Information for joint report from Greece by HC120914215313

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									                  EQUAL Community Initiative




                          Research
             on Employment and Unemployment
                 of vulnerable social groups




                      1st report of the DP “In Action”
                                  under the
                  Transnational Activity “Joint Research”




                                     .




                                 Athens
                               July 2002


Produced by: Hellenic Agency for Local Development and Local Government S.A
                                                                             CONTENTS


Preface ...........................................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction: Brief presentation of the programme “Network for the promotion of employment” ....................4

1. Scene of unemployment ...........................................................................................................................................6

   1.1 Unemployment rates in regions and throughout the country ............................................................................6
   1.2 Dimensions of unemployment by age and gender .............................................................................................7
   1.3 Unemployment structure on the basis of educational level ...............................................................................8

1.4. Dimensions of unemployment in vulnerable groups.........................................................................................10

   Α. Country ................................................................................................................................................................ 10
   B. Local agents ........................................................................................................................................................ 13
   1.5 Characteristics of unemployment and unemployed people .............................................................................14

2. Characteristics of enterprises demand .................................................................................................................15

   2.1 Needs in covering job positions (level of current demand and degree of coverage for the last year) .............16
   2.2 Structure of current demand ............................................................................................................................. 18
   2.3 Qualitative characteristics of current demand ..................................................................................................19
   2.4 Views of businessmen on vulnerable social groups .......................................................................................... 22

3. Obstacles facing vulnerable social groups in finding employment and the contribution of training centres in
    their professional rehabilitation ..........................................................................................................................23

4. Active policies for the empowerment of employment and the education of vulnerable social groups ...........26

   Strategic importance of social cohesion – Policy measures for Employment .......................................................26

5 . The part of the local government – local societies ..............................................................................................33

   Advantages of local markets and societies, as these are expressed through local government and Local Social
   Partners ....................................................................................................................................................................33

6. Summary - Conclusions .........................................................................................................................................36

ANNEX ........................................................................................................................................................................38

   Basic definitions .......................................................................................................................................................38

BIBLIOGRAPHY – SOURCES ................................................................................................................................40




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                                                                                                    2
Preface

This document is the first report of the “In Action” (“Εν Δράσει”) Development
Partnership in the framework of the Transnational Partnership entitled “Employment,
Απασχόληση, Lavoro” implemented by the Development Partnerships Focus (Italy) and
Keep (United Kingdom), in the framework of the Equal Community Initiative.

This document presents and analyzes main facts of the labour market, namely
unemployment rates, financial profiles (types of enterprises) and needs for employment,
workers training standard and qualifications at national and local level, on the basis of
the available information and with the assistance and cooperation of partners in the
Development Partnership.

Moreover, an approach is made to obstacles faced in employment and training of
vulnerable social groups.

At the same time, a presentation is made of active policies applied for the enhancement
of employment and training for vulnerable social groups.

The aforementioned are presented both at national and regional level for those groups
to which Local Government- application fields administratively belong, participating in
the “Network for the Promotion of Employment” of the “In Action” Development
Partnership.

Subsequently, reference is made to the role of Local Government and local societies in
employment and the advantages of local markets and societies are presented, as these
are expressed through Local Government and Local Social Partners.

This report aims at enabling the exchange of information between transnational partners
in the In Action, Keep and Focus Development Partnerships and aspires to form the
basis for:
a) comparative presentation of the above issues in the three countries, and
b) determining the objects of study tours, positions and targeted activities in order for
   this report to constitute:
 on the one hand, the starting point for information exchange, aiming at the creation
    of an evolutionary Joint Report, and
 on the other hand, upon completion of the transnational partnership and the entire
    work of the “Action” DP, a rate for the measurement of results arising from actions
    to be implemented in its framework.




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Introduction: Brief presentation of the programme “Network for the promotion of
employment”

The problem of unemployment and promotion of employment, with particular
emphasis to vulnerable social groups, comes as a major social issue.

At a central level, active and passive policies aim at dealing with and promote as
effectively possible the creation of new job positions, the enhancement of
entrepreneurship, new skills, new qualifications and new professions.

At a local level, in parallel, agents of the public, social and private sector of economy
and Local Government agents contribute, each one in their own role and mission, in the
context of national policies (or otherwise), with various opportunities, mainly financial,
to the solution of this major social issue.

These interventions, however, fragmentary and sometimes competitive, without any
strategy, coordination, full awareness of the problem and possibilities are not only
fruitless and inefficient, but also bring confusion, disappointment and finally
abandonment both to interested users and actors.

This particular project aims at contributing to the creation of a “local” network for the
promotion of employment achieving the collaboration of all agents in the local
community, taking advantage and concentrating special knowledge and potential of
each one, and with the coordination of the Government, to maximize the result towards
the promotion of employment.

Naturally, the agents invited to contribute to this pilot application are Local
Government agents in their majority (Municipalities), with various characteristics
(geomorphological – social – financial) and therefore offer the possibility to examine a
quite representative Greek sample.
In parallel, a key advantage in the effort to achieve the project goal is cooperation with
agents directly or indirectly competent in issues for the promotion of employment, as
well as with agents with recognized scientific and technological knowledge.
The expected result of the project through the “In Action” Development Partnership is
sought through active and substantial involvement of participants, both at central and at
local level.
The main goal of the local networks to be created in the nine (9) fields of application of
the “In Action” Development Partnership project is to integrate and exploit local
peculiarities (resources, advantages, potential) in the strategy and actions to promote
employment at local level.

The conclusions of the above methodological approach, appropriately processed and
enriched with the contribution of the Central Union of Local Authorities in Greece- the


C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                           4
ultimate collective body of Local Government in Greece- may subsequently be
exploited:
     in the form of standards – guides from all Local Government Organizations that
       may undertake similar initiatives for the promotion of employment, and
     with the involvement of the Greek Manpower Employment Organization
       (OAED) and the Organization for Vocational Education and Training (OEEK),
       ultimately contributing to the preparation of active policies for the support of
       employment at central level.

In parallel, in the framework of the project cooperation has been reached with two
Development Partnerships from the United Kingdom (Keep) and Italy (Focus) aiming to
exchange experiences and expertise and to the joint development of methodological
tools and working. In particular, the common goals of the three Development
Partnerships are the following:

       Provision of an intermediate opportunity so as to help various disadvantaged
        user groups in the labour market, through a procedure of individualized
        evaluation of needs, the definition of individualized education and learning
        needs, and providing ongoing support throughout the programme.
     All partners shall work together in order to help and provide current support to
        beneficiaries in the context of partnership, to motivate them into obtaining access
        to viable training and employment opportunities, to incorporate the use of new
        technologies, e.g. training on Information Technology, cooperation of employers,
        bridge-building and intermediate procedures, including certification and
        professional courses.
     Successful approaches will be spread to all partners and a wider public e.g. to
        relevant policies and competent bodies.
     All cooperating Development Partnerships will determine-review the lack in
        consistent and coordinated support systems for integration of disadvantaged
        people in the labour market.
     Cooperating Development Partnerships will work jointly to overcome obstacles
        faced by people in vulnerable social groups in their effort to enter the labour
        market through:
a. Increased awareness of opportunities, both for users and employers
b. Increased information about needs
c. challenging negative concepts and biases to disadvantaged groups, for example, to
mentally impaired persons, national minorities and socially excluded people.




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                            5
     1. Scene of unemployment

     1.1 Unemployment rates in regions and throughout the country

     According to Workforce Research carried out by the National Statistical Service of
     Greece (NSSG) for the fourth quarter of 2001, unemployment rates in the regions in
     question and throughout the country were (Diagram 1.1):

                                          Diagram 1.1
                     Unemployment rates in regions and throughout the country

                                                  16,9
18                                                                   15,9

16                                13,8

14
                                                                                       10,9
12             9,9

10

8

6

4

2

0
           Attica            Thessaly    Western Macedonia   Southern Aegean   Total country




     From the above diagram (1.1), it arises that all regions under review, with the exception
     of Attica, present unemployment rates higher than the average for the country. The
     highest unemployment rates are seen in the Region of Western Macedonia, followed by
     the Region of Southern Aegean, the Region of Thessaly and Attica with the lowest
     unemployment rates.

     In particular, in two large Municipalities of Attica, the Municipalities of Zografou and
     Egaleo, unemployment rates are estimated to 11.2% and 10% respectively.




