Unit 4 Part II by S5P07V


									Unit 4
Part II
         Intensifiers & Quantifiers
   An intensifier
       Definition: a word/group of words which normally indicates
        emphasis or strong feeling
       Type: A kind of Adv which is sometimes called an adverb of
       Function: used to modify Adj, Adv, V, VP, or another intensifier
       Position: before or after the word that it modifies
       Example: Am I good enough for her?
   A quantifier
       Definition: a word/group of words which indicates the quantity
        of something
       Type: A kind of N determiner called an indefinite determiner
       Function: used to modify N which follows it
       Position: before N that it modifies
       Example: Is there enough food for us?
         Exercise 4
Intensifiers and Quantifiers
                Types of questions
   Yes/no question
       begins with an auxiliary (“do”, “have”, “be”) or a modal
       The answer “yes” or “no” is expected
       Example: Are you married?
   Wh-question
       begins with a “wh-word”
       The answer should specify a particular person, thing, place,
        reason, method, or amount
       Example: Who is that guy standing over there?
     Wh-Words (Question Words)
   Wh-words: who, what, where, when, why,
    how, which, whose, whom
   Types: pronoun, adverb, determiner
    (Pronouns/adverbs/determiners in wh- questions are
    sometimes called interrogative pronouns/adverbs/determiners.)
   Functions: subject, object, modifier
   Example: Who is that guy standing over there?
    (“Who” in this sentence = pronoun / subject)
                 Exercise 5 A
1.    Pron   S         12.   Adv    M
2.    Pron   O         13.   Adv    M
3.    Pron   O         14.   Adv    M
4.    Pron   O         15.   Adv    M
5.    Pron   O         16.   Adv    M
6.    Pron   O         17.   Adv    M
7.    Pron   S         18.   Pron   O
8.    Det    M         19.   Det    M
9.    Pron   S         20.   Pron   O
10.   Det    M
11.   Det    M
                 Exercise 5B
1.    What             11.   Which
2.    Who              12.   Why
3.    What             13.   What
4.    When             14.   Whose
5.    How              15.   Which
6.    Who/Whom         16.   What
7.    Who              17.   Whoever (?)
8.    Where            18.   When
9.    Why              19.   How
10.   How              20.   why
   Definition: a word/group of words whose function is
    to connect or join words, phrases, and clauses
   Types:
       Coordinating conjunctions
       Correlative conjunctions
       Subordinating conjunctions
       Relative pronouns
       Relative adverbs
       Transitional words (or conjunctive adverbs)
       Transitional phrases
       Prepositions
       Five groups of connectives
    classified according to their roles
   Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or) & Correlative
    conjunctions (either..or, not only..but also)  join
    words/phrases/clauses which are grammatically equivalent
   Subordinating conjunctions  introduce Adv/N clause and
    link it to the main clause (I told him when he should come.)
   Relative pronouns & Relative adverbs  introduce Adj
    clause (a relative clause) (I remember the year when Richard
    II was born.)
   Transitional words & phrases  join two independent
    clauses and modifies the clause following it (However,…
    In other words,…)
   Prepositions  show the relationship between its object
    (called an object of/after a preposition) and some other words
    in the sentence (The phrase beginning with a preposition is
    called a prepositional phrase.) (I want to sit in the front row.)
     3 types of subordinate clauses
   Adv clause
       modifies V, VP, Clause, Adj, AdjP
       Introduced by a subordinating conjunction
   N clause
       functions as Sub, DO, IO, OC, SC
       Introduced by a subordinating conjunction
   Adj clause (or relative clause)
       modifies the preceding N, NP, Pron (A relative clause is
        used to give further info. about something.)
       Introduced by a relative pronoun/adverb
                   Exercise 6A
   Coordinating conjunction
    and, but, or
   Correlative conjunction
    either..or, neither..or, not only..but also
     Exercise 6B Subordinating
conjunctions (introducing NC/AdvC)
                         8.    If (AdvC)
1.   when/after (AdvC)
                         9.    That (NC)
2.   Although/though
     (AdvC)              10.   if/whether (NC)
3.   whether/if (NC)     11.   unless (AdvC)
4.   (that) (NC)         12.   because/since (AdvC)
5.   Since (AdvC)        13.   While/as (AdvC)
6.   Before (AdvC)       14.   when/whenever
7.   while/as (AdvC)
                         15.   (that) (NC)
Exercise 6C Relative pronoun/adverb
 (introducing AdjC (relative clause))
1.   who (rp)            9.    when (ra)
2.   which/that (rp)     10.   who (rp)
3.   (which/that) (rp)   11.   whom (rp)
4.   where (ra)          12.   whose (noun deter. In
5.   (why) (ra)                rela. clause)
6.   which (rp)          13.   where/ at which (ra)
7.   whom/who (rp)       14.   whom (rp)
                         15.   (that/which/where) (ra)
8.   (when/that) (ra)
   Relative pronouns: what, who, whom, which
   Relative adverbs: when, where, why, how
        Exercise 6D
Transitional words/phrases
        Exercise 6E,F
(One-word / Simple) preposition,
      Phrasal preposition

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