World War I by Bmy21c2c

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									 World War I
The Seeds of War
     Sec 1
       Balance of Power

• After the Congress of Vienna
  divided Napoleon’s empire, smaller
  and weaker countries looked for
  stronger alliances
• Stronger countries looked for new
  markets and seized colonies
Europe After Napoleon
      Causes of World War I

•   Imperialism
•   Nationalism
•   Alliances
•   Militarism
           Nationalism
• The post-
  Napoleon
  boundaries
  angered many
  Europeans
• The French were
  angered that the
  Germans
  controlled the
  Alsace-Lorraine
                      Nationalism


Nationalism: belief
 that people who share a common
 history should be loyal to their nation
 over the king or empire
Ethnic groups wanted to be united in a
 single country
The Pan-Slav and Pan-German
 movements sought united empires.
          Nationalism
• Slavs wanted an independent
  nation carved out of Austria-
  Hungary
• Secret deals were formed
  between Austria-Hungary and
  Russia
           Alliances
• With the unification of
  Germany, Otto von Bismarck
  made a strong alliance with
  Austria-Hungary
In 1882, Italy joined also
The alliance was known as the
  Triple Alliance
           Alliances
• France and Russia signed an
  alliance promising to come to
  each other’s aid if attacked by
  Germany or Austria-Hungary
• France and Britain agreed to a
  loose alliance, an entente
            Alliances
• Triple Entente (Allies):
  –France, Britain, Russia
• Triple Alliance (Central Powers)
  –Austria-Hungary, Germany,
   Italy
          Alliances
• Instead of making countries
  more secure, it led to distrust
  and insecurity
• A minor conflict had the chance
  of involving all European
  countries
          Militarism
• Countries were fearful of other
  countries
• In addition to alliances, they
  began stockpiling weapons and
  developing new ones
          Militarism
• With one incident, countries
  were willing and able to begin a
  world war
• That happens in Sarajevo,
  Bosnia on June 28, 1914
    Assassination
• A nationalist group, the
  Black Hand
• Member, Gavrilo Princip,
  killed heir to the Austria-
  Hungarian throne
• Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his
  wife, Sophia
      Trouble in the Balkans
On June 28, 1914,
 Archduke Francis
 Ferdinand, heir to
 the Austro-
 Hungarian crown
 visited Sarajevo,
 Bosnia-
 Herzegovina
Assassination
    Trouble in the Balkans
• The Austrians held Serbia
  accountable
• Germany promised to aid Austria
  in any retaliations against Serbia
• Austria demanded that Serbia
  allow it to enter their country to
  hunt down subversives
        Assassination

• Austria-Hungary declared war
  on Serbia
• All their alliances declared war
  on each other
• Europe was at war.
           War Begins
• On August 1,
  1914, WWI
  had begun
• Alliances
  declared war
  on opposing
  alliances
World War I

             Europe
          Plunges into
              War
          Chapter 29
           Section 2
            Taking Sides
• Triple Entente or   • Triple Alliance or
  ALLIES                CENTRAL POWERS
• France              • Germany
• Russia, Ireland     • Austria-Hungary
• Britain, Romania    • Montenegro
• Luxembourg          • Bulgaria
• Belgium, Portugal   • Ottoman Empire
• Italy, Serbia
• Greece, Albania
• In 1917- USA
             A Quick War
• No European
  country was
  prepared for the
  war even though
  they had spent
  years militarizing.
• They had enough
  materials to last
  about 6 months.
         Schlieffen Plan
• Germany had enemies on the east
  and west.
• Believing that Russia would be
  slow to mobilize, Gen. Schlieffen
  planned to attack Paris first
         Schlieffen Plan

• German Gen.
  Schlieffen
  drew up this
  plan in
  1905, 9
  years before
  the war
  began.
Schlieffen Plan

• The idea was
  to attack and
  defeat France
  quickly and
  then turn on
  Russia before
  they could
  mobilize
   Schlieffen Plan Problems
• 1. German troops met a well
  fortified Belgium line
• 2. Belgium troops put up a
  fierce fight, taking 6 weeks
• 3. The Russians mobilized quickly
  making Germany fight on 2 fronts
• 4. British troops delayed
  German advancements
Battle of the Marne