     C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                            6
1.2 Dimensions of unemployment by age and gender

Young people and in particular young women suffer from unemployment in Greece.
The difference in unemployment rates between men and women is significant.
In the 4th quarter of 2001 when the average unemployment rate was 10.9%, the
unemployment rate for women was 16.1% while for men it was 7.5%. The difference in
unemployment rates between men and women remains in all age groups, as also shown
in diagram 1.2.a

In particular, young people 15-19 show an unemployment rate of 36.4% (47.4% for
women and 29% for men), the group 20 - 24 is faced with a rate of 26.9% (33% for
women and 21.2 for men), the group 25-29 17.6% (23.9% for women and 12.9% for men),
the group 30-44 8.8% (13.8% for women and 5.3% for men), the age group including the
workforce 45-64 is faced with 5.5% (7.9% for women and 4.3% for men), while people
from 65 and over are faced with 2% (0.8% for women and 2.5% for men).
The above clearly show that the problem of unemployment in Greece is mainly a
problem for young people usually recently included in the labour market and who
usually remain unemployed for a long period.


                                                         Diagram 1.2.a
                                   Unemployment rates by age and gender throughout the country

                                       47,4
                              50
                                              36,4
                              40
         Unemployment rates




                                                       33,0
                                     29,0                     26,9
                              30                                       23,9
                                                     21,2
                                                                              17,6                                                  16,1
                              20                                                       13,8
                                                                     12,9                                                                  10,9
                                                                                              8,8
                                                                                                          7,9 5,5                 7,5
                              10                                                     5,3            4,3                     2,0
                                                                                                                    2,5
                                                                                                                      0,8
                              0
                                    15-19        20-24           25-29           30-44              45-64           65+           Total
                                                                                Age groups


                                                               Men            Women             Total


According to the same information (diagram 1.2.b), unemployment rates for age groups
15-65+ were:




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                                                                    7
                                                   Diagram 1.2.b
                          Unemployment rates by gender and age in regions and throughout the
                                                      country

                     90

                     80

                     70
Unemployment rates




                     60

                     50

                     40

                     30

                     20

                     10

                     0
                            Men      Women Men         Women Men           Women Men              Women Men         Women

                               Attica             Western              Thessaly             Southern          Total country
                                                Macedonia                                    Aegean
                                                15-19    20-24         25-29          30-44    45-64      65+




                                    Attica        Western Macedonia               Thessaly         Southern Aegean            Total country
 Age                       Unemploy Unemployme Unemploy Unemployme Unemplo Unemployme Unemploy Unemploym Unemploy Unemploy
groups                     ment rates nt rates for ment rates nt rates for yment nt rates for ment rates ent rates for ment rates ment rates
                           for men % women % for men % women % rates for women % for men % women % for men % for women
                                                                           men %                                                     %

15-19                        32.9        53.5         50          83           47.4        75.0        23.1       75.0        29.0     47.4
20-24                        18.9        26.0         40          43           20.8        46.8        14.0       30.2        21.2     33.0
25-29                        10.9        19.9         18          47           24.0        39.6        13.2       25.0        12.9     23.9
30-44                         4.7        11.5          6          25            5.7        18.8        12.3       22.2         5.3     13.8
45-64                         4.7         8.1          9          11            4.7         6.1         6.4       22.8         4.3      7.9
 65+                          3.9         0.0          8           0            2.3         0.0         0.0        0.0         2.5      0.8


 1.3 Unemployment structure on the basis of educational level



 C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                                                           8
                      The risk of unemployment faced by those belonging to the workforce greatly depends
                      on their educational level. When examining unemployment rates in graduates from
                      various educational levels, the following trends are observed. According to Workforce
                      Research in the 4th quarter of 2001, unemployed middle education graduates represent
                      37.5% of the unemployed throughout the country, while rates for individual regions at
                      this educational level are similar. Unemployment rates are also high for primary school
                      graduates with 21.3% throughout the country. At this educational level, unemployment
                      rates are: Southern Aegean 41.6%, Western Macedonia 21.6%, Thessaly 21.1%, Attica
                      17.0%.

                                                         Diagram 1.3
                            Structure of unemployment and educational level by region and throughout
                                                         the country                         PhD or Masters degree



                     45,0                                                                         Higher Schools graduate


                     40,0
                                                                                                  University student (at
                                                                                                  least 1 year) but did not
                     35,0                                                                         graduate
Unemployment rates




                                                                                                  Higher Professional
                     30,0                                                                         Education Degree

                     25,0                                                                         Middle education
                                                                                                  graduate
                     20,0
                                                                                                  Compulsory education
                     15,0                                                                         graduate

                                                                                                  Primary school graduate
                     10,0

                      5,0                                                                         Some classes of primary
                                                                                                  school
                      0,0
                              Αττική      Δυτική
                                          Western       Θεσσαλία       Southern
                                                                        Νότιο     Total
                                                                                   Σύνολο         Did not go to school
                               Attica                    Thessaly      Aegean     country
                                         Μακεδονία
                                         Macedonia                     Αιγαίο      Χώρας




                      At high educational levels we observe that the more the standard qualifications the
                      easier to find and hold a job position. Differences between unemployment rates in
                      individual educational levels are worth noticing. Therefore, the rate of unemployment
                      among higher institutions graduates amounts to 9.4% for the country, while
                      unemployment for graduates of higher technical professional education amounts to
                      15.5% for the country.


                      C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                  9
1.4. Dimensions of unemployment in vulnerable groups

Α. Country

An importance source of information about unemployment levels of disadvantaged
groups is the Final Evaluation Report of the Operational Programme “Fighting
Exclusion from the Labour Market”, implemented under 2nd Community Support
Framework (1994 – 1999).

In his/her effort to reach conclusions as regards the OP results, the OP evaluation
consultant has also reviewed the extent of penetration of OP beneficiaries from the total
number of unemployed in disadvantaged groups. However, given the lack of available
information about figures of the labour market of disadvantaged groups, since such
information is not recorded by any source nor is it supplied by any population census or
any workforce annual research, the Evaluation consultant has attempted an estimation
of such figures which are necessary for the creation of base values and consequently for
the estimation of penetration rates.

The number of unemployed people in disadvantaged groups is estimated to 290,609 on
average for the period 1994-2000.

The following table shows information about the figures of workforce and
unemployment in disadvantaged groups, according to the Evaluator estimates.




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                         10
From the estimates of the table above it arises that approximately 1 out of 2 people in

                                                          Evaluation Consultant Estimate
                                                                          Total      Unemployment
       Categories of vulnerable social             Workforce by      unemployed by      rates by
                                                    category of        category of    category of
                   groups
                                                 vulnerable groups     vulnerable      vulnerable
                                                                         groups          groups

 1.   Disabled persons                                301,718           132,843          44 %
 2.   Return migrants, emigrants, refugees            132,944            23,854         17.9 %
 3.   Other groups:                                  1,669,349          110,445          6.6%
3a    Convicts, ex-convicts                               -              7,000
3b    Heads of single-parent families                  55,000            14,300          26 %
3c    People in remote areas                          110,000            11,220         10.2 %
3d    Unemployed 45-64 years                         1,447,729           63,700          4.4 %
3e    Roma- Pomaks                                     55,120            12,725         23.1 %
3f    Addicts and ex-addicts                           1,500             1,500          100 %
4.a   Persons with mental diseases living in
                                                      53,334             23,467          44 %
      the community

      Total                                          2,157,345          290,609         13.5 %

4.b   Persons with mental diseases staying in
                                                                        4320
      psychiatric clinics
the category of disabled persons and in the category of persons with mental diseases
living in the community, are unemployed. In particular, 44% of disabled persons, as
well as 44% of persons with mental diseases living in the community are faced with
unemployment.

Unemployment rates are also high in the category of heads of single-parent families,
since 26% of such persons are excluded from the labour market.
Particularly as regards single-parent families, an important source of information is the
“Transnational Guide for single-parent families: Draft report for Greece” of the National
Centre for Social Research, which has shown the following conclusions and information:

 Single-parent families are considered as the following family statuses:
         o presence of one parent (usually single mother)
         o death of one parent or divorce
         o adoption of a child by one person
         o absence of one parent due to migration
 in terms of the number of single-parent families, it is important to consider that
   variety in information of national sources and different definitions used in the
   countries of the European Union to estimate households with only one parent
   (mainly as regards the age of children) do not allow the formation of a clear picture
   in relation to dimensions in figures. Moreover, it is difficult to identify single
   parents living in other households.


