Instructional Cycle 1 Lesson Plan Ashlei Neely Purpose/Rationale (Include assessment information about students that you may have gathered from a variety of work, etc that sources including discussions with your cooperating teacher, pre- assessments, daily provide a rationale for the teaching of this lesson. The purpose of this lesson is to introduce multiplication to the students by teaching them the information that is contained in the multiplication facts table. They will not actually be solving multiplication problems but rather they will have practice identifying factors and multiples of numbers as well identifying various patterns in the multiplication and division facts table. The lesson is only going to be conducted with my group of 9 fourth graders; I have been conducting the fourth grade Everyday Math lessons with them for the last couple of months. This is the first lesson that we have done which involves multiplication so I am very curious to see what they will do with it. The lessons that I have done with them all came from Unit 2 in Everyday Math and they included topics such as various methods of addition and subtraction (partial sums, trade- first, partial differences, etc.) and how to work with data (finding landmark numbers such as the minimum, maximum, mean, median, mode as well creating bar graphs). Multiplication naturally follows addition because multiplication is repeated addition so that is what we are moving on to. Before actually solving multiplication it is important to know times table facts and to have a grasp on certain facts about our first 100 numbers because it will make doing the multiplication just that much more simple and swift. We just concluded that unit and I felt that lesson 3-1 was irrelevant because it was not a lesson that seemed to bridge addition and multiplication nor enhance the introduction of basic skills and information to begin performing multiplication so I began unit 3 with lesson 3-2. I did not do a formal pre-assessment however I did record information about the students various levels and current objectives within their Accelerated Math so I am able to assume based on my findings that about 5/9 of them should have some exposure to multiplication. Connections to Standards/Benchmarks/Curriculum (Reference curriculum materials from which this lesson is adapted, in addition to local, state and/or national standards and benchmarks) Everyday Math for Grade 4: Lesson 3-2 N.ME.04.04 Find all factors of any whole number through 50, list factor pairs, and determine if a one-digit number is a factor of a given whole number N.ME.04.05 List the first ten multiples of a given one-digit whole number; determine if a whole number is a multiple of a given one-digit whole number What I did to prepare to plan and teach this lesson: (practiced the experiment, did the math problems myself, thought through timing, researched materials, etc.) I went through the lesson a few times and identified what components of the lesson plan were pertinent and what could be removed. I know that I only have 50-60 minutes to teach so it is imperative that I get to the heart of the subject matter, which is helping the students become familiar with the multiplication table, how to use it, and how to identify the factors, multiples, products and patterns within it. I chose which strategies I wanted to use from the student enrichment book based on the ones I feel are most beneficial and user friendly. I also made notes to myself on the lesson plan so as to keep myself in line with what I intend to do and to not forget anything in the haste of teaching the lesson. I went through the lesson and assigned a general time frame for each section so I can ideally complete all of the tasks. What connected lesson preceded this lesson and what do you know about students based on that work that informs this plan? On Tuesday, we did a unit review (Unit 2) to recap what we’ve been doing for the last few months. I did a verbal review with the students allowing them the opportunity to tell me what various vocabulary words meant (minimum, maximum, range, median, and mode) and to explain to me step by step how to work through the various algorithms that we’ve learned for addition and subtraction. Following our discussion, I gave them the unit’s written assessment, not in the form of a test, but as review and reinforcement. Most (7/9) were able to complete the exercises that asked them to solve the addition and subtraction exercises using the algorithms and to identify the landmark numbers. Because this is the beginning of the unit, there really is no lesson that is connected to this one; it is the start of a new concept and it is being used to present the students with introductory facts necessary to begin doing multiplication. Objective(s): The students will be able to… Read and understand a multiplication facts table including its symbols and the location of the factors and products Begin having instant recall of multiplication facts by way of various patterns and shortcuts within the table Identify factors and multiples of some numbers Complete a multiplication/division facts table Materials needed to have ready: Everyday Math Teacher Handbook Everyday Math Student Reference Book Everyday Math Student Journals Multiplication Facts Table (1 completed transparency and 9 blank copies) Pencils Markers & Dry Erase Board Management considerations: The students will be situated at the front two tables in the room while the 3rd graders will be working independently towards the back of the room. They will all have their own student journals and pencils while we are having our discussion. I have been, and will continue to be, enforcing my policy of hand raising because I have three students who will dominate the discussion if I don’t do so. I will be in control of who is answering so that I can make sure my students who struggle with math are staying with me. I will be calling the students up to the board when we work with the fact triangles so that everyone gets to participate and also to keep it organized while giving the students an opportunity to show what they know and be interactive in the lesson. I have been working with the students in a room by myself but Ms. S. had me begin working with them in the classroom this week and I like it much better because they seemed to be more on task, probably because she was in the room. I am not going to give them the multiplication facts table to complete for the assessment until the end of the lesson, because I don’t want them doing this while we are learning the information. Introduction/hook (scripted) “On Tuesday we wrapped up our unit how to use numbers (adding and subtracting them) as well as how to organize data. Today we are going to begin Unit 3 which is exploring multiplication and division. The great thing about multiplication is that many of our basic facts for the numbers 1-10 can be memorized by identifying patterns and shortcuts. We’re going to learn some of these today so that our multiplication process becomes as quick and efficient as possible!” Outline of your lesson sequence, including teaching strategies used. “What lesson went before this lesson”? Consider gradual release of responsibility, discussion, recitation, inquiry. Be specific about what you will do and how long each activity will take. How will students achieve the goal of the activity? Review your outline to consider whether the activities in the sequence provide the opportunity for your students to achieve your goals. 