Super Quiz Section IT he Expansion of Europe

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					      Section I
The First Age of Imperialism
      The Expansion of Europe:
            1492-1815
• Author – H.L. Wesseling
• Thesis – England came late to empire building
  because:
  – Domestic problems (religious wars, legitimate claims
    to the throne)
  – Foreign wars – France and Spain
  – “Empire Building” in Ireland and Scotland
• Components:
  – The Beginning
  – The Seventeenth Century
  – The Eighteenth Century
                                        •   Historical Figures of Importance:
       People to                             – Vasco da Gama
                                             – Suleyman the Magnificent –
       Remember                                Ottoman Empire
                                             – Admiral Cheng-ho – Chinese
                                               Empire
•   Historians                               – Piet Heyn – Dutch
     – K.M. Panikkar – “Vasco da             – Jean-Baptiste Colbert –
        Gama Epoch in Asian history”           Colbertism
     – Adam Smith- “the discovery            – Prince Henry the Navigator –
                                               Portugal
        of America, and that of a
        passage to the East Indies by        – Oliver Cromwell – Ireland
        the Cape of Good Hope, are           – Elizabeth I
        the two greatest and most            – Ferdinand Magellan – Cape Horn
        important events recorded in         – John Hawkins – First major slave
        the history of mankind” and            trader (English)
        the colonies were in                 – Francis Drake (El Diablo) and the
        imagination only (England)             Sea Dogs
     – Edmund Burke – self-created           – Sir Humphrey Gilbert
        colonies                             – Sir Walter Raleigh - Roanoke
                  The Beginning
• 1430 – the Portuguese on the    •    European expansion was not new!
  African Coast                         – Roman Empire
• 1492 – Columbus “discovers”           – Alexander the Great – extended
                                           all the way to India
  the Americas                          – Ming China
• 1498 – Vasco de Gama’s trip                • Junk – ships with carrying
  around Africa’s Cape of Good                   capacities of 1500 tons
  Hope – finds a water-route to              • Admiral Cheng-ho visited
  the East.                                      East Africa in 1405 and
                                                 brought home a giraffe
                                        – Suleyman the Magnificent (1520
                                           – 1566) and the establishment of
                                           the Ottoman Empire


                                      Spanish Reconquista – taking back
                                      territory lost to the Ottoman Empire
                                      in Africa.
The Chinese




     In 1551, the emperor of
     China ended exploration
     due to the internal
     struggle for power
     between the Mandarins
     and the Eunuchs.
  European Expansion v. Chinese
           Expansion
• Europeans were after
  Gold, God, and Glory –
  purely motivated by greed.
• The Chinese were
  motivated by curiosity.
• Europeans were ruled by
  many kings (France, Great
  Britain, Spain,
  Portuguese), resulting in a
  European rivalry for gold
  and power.
• Europeans wanted Asian
  spices, silk, porcelain and
  other luxury items, the
  Chinese didn’t want
  anything European.
                        The Treaty of Tordesillas -
• The Europeans
  had a choice,         The world was divided between Spain
  according to          and Portugal at the meridian running
  Fernand Braudel,      600 kilometers to the west of the Cape
  to:
                        Verde Islands.
   – Colonize America
   – To make use of
     de Gama’s trade
     route into Asia
                              The Dutch
•   The riches of the New World brought other countries to the New World and
    to Asia
     – Piet Heyn and the Mexican Silver Fleet in 1628
     – Pieter Dirckszn arrives at Bantam beginning 350 years of Dutch presence in
       Indonesia.
     – Dutch East India Company (VOC) – first multinational company (sold shares on
       the Amsterdam (monopoly of trade in Asia and administered justice and defense)
       1602
     – British East India Company (1600) focused on India and China
               The French
• All of their companies failed
• Jean-Baptiste Colbert –
  Minister of Finance in 1661
  – Colbertism – state intervention
    in the economy and control of
    trade
                                The Dutch
•   VOC was the most powerful
    enterprise in the 17th century
•   Controlled the Indonesian
    archipelago and controlled the
    Moluccas (spice trade)
•   Trading posts in India, Formosa,
    Persia, Siam, Indochina, and
    Japan (Nagasaki)
•   The VOC founded a colony in
    South Africa!
•   In the West, the Dutch, under the
    control of WIC took control of Brazil
    briefly, and                                Mexican Silver Fleet –
     – bought Manhattan from the Indians
       for $60!                                 1628 the Dutch captured
         • They gave it to the English in the   11 million dollars worth of
           Peace of Breda in exchange for       treasure from the Spanish.
           Suriname
 The Colonization of the Caribbean
• England, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, and Denmark.
• Tropical cash crops
    – Atlantic Slave Trade
• Importation of ecosystems – flora and fauna
• The extermination of 1/3 of the Indian population – disease, slavery,
  wars
• Colonization resulted in a mixing of ethnicities.
                              Asia
• Spices, teas, textiles, silk, and porcelain in exchange for gold =
  bullion for goods
• By the end of the 1700s, the EIC – British East India Company
  was the dominant force and controlled the trade in India and China.
              The 18th Century
• The Seven Years War (1756-1763)
  – Ended French Colonial expansion in the Americas.
  – Ended French rule in India
  – Canada and North America became for the most part English,
    dominated by the English language and culture.
  – North America became settlement colonies.




          Proclamation of 1763 – treaty with the Indians
• No settlement            Asia in the 18th
  colonies
   – Distance was far
     greater to travel
                              Century
   – Environment was
     much different,
     North American
     climate was similar
     to the European
     climate.
   – Because the
     indigenous people
     of North America
     and Australia were
     exterminated, the
     new lands could be
     repopulated. China
     offered no such
     possibilities.
        American Revolution and the
           Industrial Revolution
•   Latin American nations                •   Industrialization 1750 +
    followed the American                      – James Watt – Steam Engine
    example of revolution                      – Arkwright’s water-powered
    and independence.                            spinning frame
•   Battle of Trafalgar –                      – Cartwright’s power loom
    the British defeat a
    French, but 1815 the        Pax Britannica – British
    British dominate the        domination of the world.
    world and everyone
    else gave up any hopes
    of getting their colonies
    back in the West
•   Monroe Doctrine -
    1823 American support
    of Southern
    Independence.
                   Conclusion
• The French, the English, the Dutch, the Spanish, and the
  Portuguese all explored and expanded their empires
• The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was the
  strongest, until surpassed by the British East India
  Company in the 1700s
• The Western Hemisphere was closed down by the era of
  revolutions and the Monroe Doctrine
• Settlement colonies existed in North America, but not in
  Asia.
• Africa, other than the Dutch in South Africa, had not
  been colonized, and most had been left unexplored.
                      Vocabulary Quiz
1.  Spanish efforts to reclaim territory
    taken by the Ottoman Empire in the
    1300s
2. Ended with English dominance of         a.   Pax Britannica
    North America.
3. Resulted in European countries          b.   Battle of Trafalgar
    giving up their hopes of reclaiming
    their colonies in the West.
                                           c.   Seven Year’s War
4. Most powerful trading company in the    d.   Mexican Silver Fleet
    1600s
5. Era of British naval and colonial       e.   Monroe Doctrine
    domination                             f.   Junks
6. Large Chinese ships
7. America’s warning to European           g.   Treaty of Tordesillas
    nations to stay out of the Western
    Hemisphere                             h.   Colbertism
8. Millions worth of treasure captured
    from the French by the Dutch.
                                           i.   VOC
9. Established the demarcation line 600    j.   Reconquista
    km west of the Cape Verde Islands
10. French government intervention in
    trade and the economy.

				
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posted:9/14/2012
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