C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                   11
 According to information from the population census in 1991, single-parent families
  amount to approximately 160,000 and represent 6% of the total families in the
  country. Single mothers represent 4.8% and single fathers only 1.2%. Most single
  parents are heads of the household, while 15% live with other members.
 On the basis of recent data from Eurostat (2001) the proportion of single parents
  with minor children in all households having a child (under 25), represent 7% of the
  total families in Greece, while there are other cohabiting single parents living in
  other households, representing 3%.
 The analysis of secondary factors has shown that even though employment is higher
  among single mothers compared to married ones, cohabiting mothers present
  higher unemployment rates than other women with children.

                     Working status of single mothers in Greece 1994 - 1996
                       Cohabiting single         Single mothers –     Married-     Single
                         mothers 1994                heads of        cohabiting    mothers
                                                 households 1994    mothers 1994    1996
    Working                  47.2%                   58.7%            38.5%        47.0%
    Unemployed               19.9%                   11.2%            13.0%        16.0%
    Non-active               32.9%                   30.0%            48.5%        37.0%
   Source: Ruspini(1998), Martin, Vion (2001)

23% of Roma and Pomaks are unemployed, which is also the case for 17.9% of persons
in the category of return migrants, emigrants and refugees.

10.2% of residents in remote areas and 4.4% of the unemployed in the group of 45-64
years, are unemployed.

A discouraging element arising from the estimates of the Evaluation Consultant is that
all addicts and ex-addicts are excluded from the labour market.


As regards return migrants from the former USSR, the information presented in the
census carried out by the Secretariat General for Return Migrants of the Ministry of
Macedonia Thrace show that 180,000 return migrants have left the countries of the
former USSR and have come to Greece permanently. According to information of the
aforementioned census, the main volume of ethnic Greeks (96%) has settled in the
Regions of Macedonia, Thrace and Attica.

As regards the number of emigrants, according to information arising from the detailed
list of applications by foreign nationals for residence permit, it arises that there are
approximately 367,901 foreign nationals who have applied for the aforementioned
permit and approximately 300,000 who have already received a temporary residence
permit.



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                               12
B. Local agents

Municipal Organization for the Vocational Training of Volos (DEOB)

While reviewing indicative characteristics of unemployment in certain local agents-
fields of application, one can observe the following:

Following detailed research and according to information supplied by OAED, it arises
that there are 6,360 people in the Prefecture of Magnisia who suffer or are threatened
with social exclusion.
In particular, the following figures are mentioned as entered in the registers of OAED by
social exclusion group in the wider area of Magnisia.

              Category of vulnerable social groups                 Number
              Disabled persons (handicaps)                            350
              Return migrants, emigrants, refugees                    50
              Other categories of unemployed                         3000
              Prisoners, ex-convicts, juvenile delinquents            40
              Single-parent                                           150
              Long-term unemployed (over 45 years)                    800
              Roma                                                    700

              Ex-users                                                20
              Women threatened with social exclusion                 1000
              Mentally ill                                            250



   Research carried out by the Municipal Educational Organization of Volos has shown
   among other things that:
      o Over 57% of unemployed remain unemployed for more than 2 years.
      o 5 months is the most frequent period of unemployment for the short-term
         unemployed, while for the long-term unemployed this period is 15 months.


   Zografou Municipal Enterprise of Development

   According to recent information of the local OAED in the Municipality of Zografou, the
   unemployed women entered are 7,000 to a rate of 24.52%.
   According to information supplied by the “DIONI” Information and Support Centre
   for Women on issues of Employment in its 8 years of operation, the vast majority of
   women approaching the centre are in constant search of work. According to research



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   carried out in the wider area of the Municipality of Zografou, approximately 3,000
   disabled persons have been registered of all ages and particularities.
   The rate facing important problems is quite high, resulting in social exclusion.

   Unified Vocational Training Centre of Cyclades

   In the Prefecture of Cyclades (Region of Southern Aegean), unemployment presents
   two extreme situations. On the one hand the phenomenon of very short-term
   unemployment, in line with the establishment of seasonal employment in tourism.
   At the same time it is observed that there are high rates of long-term unemployment
   (over 2 years). The presence of this last category of unemployed is particularly
   evident in Syros, Milos and Paros, possibly associated with the appearance of intense
   social inequalities and potential risk of social exclusion.
   As regards unemployment rates among socially vulnerable groups in the prefecture
   of Cyclades in relation to the workforce, these are quite high:
   Unemployment rates in single-parent families (44.44%), disabled persons and persons
   with chronic diseases (42.31%) and unemployment rates among residents of mountainous
   areas (29.55%)

    Municipal Enterprise of Growth of Municipality of Egaleo

    Since 1997, the services of the Centre for the Promotion and Support of Employment
    in the Municipality of Egaleo have been consulted by 2,552 people and in particular:

                  Young unemployed (below 22)                     525
                  Unemployed men (over 22)                        581
                  Unemployed women (over 22)                      705
                  Return migrants                                 549
                  Disabled persons                                 91
                  Refugees / emigrants                            101
                  Total                                          2,552




       1.5 Characteristics of unemployment and unemployed people




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      Unemployment is not the result of dismissals (more than half unemployed people
       have never worked).

      Co-exists with vacant job position (skill inconsistencies). Presents lower
       association with the risk of poverty. The relatively high educational level of the
       unemployed (combined with their age and family structure in Greece) is a
       possible explanation of the peculiarity of the unemployed in Greece. The
       correlation between lack of access to the labour market and poverty appears very
       slim in our country compared to other European countries (both to the average
       and the countries of the Mediterranean). It is characteristic that during the 1990s,
       despite the upward trend of unemployment, the percentage of households
       without access to employment was not increased, while there are few cases
       where the unemployed are heads of a household. Moreover, persons living in
       households without access to employment have 80% more chances of being poor
       in Greece, while this possibility is 194% in Italy and 196% in the EU on average
       (see Annex: Statistical Mapping of Social Exclusion, National Action Plan for
       Social Inclusion, 2001- 2003).

      Unemployment rates are higher in younger ages (up to 25 years) as well as in
       women (of all ages).
       The problem of unemployment in the Greek labour market is mainly a problem
       for the young, usually new in the labour market, often remaining unemployed for
       a long period.

      As regards high educational levels, we notice that the more the standard
       qualifications the easier to find and hold a job position.




2. Characteristics of enterprises demand

The following information related to enterprises are based on a study entitled
“Connection of specialized ongoing training of the unemployed with the needs of


C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                           15
enterprises” carried out by Metron Analysis during 15 February to 27 April 2001, on
account of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.

The characteristics of demand from enterprises were investigated through the answers of
managers in relation to:

 The existing needs to be covered in enterprises (level of current demand)
 Number of demanders (demand rate)
 In parallel cumulative information is presented about the structure of demand by
  gender, age, educational level, experience, foreign languages and PC skills, and
 The views of managers on the potential absorption of socially vulnerable population
  groups


2.1 Needs in covering job positions (level of current demand and degree of coverage
    for the last year)

The needs for coverage of job positions throughout the country as well as in the regions
under review as expressed by enterprises are presented in the following table.

Table 2.1.a : Level of current demand

Region                                                      Percentage of enterprises expressing direct
                                                            needs in staff (%)
Attica                                                                               33.0
Western Macedonia                                                                    35.9
Thessaly                                                                             26.9
N-S. Aegean1                                                                         29.1
Entire country                                                                       32.1

[1] Northern Aegean was grouped with Southern Aegean in order to provide a capable analysis base by region


The research results show that approximately 3 out of 10 enterprises express direct
needs for coverage of job positions or that new job positions will be created in the near
future.
The lowest level of current demand was noticed in the region of Thessaly at 26.9%,
while in the region of Attica approximately 1 out of 3 enterprises expressed the
immediate need for recruitment.