• German troops were
  held back long
  enough for French
  troops to meet them
  before they got to
  Paris.
• 6,000 troops arrived
  by taxi cab
      Battle of the Marne
• The Germans were
  pushed back the
  Schlieffen Plan was
  abandoned.
• The Battle of the
  Marne lasted 2
  months
• It proved this would
  be a long war.
      Battle of the Marne

• Over 500,000 soldiers
  died in this battle
         Trench Warfare

• Trenches were dug
  almost 500 miles from
  north to south
• Elaborate, they made
  forward movement
  difficult and did little
  to protect soldiers.
         Trench Warfare

• Because the soldiers spend
  months in the trenches, they
  built supports and flooring.
• It did little to help the problems
  of rats, mud, boredom, cannon
  fire and poison gas.
          New Weapons
•   Machine guns     • Phosphorus
•   Howitzers          grenades
•   Poison gas       • Field phones
•   Airplanes        • Search lights
•   Tanks            • Gas masks
•   Flame throwers   • Camouflage
                     • Railroad guns
        New Weapons
• With new weapons but using
  the same strategies as in the
  1860’s, the death toll will be
  higher than ever seen in
  history up to that time
       New Weapons
• Soldiers
  lived
  here day
  after
  day
  facing
  new
  weapons
       A Russian Disaster
• Russia mobilized quickly and
  attacked Prussia, making
  Germany divide their army to
  fight on 2 fronts.
• At Tannenberg, Germany
  defeated Russia so badly, they
  never recuperated. About
  170,000 Russians were killed,
  wounded or captured.
       A Russian Disaster

• Historians say that
  the Russian defeat
  at Tannenberg was
  the most complete
  and successful
  German victory of
  the entire war.
        About 92,000 Russians were taken prisoner
   Race to the North Sea
• Both sides headed north trying
  to beat the other to the sea.
• The Battle of Ypres was costly
  for both sides – almost 200,000
  casualties combined
World War I



       A Global
        Conflict
      Chapter 29
       Section 3
        Supply Shortage
• All armies had to use civilians to
  produce needed supplies, help
  with casualties and provide
  positive morale.
• Economies were shifted into
  war-time mode: textile mills now
  made uniforms; auto plants made
  tanks
       War of Attrition
• By 1915, the war had turned
  into one of attrition – killing
  enough of the other side to
  cause them to
  surrender
• Both sides dug into
  trenches and shot at
  each other day after day.
            Total War
• Soon the war turned into Total
  War – each country devoting all
  their resources to the war
  effort
  – Governments took control of the
    economy
  – Every able-bodied person was employed
  – Unemployment disappeared
   America’s Involvement
• America tried to remain
  neutral, only selling war
  materials to the Allies
• In 1915, Americans died at
  the hands of the German u-
  boats
     America’s Involvement

• The Germans fired on the
  passenger liner, Lusitania.
• Germany said that the ship was
  carrying war supplies
• England denied
  it but later it was
  shown that the
  Germans were right
      America’s Involvement

• 128 Americans were killed
• America was outraged but did not
  want to join the war
  after the Spanish-
  American War in 1899.
• Pres. Wilson
  protested to
  Germany
        Battle of Verdun
• In 1916, the Germans surprised
  French forces at Verdun.
• Over 750,000 men would lose their
  lives with the front moving only
  about 10 miles and no winner
    Battle of the Somme
• Lasted about 4 months and
  about 1 million men died.
• Again, there was
  no clear winner.
         Eastern Front
• Germany’s war with Russia moved
  because they were not as
  entrenched
• The Russians were
  out-powered and
  were in constant
  retreat
        Eastern Front
• Russia lost men and supplies
  in numbers that could not be
  replaced
• There was a concern that
  Russia would sign a peace
  agreement with the Central
  Powers just to end the
  fighting
        Eastern Front
• To make sure it didn’t
  happen, the Allies made an
  agreement with Russia
• Even though the Russians
  weren’t putting up much of a
  fight, it made the Germans
  divide their army.
      Russian Revolution
• In 1917, Russian Bolsheviks rose
  up and staged a coup d’etat in
  St. Petersburg
• Bolsheviks took over
  transportation,
  communication and
  power facilities
• Russia pulled out of the war
         On the Seas