1. Open journals to page 56; explain that this is the multiplication & division facts table and what it is used for 2. Introduce the * and / symbols for multiplication and division (2min) 3. Review the vocabulary: factors, products, factor pairs, multiples. Connect this vocabulary to that of addition and subtraction: the participating numbers in multiplication are factors but in addition they were addends and in subtraction they were minuends and subtrahends; the answer in multiplication is called the product whereas in addition it was the sum and in subtraction it was the difference (3 min) 4. Talk about square numbers: a number times itself is a number squared…show the diagonal on the table that has the square numbers (5min) 5. Talk about multiplication being commutative (mirror images and turn around facts) and demonstrate how this is evident on the times table. (5 min) 6. Ask what multiplication shortcuts students are familiar with especially those pertaining to 0,1, 2, or 10 times and number; see if there are others that they know (5 min) 7. Highlight facts to be memorized, i.e. 4’s are double the 2’s, 6’s are double the 3’s, 10’s are double the 5’s (10 min) 8. Inquire about how students go about solving multiplication problems currently. Present various methods: drawing a picture, using known facts (doubling), or keeping in mind patterns. Show the hand trick with the 9’s! (10 min) 9. Draw the fact triangles on the board. Explain that the two factors go in the bottom corners and the product goes at the top. Do multiple repetitions of facts allowing all students several opportunities to fill in the triangles. (10 min) What accommodations did you make to meet the full range of your students? Make specific annotations that show differentiation to meet the learning needs of the full range of your students. I am doing a lot of verbal teaching and discussion with my students because I have found that the more I keep them talking about what is going on and what we are doing the more focused they tend to be. I am not having students cut out fact triangles and work with these individually because I know the cutting activity will allow them too much room for getting side-tracked and will end up being more of a distraction than an enhancement. I am definitely incorporating the strategy of drawing pictures to solve our multiplication problems because I know that some of them are going to have difficulty with memorizing the facts table or patterns found within it. During the discussion, I will be calling on the students so that I can make sure everyone is learning and understanding and that my higher functioning students do not dominate and overpower the discussion. Closing/wrap up (scripted): “What did we learn today? What are some of the patterns that we identified in our multiplication table? What are factors? What are products? So next time we are going to move into using all this information that we learned today in order to solve multiplication problems readily and efficiently. Right now I am going to give you 8 minutes to go through the multiplication facts table and write as many of the products as you can using the patterns and information we learned today and when you get done I am going to collect them.” Assessment: How will you judge if the students have attained the objective(s) you set for the lesson? What is your evidence of student learning? The students will have 8 minutes to fill in a blank multiplication facts table. I will gauge whether or not they have grasped the concepts and learned the objectives by how many products they can produce in a brief amount of time. Next steps What lesson will follow this lesson? What do you want to follow up on? What will you do to extend student learning? The next lesson will be requiring students to use the various strategies, patterns, and shortcuts to do basic multiplication of numbers with factors from 1-10. I will be following up with the students on what patterns they are using and determining how efficiently these strategies are working for them; this can be done by having the students work with the fact triangles again. There is a multiplication game that allows the students to demonstrate their abilities to find products readily and there is also a 50 facts test that tests the same abilities in the next lesson so I will be using both of these to continue to monitor their progress. Lesson reflection: (add notes to annotate your plans.) I really felt that this lesson went great! I was able to cover all of the material that I had intended to cover and do so within my allotted time. After each segment of my lesson, I stopped and asked my students did they have any questions thus far or was there anything they needed re-explained and most of the time they were ready to move on but the couple times where they had a question or two it was something that I was able to reiterate quickly and they understood. I t felt so good to have multiple students tell me at different times during the lesson that they really got it or that it made such sense to them; at one point, I even had a student tell me “this is fun Miss Neely!” For a math teacher that is the highlight of your day! Based on the results of the assessment task, I can truthfully say that I know for the most part they did “get it.” When debriefing with my CT, there were a lot of compliments that she had on my teaching and use of the mathematical vocabulary, my strategies for finding the products within the multiplication table without ever multiplying, and my ability to stay focused despite the many unforeseen interruptions that occurred (teachers & support staff coming in and out of the room, third graders in the back of the room, etc). She also was following along with my lesson plan and taking notes and marking off each portion as I taught it, so this was another form of assurance that I had successfully completed all that I was supposed to. One of my students who struggles the most in math was actually not present for this lesson (he was with the Speech Therapist), so I really wonder what it would have been like if he was there. My other two students who have a lot of difficulty were there, but I was able to keep them engaged by doing a lot of questioning of them to check for their comprehension in particular as well as making sure that I was clear in my explanations and using lots of visuals to assist my verbal teaching. I do, however, believe it would have been much more difficult to keep lesson moving if he had been present and I question what I can do to address this issue in the future.
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