Table 2.1b : Needs to cover in job positions per financial activity sector

       Activity sectors                                             Percentage of enterprises
                                                                    expressing urgent need in
                                                                    staff (%)



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                               16
     Agriculture / Fishery/ Mines                         32.5
     Manufacturing / Energy                               31.9
     Construction                                         33.8
     Wholesale – Retail                                   31.7
     Other services                                       32.8
     Total                                                32.1

The table above shows that needs to cover job positions do not change depending on the
financial activity sector of the enterprise.
The following table 2.1c presents the level of current demand combined with the level of
demand covered by enterprises in the previous year

Table 2.1c: Coverage of job positions in the last 12 months and existing needs for
               coverage of job positions

                    Did you cover
                    any job
                    positions in             YES       NO              Total
                    your company
                    in the last year?
Are there any
needs to cover in
                          YES               21.7%     10.4%           32.1%
job positions or
will any new job
positions be
created in the
near future
                          NO                38.8%     29.1%            67.9%
Total                                       60.4%     39.6%           100.0%




The above table shows that:

 Out of 10 enterprises of the sample, a percentage of 21.7% shows high mobility in
  recruitment, since some needs were covered in the last year, but the need for new
  recruitments is expressed for the near future. The ongoing existence of needs in staff
  is more intense in larger enterprises of the sample, since 4 out of 10 enterprises
  employing more than 100 people express current and coverage of past demand.
 Approximately 1 out of 10 enterprises of the sample (10.4%) express urgent need in
  staff without having proceeded to any recruitment for the last year, while 4 out of 10
  (38.8%) have covered their needs in the last year and have not scheduled any
  immediate staff recruitment
 Finally, approximately 3 out of 10 enterprises (29.1%) present low levels of current
  and past demand, since they state that no recruitment has taken place in the last year



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                        17
  and there is not urgent need for manpower. This category mainly pertains to small
  enterprises employing up to 9 people
 From the above it arises that within a period of 1 to 2 years, at least 7 out of 10
  enterprises have proceeded or intend to proceed to staff recruitment



2.2 Structure of current demand

The enterprises expressing the need for coverage of specific job positions have been
requested to state the number of people needed. The total current demand recorded of
the sample enterprises amounted to 16,936 people throughout the country. The
following table presents average demand from enterprises requesting staff.

Table 2.2a: Average estimated demand by number of employed staff in the enterprise

Number of staff          Average estimated              Number of          Estimated structure
                            demand of                enterprises in the      of demand (%)
                            enterprises             sample demanding
                          demanding staff                  staff
                         (number of staff)
1-9                               1                        610                     8.8
10-19                             2                        402                    11.7
20-49                             3                        465                    20.2
50-99                             5                        228                    16.5
>100                             10                        295                    42.8


The average demand of enterprises employing 1-9 people amounts to one person and
represent 8.8% of total demand. Enterprises employing more than 100 people express
demand for 10 people on average and represent 42.8% of total demand.

As regards the structure of demand by region (table 2.2.b.), the region of Attica
represents 65.1% of total demand. Contribution of demand from regions of the Aegean
(especially southern) is higher than the respective rate to which these regions are
represented in the sample of enterprises. Certain tourist enterprises (such as hotels) in
the region of the Southern Aegean show particularly high demand.


Table 2.2b: Structure of demand by country region

Regions                            Estimated structure of             Structure of sample of
                                        demand (%)                        enterprises (%)
Attica                                       65.1                             56.0


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N-S. Aegean                                  9.5                              2.9
Thessaly                                     1.4                              3.9
W. Macedonia                                 0.8                              3.2

The structure of demand by financial activity sector compared to the structure of the
sample shows low representation of the services sector and comparative under-
representation of the industrial and commercial sector (table 2.2.c). Specifically, 4 out of
10 persons are demanded by enterprises in the sector of services, approximately 4 out of
10 persons by commercial enterprises and approximately 2 out of 10 persons by the
industrial sector.

Table 2.2c: Structure of demand by financial activity sector

Activity sectors                                       Estimated      Structure of sample
                                                      structure of     of enterprises (%)
                                                      demand (%)
Agriculture / Fishery/ Mines                               1.3                 1.3
Manufacturing / Energy                                    17.8                23.4
Construction                                               5.0                 5.1
Wholesale – Retail                                        36.1                51.3
Other services                                            39.8                18.9




2.3 Qualitative characteristics of current demand

Table 2.3a: Demand for new or existing job positions by region

Regions                  New job positions       Existing job positions   Structure of demand
                               (%)                         (%)               by region (%)
W. Macedonia                    78.5                     21.5                        0.8
Attica                          72.4                     27.6                       65.1
Thessaly                        66.0                     34.0                        1.4
N-S Aegean                      19.2                     80.8                        9.5


Table 2.3b: Demand for new or existing job positions by sector

Sector                                               New job          Existing job
                                                     positions        positions (%)
                                                       (%)
Agriculture / Fishery/ Mines                           35.9               64.1
Manufacturing / Energy                                 74.6               25.4



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            Construction                                           84.0              16.0
            Wholesale – Retail                                     74.2              25.8
            Other services                                         52.8              47.2
            Total                                                  65.7              34.3


            According to the tables above, approximately 2 out of 3 persons demanded (65.7%) are
            about to cover new job positions, and 1 out of 3 to cover existing job positions (34.3%).

            Table 2.3c: Association of current demand with educational level by sector

Fields of             Up to 9-   High school     Vocational      Technologic   University       No       Total
activity               year       graduates        training           al       graduates    preference    (%)
                     education       (%)         institute or    educational      (%)          (%)
                        (%)                     other school       institute
                                               graduates after    graduates
                                                 high school         (%)
                                                      (%)
Primary                65.2         11.0             6.6             7.4           4.1         5.7       100
Industry               16.8         39.0            12.8            13.4           9.7         8.3       100
Construction           32.4         16.7             5.8            12.0          19.4        13.6       100
Commerce               15.1         46.4            10.6            12.0          11.4         4.5       100
Other services          9.6         29.8            18.8            10.0          25.4         6.3       100
Total                  14.7         36.5            14.0            11.4          17.0         6.4       100


            The table above shows that current demand is closely related to the educational level,
            since certain minimum requirements are expressed for 9 out of 10 persons demanded.
            In particular:

             Enterprises of the primary sector present high demand in need for compulsory
              education graduates (65.2 % of demand from this sector)

             Industries show strong preference to high school or vocational training institute
              graduates (51.8% of demand)

             Commercial enterprises show high demand for high school or vocational training
              institute graduates (57.0% of demand)

             Enterprises operating in the provision of services show high demand both for high
              school and vocational training institute graduates (48.6% of demand) and for higher
              education/ university graduates (35.4% of demand)

            Moreover, the relation between current demand with issues of experience, foreign
            languages and PC skills is very close.



            C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                     20
Specifically, 55.4% of demand in manpower is associated by managers with the need for
experience (table 2.3.d). experience is more demanded in enterprises of the construction
sector (77.9%) and less in enterprises of the primary sector (45.9%).
The knowledge of foreign languages is an integral part of demand for 47.2% of people
demanded (table 2.3.e). Demand expressed by enterprises in commerce and the
provision of services is strongly associated with the knowledge of foreign languages (to
51.4% and 53.6% respectively).
Finally, 35.4% of current demand is closely related to the need for computer skills (table
2.3.f), particularly in commercial enterprises (to 44.6%), in the industry (to 37.7%) and in
the provision of services (to 28%).

Table 2.3.d: Association of current demand with experience by sector

Primary                  Experience required     No experience required   No preference (%)
                         (%)                     (%)
Industry                          45.9                     9.6                     44.4
Construction                      59.3                    16.1                     24.6
Commerce                          77.9                     3.7                     18.4
Other services                    56.4                    17.3                     26.3
Total                             50.1                    17.8                     32.1

Primary                         55.4                 16.5                  28.1
Table 2.3.e: Association of current demand with the knowledge of foreign languages

Primary                      Foreign language     Foreign language not      No preference (%)
                               required (%)           required (%)
Industry                           13.0                   50.7                     36.3
Construction                       34.2                   35.6                     30.1
Commerce                           21.6                   43.5                     34.9
Other services                     51.4                   31.8                     16.8
Total                              53.6                   18.3                     28.0

Primary                            47.2                   28.0                     24.8


Table 2.3.f: Association of current demand with computer skills

Primary                  Computer skills         Computer skills not      No preference (%)
                         required (%)            required (%)
Industry                          12.8                    53.1                     34.1
Construction                       37.7                   40.1                     22.2
Commerce                           26.3                   40.7                     33.1
Other services                     44.6                   37.0                     18.4
Total                              28.0                   34.2                     37.9

Primary                            35.4                   36.8                     27.8


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2.4 Views of businessmen on vulnerable social groups

For each professional specialization demanded by enterprises, the managers were asked
whether they would employ a disabled person or a person coming from vulnerable
social groups (such as return migrants, emigrants, etc) if this person had the required
qualifications and training.