• Early in the war, Britain
  blocked Germany’s port
• They called it a “hunger
  blockade” but the British did
  not relent
         On the Seas
• The Germans used their u-
  boats on the open seas
• The U-boats attacked
  anything on the water
• The attack on the Lusitania
  killed over 1,000 people
  America Enters the War
• Pres. Wilson was re-elected
  with the slogan “He kept us
  out of the war”
• Americans did not want to
  become involved in European
  affairs
 America Enters the War
• Germany needed to break
  British control of the seas
• They announced that they
  would sink any merchant ship
  heading to Britain or
  western Europe
   America Enters the War
• A message from
  Germany to Mexico
  was intercepted
• The Zimmermann
  note proposed that
  if Mexico attacked
  America, Germany
  would assist

                       Arthur Zimmermann
             Zimmerman Telegram
BERLIN, JANUARY 19, 1917

WE INTEND TO BEGIN ON THE FIRST OF FEBRUARY UNRESTRICTED
SUBMARINE WARFARE. WE SHALL ENDEAVOR IN SPITE OF THIS TO KEEP THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA NEUTRAL. IN THE EVENT OF THIS NOT
SUCCEEDING, WE MAKE MEXICO A PROPOSAL OF ALLIANCE ON THE
FOLLOWING BASIS: MAKE WAR TOGETHER, MAKE PEACE TOGETHER,
GENEROUS FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND AN UNDERSTANDING ON OUR PART THAT
MEXICO IS TO RECONQUER THE LOST TERRITORY IN TEXAS, NEW MEXICO,
AND ARIZONA. THE SETTLEMENT IN DETAIL IS LEFT TO YOU. YOU WILL INFORM
THE PRESIDENT [OF MEXICO] OF THE ABOVE MOST SECRETLY AS SOON AS
THE OUTBREAK OF WAR WITH THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IS CERTAIN
AND ADD THE SUGGESTION THAT HE SHOULD, ON HIS OWN INITIATIVE, INVITE
JAPAN TO IMMEDIATE ADHERENCE AND AT THE SAME TIME MEDIATE BETWEEN
JAPAN AND OURSELVES. PLEASE CALL THE PRESIDENT'S ATTENTION TO THE
FACT THAT THE RUTHLESS EMPLOYMENT OF OUR SUBMARINES NOW OFFERS
THE PROSPECT OF COMPELLING ENGLAND IN A FEW MONTHS TO MAKE
PEACE.
ZIMMERMANN
   America Enters the War

• The same month, Germany sank
  4 merchant ships and killed 36
  American sailors.
• President Wilson declared war on
  Germany to “make the world
  safe for democracy.”
    America Enters the War
• After winning against America,
  Mexico would reclaim all the land
  that America had taken from
  them.
• The note also
  encouraged Japan
  into joining the
  Central Powers
   America Enters the War
• The Allies needed soldiers
• Since few men enlisted, Congress
  passed the Selective Service
  Act, the draft
   America Enters the War
• Gen. Pershing led the first
  American troops
• The “Yanks” were cheered as
  they marched through Paris
  America Enters the War
• Women came
  as nurses
  and cooks
  America Enters the War

