Misha writes the accident report.

Misha had written the accident report.

8.    Sokol wears his hard hat in the warehouse.

Sokol had worn his hard hat in the warehouse.

9.           They use the facilities properly.

They had used the facilities properly.

10.   Azi tells his manager about the risk.

Azi had told his manager about the risk.




                                                   24
Task 4 answers


 There was an accident in the factory today. I was supervising the line when Ola
 said “Pat has cut her finger.”

 I went over to the machine where Pat was working. She was holding her finger
 and she was in pain.

 I asked her “What happened?”

 She said “I caught my finger in the machine. I was clearing a jam.”

 “Did you turn the machine off?” I asked.

 She replied “Yes, but it was still slowing down.”

 I checked that the machine had been switched off and I sent her to first aid to get
 her hand bandaged.

 I said to her line supervisor “She’s a bit impatient at times. She needs to wait until
 her machine stops before she tries to clear a jam.”

 She said “I agree. I think I’ll put her name down for a refresher course in health
 and safety.”

 I said “Yes, that’s a good idea. When Pat comes back from first aid, ask her to
 come to the office and I’ll do the accident report form with her. I think she’ll need to
 go home for the rest of the day.”

 The supervisor said “I’ll make sure she sees you.”




                                                                                          25
Task 5 answers
You might have written something like this.

1.


 There was an accident in section 2 today. The workers were loading the bailing__

 machine. I talked to Jack, one of the workers who saw the accident.___________

 Jack reported that Tran slipped on the floor, possibly on some water that had been

 spilt earlier. Tran fell forward and hit his head on the bailing machine. He passed

 out._____________________________________________________________

 Jack called the first aider and she called the ambulance.____________________

 I have spoken to the hospital. They have told me that they are running some tests

 and will keep Tran at the hospital overnight.______________________________



2.


 I am making a complaint about Ken’s behaviour towards me. Today, I was sitting_

 in the canteen with my friends. Ken started to make some unpleasant remarks___

 and I asked him not to talk to me that way. Ken started shouting at me. He ______

 insulted me and my friends and used offensive language. He swore at us._______

 I asked him to stop and told him I would report him if he carried on. He swore____

 again and told me to report him.________________________________________




                                                                                       26
Task 6 answers

Your notes might look like this.


1.

                   facts                      feelings, thoughts or opinions

Tina caught her finger in the machine.    Tina is careless.

The machine had not stopped.              Her mind is on other things.

Tina went to first aid.                   She takes more notice of the health and
                                          safety training.

Her finger is badly bruised.

Her health and safety training will be
revised.


2.

                   facts                      feelings, thoughts or opinions

There was an accident in the warehouse.   Ken has some problems at home.

Katy tripped on loose wires as she        Ken’s mind is not on the job.
walked through the warehouse.

There’s been an increase of the number    The workers are covering up for Ken.
of accidents in the warehouse.

Katy hit her face on machinery.


Katy is in first aid at the moment.


There were no covers over the wires.


There were no warning signs.




                                                                                 27
3.

                  facts                       feelings, thoughts or opinions

Jane and Talia were in the locker room.   Talia is not great in the morning.

Jane says Talia was winding her up.       Talia has a hangover in the morning.

Jane and Talia have had disagreements     Talia has some personal problems.
in the past.

There was an argument between Jane        Jane has got it in for Talia.
and Talia.

Maria stopped the argument.


Maria has told Jane and Talia they will
get an official warning if they argue
again.




                                                                                 28

				
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