To a rate of 26% of demanded specialization, the interviewees answered they would
employ a disable person with all required qualifications, compared to 63.2% that
answered negatively. Business managers were more positive to the recruitment of
persons coming from other vulnerable groups such as return migrants or emigrants,
since 54.7% would employ such a person, compared to 35.9% that answered negatively
(table 2.4.a)



Table 2.4.a : Absorption of vulnerable social groups

Should a person apply for a job
having         all        required
qualifications,    training   and
preparation, would you employ              YES          NO               D/A
such a person if…                          (%)          (%)              (%)
a) he/ she was disabled
                                           26.0         63.2              10.7
b) belonged to vulnerable groups
such as return migrants,                   54.7         35.9              9.4
emigrants, etc.



Business managers were slightly more positive to employing a disable person for
positions requiring knowledge and specialization such as office workers (38.3%
answered positively) and scientific professions (34.8% positive attitude), while they
were more negative for positions requiring bodily effort such as unskilled workers (only
13.1% had a positive attitude), machine operators (11.8%) and specialized farmers
(10.0%).

On the contrary, business managers in their majority were positive to the recruitment of
other vulnerable groups (such as return migrants and emigrants) for positions where
compulsory education is sufficient, requiring bodily effort (such as farmers and
livestock farmers where 86.5% of enterprises demanding such persons would employ a
return migrant or an emigrant for such position, and workers/ technicians where the


C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                        22
respective rate is 67.2%), while they appear less willing to employ such a person in
commerce or services.




3. Obstacles facing vulnerable social groups in finding employment and the
   contribution of training centres in their professional rehabilitation

A significant source for the investigation of obstacles facing socially vulnerable groups
in their effort to find employment is information of the Final Evaluation of the
Operational Programme “Fighting Exclusion from the Labour Market”.
Investigation was carried out through a questionnaire drawn up by the Evaluation
Consultant and sent by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs to the implementation
bodies (vocational training centres) related to a representative sample of beneficiaries.

According to research information, the OP beneficiaries who found employment
amount to 44%, while more than half beneficiaries remain unemployed (56%).

Table 3.1 : Professional status of beneficiaries for 1999

  Professional      Disabled persons      Emigrants, return    Other excluded             Total
     status                              migrants, refugees     social groups
                   Number       %       Number         %      Number       %     Number            %
Employed
                      60        10.4       410        50.3     468        65.2    938             44.4

Unemployed
                     519        89.6       406        49.7     250        34.8    1.175           55.6

Total
beneficiaries        579       100.0       816       100.0     718       100.0    2.113           100.0




Beneficiaries who found employment mainly come from “other groups” (65.2 %) but
also from the groups of return migrants, emigrants and refugees (50.3%), while
beneficiaries remaining unemployed mainly come from the disabled persons group
(89.6%) and return migrants, emigrants and refugees (49.7%).

It is interesting that many beneficiaries who did not find employment do not in their
whole fall under the category of unemployed, either because they do not look for a job
or because they are in a condition that does not allow them to find a job or because they
attend other training programmes, as shown in the following table.



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Table 3.2: Condition of unemployed benefiting from the OP for 1999

                                     Disabled      Emigrants, return    Other excluded          Total
                                      persons      migrants, refugees    social groups
                                   Number     %    Number        %      Number      %    Number          %
Remains unemployed despite
seeking for employment               205    39.5     254       62.6       135      54     594           50.6

Does not seek for employment
                                     38      7.3     88        21.7       75       30     201           17.1
Attends another programme or
attendance of another training       150    28.9     45        11.1       16      6.4     211           18
programme is required
Volunteers, is a trainee or
employed in centres for
disabled persons such as             116    22.4      2         0.5        -       -      118           10
institutions, treatment centres,
communities, etc
Is in prison or a therapeutic
                                      -       -       -          -        18      7.2      18           1.5
community
Is hospitalized
                                     6       1.2      5         1.2        -       -       11           0.9
Interrupted the programme or
                                     4       0.8     12         3          6      2.4      22           1.9
cannot be traced
Total unemployed
beneficiaries                        519    100      406       100        250     100     1175          100



In more detail, it is observed that the majority of beneficiaries not seeking for
employment mainly comes from the group of disabled persons, but also from other
groups, either due to personal problems or because their condition does not allow them
to seek for employment. In particular, 7.3 of beneficiaries disabled persons, 21.7 % of
emigrants, return migrants, refugees and 30% of beneficiaries from other excluded social
groups does not seek for employment.

28.9% of disabled persons not having found employment attend another training
programme or are involved in various services of Specialized Centres such as
institutions, unions, associations, etc, working as volunteers or at labs (22.4%). It is a fact
that these centres provide a series of services to disabled persons, including from
consultancy to training on specific specialities and promotion to employment. Centre
managers often encourage involvement of users in various works within the centre,
both to the improvement of their skills and taking advantage of their leisure time.

Other training programmes are attended by beneficiaries of the remaining groups, to a
lower degree though. Specifically, training programmes are attended by 11.1% of
unemployed emigrants, return migrants and refugees and 6.4% of unemployed from



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                     24
other excluded social groups. It is obvious that these are people seeing training
programmes not as a chance to improve their skills facilitating them in their professional
integration, but as a source of income and possibly as a means to make use of their
leisure time.

Finally, some beneficiaries cannot be integrated in the labour market either because they
are imprisoned or in therapeutic communities or are faced with serious health problems.

Apart from attending other training programmes or purely personal problems which
prevent beneficiaries from being integrated in the labour market, implementation bodies
have stated that beneficiaries are not seeking employment for the following reasons as
well:


      Family obligations
       (raising children, health problems of a family member, etc) - personal reasons     48,6%
      Behaviour problems mainly presented by the group of disabled persons               12,6%
      Continued studies                                                                  13,5%
      Military service                                                                     2,7%
      Change of residence to another city or country                                     13,5%
      Existence of income (benefits, disability allowance, etc)                            6,3%
      Willing to work only in the public sector                                            0,9%
      Deceased                                                                             1,9%




As regards the contribution of training centres in the professional rehabilitation of the trainees,
it was observed that it is significant in the group of disabled persons, since almost all
disabled persons found employment through actions developed by these agents. In fact,
the training agents for disabled persons- specialized centres in particular- develop
important actions in the context of promoting their users, ranging from personal and
family consultancy, consultancy to businesses and employers, finding job positions to
the provision of support to this position through consultancy for the improvement of
working relations and keeping the users employed.

On the other hand, the contribution of training centres to the professional rehabilitation
of beneficiaries in the remaining target groups is very low. Approximately 2/3 of


C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                  25
workers of the sample from the groups of return migrants, emigrants, refugees and
other excluded groups found employment through own acquaintances, either
professional or in their environment. The limited success of training agents in finding
employment for users is due to the fact that the actions developed are fragmentary and
limited in time, since these are restricted to the duration of the training programme.

Most beneficiaries look for any job, that is without restrictions in working hours, the
type and working relation. These people mainly come from the groups of return
migrants, emigrants, refugees and other excluded groups. A lower number of
beneficiaries, mainly from the groups of return migrants, emigrants and refugees seek
employment corresponding to their qualifications and studies, while beneficiaries from
the disabled persons group mainly seek for permanent employment.




4.    Active policies for the empowerment of employment and the education of
     vulnerable social groups

Strategic importance of social cohesion – Policy measures for Employment

The empowerment of social state institutions and the adaptation thereof to the new
reality of post-industrial society and globalized economy constitute the great challenge
for Europe in this decade. Particularly in Greece, the social state is called upon to play



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                          26
an ever significant role in securing social cohesion in society coherence and therefore in
living standards.

Traditional forms of aid, mainly through the family, are gradually losing their
significance. Consequently, a more decisive state organization and the provision of
social protection is mandatory. While social cohesion in Greece could be taken for
granted in previous decades, now it must form an autonomous policy target, and in fact
of strategic importance.

Employment policy is analyzed in the National Action Plan for Employment
2001(NAPE).
 NAPE classifies its actions under 4 pillars. The general application measures are
mentioned initially, moving to measures related to special groups.

Special groups are defined as follows: disabled persons, return migrants, emigrants,
refugees, prisoners, ex-convicts, juvenile delinquents, ex-users, Pomaks, Roma,
unemployed 45-64, seropositive individuals, asylum seekers and those suffering
discrimination, inequality and or exclusion from the labour market.