• The war was also being fought
  in the Middle East
• The Allies were successful
  here, pushing back the Turks
  until they took over the
  crumbling Ottoman Empire
  America Enters the War
Germany had one last big offensive
The 2nd Battle of the Marne begins
 in March 1918
American forces joined with
 European forces, stopping
 Germany 37 miles from Paris
  America Enters the War
Paris was saved from German
 invasion
  America Enters the War
American and Allied
 forces pushed
 Germany back
The Central Powers
 began to
 disintegrate
German troops
 mutinied and
 Wilhelm II fled
   America Enters the War
Emperor William
 II abdicated
 and fled on
 November 9,
 1918
The Germans
 signed an        The 11th hour of
 armistice on
                   the 11th day of
 November, 11,
 1918 at 11 AM
                   the 11th month
   America Enters the War
The Germans
 signed the
 armistice in a
 railroad car,
 Wagonlits
 2419D, parked
 in the French    Hitler will insist that the
                  same car be made available
 woods            to sign his own armistice
                  with France’s Gen. Weygand
         The War Ends
The “Big Four” met in Paris:
 Britain, US, France and Italy
Effects of the
     War
 COUNTRY    KILLED     WOUNDED
 Britain    750,000    1.5 million
 France     1.4 mill   2.5 million
 Belgium    50,000

 Italy      600,000

 Russia     1.7 mill

 US         116,000
Effects of the
     War
•   COUNTRY     KILLED        WOUNDED
•   Germany     2 million

•   Austria     1.2 million

•   Turkey      325,000

•   Bulgaria    100,000


• TOTAL           8.5 mill    21 million
         The War Ends
The boundaries of Europe needed
 to be redrawn
Disease and
 starvation killed
 millions
Entire cities were
 leveled.
           The War Ends

Cities and farmland
 were destroyed
The Dead Were Buried
            Propaganda
• Newspapers
  printed only the
  most positive news
• Small victories
  were
  sensationalized and
  defeats were
  ignored.
       Propaganda

• Posters portrayed the
  enemy as inhumane
  animals
World War I




A Flawed Peace
  Chapter 29
   Section 4
        The War Ends
President Woodrow
 Wilson had put
 forth his Fourteen
 Points before the
 war ended.
  Wilson’s Fourteen Points
• Nine of the points dealt with
  causes of war: arms race,
  secret diplomacy, violations of
  free trade on the seas, and
  trade barriers
• The last point was the
  establishment of the League of
  Nations
   Wilson’s Fourteen Points

• Not every Allied country was
  enthusiastic about all of the 14
  Points
• Great Britain wanted to retain its
  dominance in the seas and its
  colonial holdings
• France wanted Germany punished,
  not included in Wilson’s plan
   Wilson’s Fourteen Points
• Wilson became the first
  president to cross the Atlantic
  while in office to pressure
  European countries to endorse
  the 14 Points
• Europe was far from peaceful in
  1919
   Wilson’s Fourteen Points
• The “Big Four” met
 – US Pres. Wilson,
 – British Prime Minister David George
 – Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando
 – French Prime Minister George
   Clemenceau
   Wilson’s Fourteen Points
• Wilson’s most important idea was
  the League of Nations, an
  organization that could work out
  problems before they escalate
  into war.
     Treaty of Versailles

• The final peace agreement was
  signed in Versailles
• It’s penalties for Germany were
  harsh
Treaty of Versailles’ Penalties
•   Reduction of Germany’s army
•   Disband their navy
•   Return Alsace-Lorraine
•   Return Saar region
•   Allied occupation of Rhineland
•   Took all German colonies
•   Created new countries from
    German land
Treaty of Versailles’ Penalties
• Germany was also responsible for
  the entire war, including costs
  amounting to about $20 billion
• At the same time, the Allies took
  most of Germany’s money-making
  abilities away
Treaty of Versailles’ Penalties

• Czechoslovakia, Finland, Poland,
  Yugoslavia, Estonia, Latvia, and
  Lithuania were created
Treaty of Versailles’ Penalties
• The Arabs in the Ottoman Empire
  did not receive their independence
  which was promised them by the
  British
• Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq
  became British mandates
• Lebanon and Syria became French
  mandates
      War to End All Wars
• Many Europeans found themselves
  living under foreign rulers in newly
  formed nations.
• They were angered over their loss
  of territory and identity
• Germans were especially angered
  after losing much of their assets.
     War to End All Wars
The Treaty of Versailles left
 Germany embarrassed,
 impoverished, humiliated and
 weakened.
This will help Adolf Hitler rise in
 power in a few years

								
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