Pillar 1: Employability

1. Incentive for the readmission of long-term unemployed in the labour market

It addresses the long-term unemployed recruited with part-time employment contract
for at least 4 hours on a daily basis. This is granted by OAED as an incentive for
readmission in active employment in the form of a monthly financial aid during the
working relation to a maximum of 12 months.

2. Subsidizing employees’ contribution
It addresses workers paid with minimum wages/ salaries.

3. Reduction of employer’s contribution

Employers employing or will employ wage earners providing dependent full-time work
and whose salary does not exceed 200 thousand per month, shall pay employer’s
contribution reduced by 2 percent. This measure is an incentive for employers to
employ young workers.

4. Youth unemployment and prevention of long-term unemployment

Specialized consultants advise the unemployed at the EPCs, focusing on socially
vulnerable groups. Their work includes the recording of individual needs related to
their inclusion in the labour market and the presentation of alternatives offered.
Inclusion in: general public training programmes (mainstreaming), job positions


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without training, Accompanying Support Services programmes, complete programmes
for cases faced with serious inclusion problems (mental diseases, mental handicap,
convicts, ex-users, etc).

5. Ongoing provision of Support Services

Development of action plans, aimed at empowering people so that they have more
opportunities for social inclusion, apart from professional rehabilitation. These actions
address those who need them, regardless of training, and include psychological and
social support, boosting of self-confidence, information, increase of awareness among
employers and the local community, job-finding techniques, vocational training, etc.

6. Mainstreaming in vocational training programmes for vulnerable social groups of the
population.

Inclusion of persons from socially vulnerable groups in general public and not special
programmes, where they have the ability to attend such programmes. For example,
these address persons with mobility problems, return migrants-emigrants or refugees
(provided they speak Greek), etc. Particularly in relation to return migrants or
emigrants, the opportunity to learn Greek is also provided, aimed at facilitating
inclusion in general public programmes and/ or the labour market. Moreover, the
opportunity is offered to acquire essential education knowledge when this does not
exist (writing, reading, arithmetic, etc).

7. Integrated interventions for specific disadvantaged groups and unemployed people in high
unemployment areas or sectors

The goal is to create quality and viable job positions in unemployment pockets or in
areas with high concentration rates in vulnerable social groups. These programmes fall
under the concept of “Active Employment Policies” and aim at the shift of the policy
followed for the unemployed from support to motivation and provision of employment
and training opportunities for their re-inclusion in the employed workforce. Through
the activation of local social partners and the state, through appropriate incentives and
using a combination of tools and programmes, the individualization of each case of
unemployed is sought related to existing needs in the labour market, and the provision
of opportunities for permanent employment. For example they address: persons with
mental handicap, not institutionalized persons with mental diseases, ex-users,
unemployed over 45 years, unemployed in high unemployment areas and sectors,
convicts, Roma, Pomaks.

8. Facilitating access and return to the labour market

It includes long-term training programmes on selected subjects, providing for the
empowerment of special type labour inclusion programmes, the upgrading and


C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                           28
modernization of employment support structures and systems for disadvantaged
groups, the promotion of partnership and networking of structures and agents
supporting employment, and the development of awareness for employers and
professional agents.

9. Subsidies for employment of socially vulnerable groups

It aims at providing special incentives facilitating employment. The actions are
addressed to disabled persons, ex-addicts, ex-convicts, juvenile delinquents and finally
persons threatened with exclusion. The subsidy programmes are: a) National
Programmes (funds from national resources), such as the “four-year employers subsidy
programme”, the four-year employers subsidy programme for part-time employment”
for persons who cannot meet full-time employment” and the “full-time definite-period
contract programme” for subsidies to seasonal local government undertakings.

10. Alternate training and employment and other inclusion actions

It includes actions for the empowerment of alternate training and employment
programmes for the employed and the unemployed, the empowerment of undertakings
to adopt life-long education mechanism and programmes, educational programmes for
workers in insecure positions for the exploitation of new technologies and the support
of adaptation of undertakings in new technologies and the peculiarities of vulnerable
groups.

11. Actions for the long-term unemployed

They include actions such as: subsidy from OAED for the creation of new job positions,
set-up of new undertakings, stage programmes and training, re-training or alternate
training programmes.

12. Law 2643/1998 sees to the employment of persons in specific categories (disabled
persons, families with many children and other categories). Recruitment relates to job
positions in the public and private sector with meritocratic criteria.


Pillar 2: Entrepreneurship

Promotion of entrepreneurship is the main goal of NAPE 2001. Taking into account the
peculiarity of the Greek social structure, self-employment or small personal businesses
are common in populations threatened with exclusion. The NAPE aims at supporting
entrepreneurship and expanding the social base of businesses, providing specially
customized ancillary services, as well as special incentives for the empowerment of
those population groups presenting low business entrepreneurial activity, focusing on



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                        29
the unemployed, young people, women and disabled persons. An important element of
the strategy is the reduction of bureaucratic obstacles (such as time of leave, transactions
with the state). In particular:

    Actions for networking and partnership at a local, regional and central level
     between agents and entrepreneurship structures, information, support and
     monitoring of entrepreneurship among vulnerable social groups and the
     provision of integrated support for the creation of enterprises. (52 One stop
     shops)

    With incentives for the set-up of enterprises by young, unemployed and older
     unemployed people and with integrated interventions for women in order to
     acquire the necessary skills for self-employment

    Improvement of the institutional framework for the development of
     entrepreneurship among persons of specific categories, in particular in the
     context of “social” partnerships operating under specific protective regimes
     (limited liability social partnerships). The expansion of the institutional
     framework of limited liability social partnerships is examined in order to include
     more categories of disabled persons, apart from the mentally disabled.

Strengthening social economy
Motivation for the development of a services grid for the improvement of living
standards, mainly in remote island and mountain areas:

    Support to female entrepreneurship in rural areas with the simultaneous
     development of activities in the context of agrotourism, family labour and crafts
    Improvement and expansion of units and service facilities for the elderly and
     other groups needing care.
    “Schools guarding” programme for 3,300 new job positions in 145 municipalities
     throughout the country, with a budget of…

Training related to the launch of entrepreneurship
It aims at training young entrepreneurs being disabled persons, in order to train them
on better practices for the development of the enterprise and to obtain knowledge on
management and operation. The beneficiaries are disabled persons to be subsidized for
the operation of new enterprises.

Entrepreneurship of vulnerable groups.
The programme subsidizing young freelancers from specific social groups aims at the
creation of enterprises by disabled persons, ex-addicts and ex-convicts, b) Co-financed
programme aiming at subsidizing employers and young freelancers for the
establishment of partnerships.


C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                            30
Pillar 3: Adaptability

The conditions created by knowledge economy demands ongoing efforts for the active
adaptation of enterprises and workers. The institutional reform (Law 2874/2000) to the
labour market forms the framework for the strengthening of the adaptability of
enterprises and workers, as well as for the effectiveness of active employment policies.
The policy for 2001 focuses (a) on the modernization of labour organization,
    radical limitation of workers’ obligation for additional work.
    Settlement of annual working time by means of collective agreements.
    Reduction of non-salary-related cost for low income earners.
    Incentives for the promotion of part-time working and rehabilitation of the long-
      term unemployed.
    Rationalization of limits to mass dismissals.

And (b) on Health and Safety at Work, where 2 types of networks operate, operated
from the Centre for Health and Safety at Work of the Ministry of Labour
a. The National Promotion Network for Health at Work
b. The National Network of Information Agents for Health and Safety at Work

Pillar 4 : Strengthening of equal opportunities between women and men

In recent years, a steady reduction in the gap has been observed as regards employment
rates, since 3/4 of net inflows in paid employment come from women (for the period
1990-1999, 74% of new job positions, about 220,000- addressed women).
The Secretarial General for Equality shall prepare an Integrated National Action
Programme to include issues of social inclusion and removal of social exclusion of
women and specific social groups.

A. Gender mainstreaming. Planned measures and policies for 2001:

    enhanced participation of women in active policies, mainly in OAED
     programmes.
    allocation of 11.4% of total funds for ESF actions (CSF III: 2000-2006) especially
     for women (mainstreaming).
    training of labour consultants and staff of Centres for the Promotion of
     Employment to consult unemployed women.
    development of a rates monitoring mechanism for the promotion of equality.
    review of schoolbooks material by the Educational Institute for the elimination of
     traditional stereotypes related to the roles of the genders.

B. Dealing with the gap between genders



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                        31
The policy measures in the framework of NAPE 2001 focus on strengthening the
presence of women both in employment and training programmes and
entrepreneurship. In particular, they provide for:

    integrated interventions for women             through   the   “Young    Freelancers”
     programme (1,000 women in 2001).

    improvement of education and training to women on new technologies,
     emphasizing on new skills, through actions financed by the Account for
     Employment and Vocational Training.

    educational interventions for women, financed by the Account for Employment
     and Vocational Training, on issues such as electronic commerce, management,
     taxation, finance, etc.

    the implementation of the EQUAL CI, which includes a series of actions for
     women. Within the year, the Development Partnerships necessary for the
     implementation of measures related to the strengthening of mechanisms for the
     inclusion of the equality principle at work and the promotion of female
     employment in new sectors of the economy.

    in the framework of the Competitiveness OP, it is expected that 500 women will
     be benefited in 2001 from the measure for the promotion of female
     entrepreneurship.

Enforcement of the regulations of law 2874/2000 mentioned and expected to favour
increased participation of women in the labour market:
   (a) 7.5% increase to the remuneration of part-time employment for a short period
   (b) part-time employment allowance (measure 1.1)
   (c) reduction of employer’s contribution by 2%

C. Reconciliation of family and professional life

A series of actions aiming at facilitating the participation of parents in the labour market
and time pressure and obligations faced by parents, especially those in single-parent
families. The main concern is baby-sitting services. The measures taken are the
following:

Α. Nursery centres dealing with needs of younger children. The creation of new and the
financing of the operation of existing nursery centres- creative occupation centres for
children is provided for. 432 new units are created. The ongoing operation of 180 units
by LGs with a cost of 11 bn GRD for a two-year period is financed.



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                            32
Β. All-day schools - Kindergartens. The Ministry of Education extends coverage to
older children operating schools and kindergartens during evening hours, at the same
time meeting educational goals. Primary emphasis is given to children of working
people. The abolition of double shift schools offers many mothers the opportunity to
find job positions with “normal” working hours. There are 1,000 “all-day” kindergartens
operating throughout the country with all-day programmes, attended by 17,000
toddlers. The establishment of autonomous all-day kindergartens is planned to the
replacement of divisions of all-day kindergartens. In particular, until 2003 they are
expected to be increased by 300 annually. All-day primary school- Pilot Programme: it
has already been implemented at 28 primary schools with the participation of all
students (6,000 children). The expansion of the programme is planned, with a gradual
global application, following evaluation and adaptation.
In particular, the establishment of 172 more schools until 2003 and 100 until 2006 - 300
schools in total- is provided. All-day primary school- Extended Hours: Children of
working parents may stay until 4pm, undertaking creative activities. In the school year
of 2000-1 2,000 such schools operated and 60,000 students benefited. The goal is the
further establishment of 500 annually, and qualitative upgrade.

C. Children’s camps- holidays. The Ministry of Health and Welfare through Prefectural
Governments applies a State Camps Programme. Every year 20,000 people are
accommodated at 22 camps throughout the country. These camps accept children from
6-16, families, elderly people, disabled persons and children from abroad. The
institution of children’s camps financed and operated by insurance funds (e.g. social
security fund, Small Businesses and Trades Insurance Fund, etc), LGs, the Church and
other agents is widely spread. There are many agents providing services to children
coming from vulnerable groups.




5. The part of the local government – local societies

Advantages of local markets and societies, as these are expressed through local
government and Local Social Partners

The local dimension had already been present in all National Action Plans for
Employment (NAPEs) of Member States since 1998. However, it gained the importance



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                        33
of one of the EU horizontal objectives by decision of the European Council on the 2001
Guidelines.

Its part is also further reinforced by the Lisbon Council of March 2000, through the
combination of the economic development objectives and those concerning the
development of employment.

In the 1997-2000 period, national policies have shown their strengths and weaknesses
through the NAPEs, namely those that at European level were considered as
“thresholds”, at which the possibilities of facing big global problems are exhausted. The
approximation of policies at a local level had started to gain ground ever since it was
understood that convergence in the European Union is faster and more efficient through
the regions, rather than over national borders. One of the factors affecting this
procedure has also been competition, which led to the identification of comparative
advantages, not so much at national level, but rather at regional level. At the same time,
this was associated with the local labour markets, the workforce pools and the new
employment prospects driven by new technologies. Through the gradual elimination of
distances and the introduction of added value in the services sector, local economies had
started to become increasingly important for the national average. The transnational
cooperation networks operating within the framework of programs and Community
initiatives, became the pathways for the dissemination of good practices, knowledge
and familiarization tools among the peoples of the Union.

The Guidelines for Employment, by setting specific, and often quantified objectives,
particularly reinforce the local dimension, the activation of which shall bring up the
results and the weaknesses encountered in the implementation of a given policy.

The advantages of local markets and communities, as these are expressed through local
government and local social partners, are reduced to four main points:

1. Proximity: namely the direct contact among the market actors, the unemployed and
the employed with employers, as well as between local authorities and citizens. This has
as a result a faster and more reliable identification of problems, as well as of possible
solutions thereto;

2. The possibility of making the best possible use of new information and
communications technologies: while at national level many time consuming regulations
are often required for obtaining an average result, at local level, the same result can be
obtained in less time, and usually at a lower cost, due to proximity.

3. Social economy: in the sense of mainly services, the provision of which is considered
necessary, but their cost in the free market makes them non affordable, social economy
or the third sector of economy is expressed at local and regional level rather than at a
national level. If one takes into account the potential of drawing on the jobs it includes,
along with the target groups it is called upon to cover and the providers of such




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                           34
services, reaches the conclusion that the local level is the principle level of such type of
development.

4. Direct contact among social partners: namely the possibility of direct contact among
the representatives of social groups on the real dimensions of issues concerning all
involved parties.

These points are not the only ones concerning the comparative advantages for the local
dimension. In spite of that, they apply to all cases, regardless of Member States to the
regions of which they refer. Furthermore, comparative advantages are also the resources
of the local governments and the consequent possibility for decision making, that hold
true in all Member States with a strong and long tradition in decentralized institutions
and reinforced local authorities.

However, the recent recommendations and advice of the European Commission,
following also relevant consultations of the Committee of the Regions, encourage the
Member States to involve an ever increasing number of local bodies in the planning of
NAPEs, also in a systematic manner, characterized by homogeneity and coordination.

Applying the EES main principles, in accordance with which employment policies
should be horizontally incorporated in European and national policies, it is appropriate,
as set out in the Commission’s recommendations, to attempt to draw benefits from a
similar procedure for the integration of local employment strategies. The new rules of
structural funds, in particular of the ESF, contribute to that direction, thus allowing for
more support to the local initiatives for the development of employment.

Within the framework of support of that procedure, the Commission has taken specific
initiatives, aiming at encouraging the coordination of actions at local level, concerning
the goals of the EES and the objectives of NAPEs. Following relevant references at the
Meeting of the Mayors of the Union for the employment, in Helsinki, within the
framework of the Finnish Presidency and the Dialog commenced by the Commission
(Local Action for Employment), a congress was held in Strasbourg (December 20000
where the total results were presented. Apart from the fact that the local dimension is
now officially included among the primary objectives of the Union, one of the results led
to the implementation of the pilot application of Local Action Plans for Employment. It
is the case of an effort aiming at reaching useful conclusions from the learning
procedure of local bodies with regard to the conception, design and implementation of
action plans for employment, the steps taken for the preparation of a National Plan,
adapted to the local economy and labour market conditions.

The importance of this practice is considered to be multi-purpose:

1. It maps the labour market at a real scale and can experiment in the reliable collection
and processing of statistics, to be useful at a later stage and at national level.




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                            35
2. A learning procedure is launched for local and social bodies creating local
networking, if it did not exist, or reinforcing an existing one.

3. In the example of Pillars and Guidelines for Employment, plausible and viable
solutions are sought to specific problems.

4. Good practices may be generated and transferred.

5. Standards and specifications are created for the design and implementation of
complex policies at local level, the consent to which goes beyond the known Local
Development Programs (LDPs) and develops further.

6. The messages of the EES and the NAPEs are actively conveyed to the local level, and
reach it as practices and not merely as news with an echo effect.

7. Stronger links are created between the centre and the regions, as well as among the
regions themselves (within the same country, as well among Member States), as well as
between the European Union and the regions.

8. The possibilities for the successful results of policies combating unemployment and
the use of the workforce at both national and European level increase.

6. Summary - Conclusions

One of the first conclusions drawn from the research, is the lack of information on
figures concerning unemployment and the employment of vulnerable social groups.
Such lack, along with all the problems arising, poses particular difficulties both in the
development of policies for employment promotion policies and in the substantial
support within the framework of social equality, social cohesion and the right of equal
participation in the productive life of the country.
The project entitled “Network for the promotion of Employment” undertaken by the
Development Partnership ”In Action” within the framework of the Community
Initiative Equal, aims at finding a solution to the above problem, through:
o the preparation and application of a methodological tool for the registration of
     vulnerable social tools
o the creation of a database for recording data at local and central level
o the creation and operation of a Knowledge Portal with the involvement of all
     partners
o the use of the experience to be earned through cooperation with transnational
     partners (Great Britain, Italy)

Another important conclusion drawn from research is that entrepreneurs show some
reserve with regard to the possibility to provide opportunities for employment to



C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                         36
persons belonging to vulnerable social groups. More specifically, most entrepreneurs
show a rather negative attitude towards hiring disabled persons, and more of a positive
attitude towards hiring persons belonging to other vulnerable social groups such as
return migrants, immigrants etc.
From the above it becomes evident that the efforts made towards promoting the
employment of vulnerable social groups and increasing awareness among
entrepreneurs, should become systematic and be intensified to the benefit of the above
groups.

 The methodological tool which shall record and look into the demand of businesses
     for persons belonging in vulnerable social groups;
 the operation of the Local Network that shall bring together all population groups,
     local bodies and the business world;
 the preparation of Local Action Plans for Employment (LAPEs);
 coordinated actions for raising awareness and publicization;
 the operation of the Knowledge Portal for providing information and disseminating
     the knowledge in the area to all interested parties, thus reinforcing local actions for
     employment
all move towards the same direction.

It is obvious that the above problem cannot be tackled in a fragmentary manner, but
rather a coordinated, insistent, continuous and long-term effort is needed on the part of
local community (entrepreneurs, all vulnerable social groups, agencies of the public and
private sector), the leading part being plaid by the Local Government, which is called
upon to coordinate, guide and support the whole enterprise.
The Local Government, as a dynamic development body with a national and European
dimension, can ensure and guarantee the development and promotion of policies for
reinforcing employment and combating unemployment.

     The creation of a model procedures system from the use of methodological tools
        of approach of local particularities in issues concerning the employment of
        special population groups, enterprises and the association of demand and
        supply.
     The development / preparation of Local Action Plans for Employment in the
        areas – fields of application involved in the project
     The creation of a model procedures system for the development and preparation
        of Local Action Plans for Employment, activating the local networking
        procedures promoted by the Local Government and aiming at creating a local
        business cluster
       The organization of a Permanent Conference for matters of promotion of the
        Employment and for determining the part of local authorities at local, regional
        and national level.
All of the above move towards that direction.


C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                            37
At the same time, within the framework of Transnational Cooperation, all cooperating
development partnerships shall determine and examine the lack of coherent and
coordinated support systems for the inclusion of vulnerable social groups in the labour
market.
Cooperating development partnerships shall collaborate in order to overcome the
difficulties faced by the members of vulnerable social groups in their efforts to be
included in the labour market, both through the increase of information on
opportunities for users and employers, and the elimination of negative attitudes and
preconceptions towards such groups.




ANNEX
Basic definitions

Labour market : The set of actions facilitating the matching of labour supply and demand.
Source :CEDEFOP GLOSSARY, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg 1996




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                        38
Unemployment: The situation of those persons offering themselves for employment but are
unable to find paid employment, equivalent to the professional skills they possess.
The unemployed differ from the not working persons. The latter are not employed neither are
they interested in getting a job.
Source :CEDEFOP GLOSSARY, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg 1996

Unemployed : The unemployed include persons 14 years of age and above that are not
employed, seek a job and are available to start working when they find it.

Employment : Employment is the epicenter of attention of Member States given the high levels
of average unemployment rates in the EU (approximately 11%). Continuing towards the
direction set out by the 1993 White Paper of the Commission on development, competitiveness
and employment, the European Council of Essen (1994) set five priorities for the promotion of
employment :
     Improvement of employment prospects and promotion of investments in vocational
        training
     Increase of jobs within the framework of development
     Reduction of indirect salary cost
     Increase of the efficiency of the policy governing the labour market
     Reinforcement of the measures in favour of groups particularly affected by
        unemployment.
Source :GLOSSARY “European Union institutions, policies and enlargement”, Office for Official Publications of
the European Communities, Luxembourg 2000


Networking: The physical or electronic interconnection of natural or legal persons aiming at the
exchange of information and/or know-how and/or the development of joint action.
Source : EPLE – ESF

Long-term unemployment: A state of unemployment for over 12 months, in which the
unemployed are registered in the records of the unemployed of the competent employment
services.

New jobs : The jobs created in a business, organization, etc. in addition to the existing ones.

Target population: The part of the population or workforce addressed by a Program (e.g. long-
term unemployed over 25 years of age).
Population of working age: The population of working age related to labour supply. The
working age is determined on the basis of a lower limit of integration in the labour market based
on the educational, legislative and development models of a society. At times an upper age limit
is set for participation in the labour market. Eurostat uses the 15-64 age range for determining
the working age in its analyses. The NSSG sets the lower age limit for participation in the labour
market to 14 years and it does not set an upper limit.

Rate of unemployment: This is the number of the unemployed over the total workforce

Rate of employment: It is the number of the employed over the population of working age




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                            39
Evaluation Consultant: A CSF structure which in practice deals with the setting up of a
specialized group of scientists in the Operational Programs (Sectoral and Regional).
This group initially undertakes to create the basis for the assessment of the operational program,
creating a system of quantified objectives and indicators (efficiency, performance, impact etc.), at
program, priority, measure and, where required, project level based on the CSF documents,
approved operational programs, reports and Technical Project Forms.
The goal of such Evaluation Consultant is to provide the Operational Program administrative
authorities with a reliable support tool for decision making in the form of a set of appropriate
information that shall assist in the improvement of the efficiency of the Program and in the
analysis of its impact.
Source :Evaluation Consultant Contract

Ongoing Vocational Training : This is ongoing training aiming at the maintenance, renovation,
improvement and modernization of professional knowledge and skills. It is usually organized
and delivered by the employer in a systematic or non systematic manner, inside or outside the
workplace and at times through educational trips abroad. It could also be given by initiative of
employees through their participation in professional congresses, special educational seminars
and other fast learning programs.
Source :CEDEFOP GLOSSARY, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg 1996




        BIBLIOGRAPHY – SOURCES

    o   From the National Action Plan to the Local Action Plan for Employment – Simulation Guide,
        Anna Orologa 2001,
        European Union, Central Union of Municipalities and Communities in Greece, Greek Local Government and Local
        Development Corporation



    o   Evaluation of the Operational Program for Combating Exclusion from the Labour Market –
        Final Report (CSF 1994-1999),
        Ministry of Labor and Social Security, PRISMA Development Design, Research and Organization
        Consultants, December 2000

    o   National Action Plan for Employment,
        Ministry of Labor and Social Security,

    o   National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2001-2003
        Ministry of Labor and Social Security (Coordination), Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of the
        Interior, Public Administration and Decentralization, Ministry of National Education and Religion,
        Ministry of National Economy and Finance, June 2001

    o   Workforce Research – 4th Quarter 2001,
        National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG)

    o   The experience of Local Employment Pact – Good Practices,
        Anna Orologa 2001,
        European Union, Central Union of Municipalities and Communities in Greece, Greek Local Government and Local
        Development Corporation




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                                        40
   o   Association of specialized ongoing training for the unemployed with the needs of enterprises (market
       research and study results summary),
       Ministry of Labor and Social Security, Metron Analysis SA – Walter Fissaber and Associates LTD.

   o   CSF Terminology Index,
       Organization Unit for the Management of the Community Support Framework (OUMCSF)

   o   “Transnational Guide for single parent families: Preliminary report on Greece”
        Dr. L. Maratou – Alipranti, National Social Research Centre


   o   The Identity of Return Migrants from the former USSR.
       Secretariat General of Ethnic Greek Return Migrants of the Ministry of Macedonia –          Thrace,
       Thessaloniki, December 2000




C.I. EQUAL – Development Partnership IN ACTION                                                           41

								
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