APEH Unit 3 Notes/Absolutism in Western Europe: 1589-1715/p by AYizsq


									APEH Unit 3 Notes/Absolutism in Western                          b. Believed “divine right” meant that the king was placed on
Europe: 1589-1715/p.1                                         throne by God, and therefore owed his authority to no man or
I. Absolutism:                                                group
A. Derived from the traditional assumption of power           II. The development of French Absolutism (c. 1589-1648)
(e.g. heirs to the throne) and the belief in “divine          A. France in the 17th century
right of kings.” Louis XIV of France was the                    1. In the feudal tradition, French society was divided into
quintessential absolute monarch                               three Estates made up of various classes.
B. Characteristics of western European absolutism                a. First Estate: clergy; 1% of population
  1. Sovereignty of a country was embodied in the person         b. Second Estate: nobility; 3-4% of population
of the ruler                                                     c. Third Estate: bourgeoisie (middle class), artisans, urban
  2. Absolute monarchs were not subordinate to national       workers, and peasants.
assemblies                                                      2. This hierarchy of social orders, based on rank and
  3. The nobility was effectively brought under control       privilege, was restored under the reign of Henry IV.
   a. This is in contrast to eastern European absolutism        3. France was primarily agrarian: 90% of population lived in
where the nobility remained powerful                          the countryside.
   b. The nobility could still at times prevent absolute        4. Population of 17 million made France the largest country
monarchs from completely having their way                     in Europe (20% of Europe’s population). Accounted for
  4. Bureaucracies in the 17th century were often             France becoming the strongest nation in Europe.
composed of career officials appointed by and solely          B. Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) (r.1589-1610)
accountable to the king. Often were rising members of           1. Laid the foundation for France becoming the strongest
the bourgeoisie or the new nobility (“nobility of the         European power in the 17th century.
robe” who purchased their titles from the monarchy)              a. Strengthened the social hierarchy by strengthening
  5. French and Spanish monarchies gained effective           government institutions: parlements, the treasury, universities
control of the Roman Catholic Church in their countries       and the Catholic Church
  6. Maintained large standing armies. Monarchs no               b. First king to actively encourage French colonization
longer relied on mercenary or noble armies as had been        in the New World: stimulated the Atlantic trade
the case in the 15th century and earlier                        2. First king of the Bourbon dynasty
  7. Employed a secret police to weaken political                a. Came to power in 1589 as part of a political compromise
opponents                                                     to end the French Civil Wars.
  8. Foreshadowed totalitarianism in 20th century but            b. Converted from Calvinism to Catholicism in order to
lacked financial, technological and military resources        gain recognition from Paris of his reign.
of 20th century dictators (like Stalin & Hitler).                c. Issued Edict of Nantes in 1598 providing a degree of
   a. Absolute monarchs usually did not require total         religious toleration to the Huguenots (Calvinists)
mass participation in support of the monarch’s goals.           3. Weakening of the nobility
This is in stark contrast to totalitarian programs such as       a. The old “nobility of the sword” not allowed to influence
collectivization in Russia and the Hitler Youth in Nazi       the royal council
Germany.                                                         b. Many of the “nobility of the robe”, new nobles who
   b. Those who did not overtly oppose the state were         purchased their titles from the monarchy, became high
usually left alone by the government                          officials in the government and remained loyal to the king
C. Philosophy of absolutism                                   (e.g. Sully).
  1. Jean Bodin (1530-96)                                       4. Duke of Sully (1560-1641): Finance minister
   a. Among the first to provide a theoretical basis for         a. His reforms enhanced the power of the monarchy
absolutist states                                                b. Mercantilism: increased role of the state in the economy
   b. Wrote during the chaos of the French Civil Wars of      in order to achieve a favorable balance of trade with other
the late 16th century                                         countries. Granted monopolies in the production of
   c. Believed that only absolutism could provide order       gunpowder and salt. Encouraged manufacturing of silk and
and force people to obey the government                       tapestries. Only the government could operate the mines
  2. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): Leviathan (1651)                 c. Reduced royal debt- Systematic bookkeeping and
   a. Pessimistic view of human beings in a state of          budgets. In contrast, Spain was drowning in debt
nature: “Solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short strong” ·      d. Reformed the tax system to make it more equitable and
Anarchy results · Central drive in every person is power      efficient.
   b. His ideas became most closely identified with              e. Oversaw improved transportation
Voltaire in the 18th century: “Enlightened                         · Began nation-wide highway system
Despotism”                                                         · Canals linked major rivers
   c. Hobbes ideas were not very popular in the 17th               · Began canal to link the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic
century. Hobbes did not favor “divine right” of kings, as     Ocean
was favored by Louis XIV in France and James I and              5. Henry was assassinated in 1610 by a fanatical monk who
Charles I in England. Those with constitutional ideas saw     sought revenge for Henry’s granting religious protections for
Hobbes’ ideas as too authoritarian                            the Huguenots.
  3. Bishop Jacques Bossuet (1627-1704)                          a. Led to a severe crisis in power
   a. Principle advocate of “divine right of kings” in           b. Henry’s widow, Marie de’ Medici, ruled as regent until
France during the reign of Louis XIV.                         their son came of age.
Unit 3 Notes-p.2                                           created and maintained
C. Louis XIII (1610-43)                                       b. French culture dominated Europe
  1. As a youth, his regency was beset by corruption &          · The French language became the international language
mismanagement                                              in Europe for over two centuries and the language of the well-
   a. Feudal nobles and princes increased their power      educated (as Latin had been during the Middle Ages)
   b. Certain nobles convinced him to assume power              · France became the epicenter of literature and the arts
and exile his mother                                       until the 20th century
  2. Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)                        B. The Fronde (mid-late 1640s)
   a. Laid foundation for absolutism in France. Like         1. Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661) controlled France
Henry IV, he was a politique (he placed political issues   while Louis XIV was a child
ahead of religious principles)                               2. Some nobles revolted against Mazarin when Louis
   b. Intendant System                                     was between the ages of 5 and 11.
     · Used to weaken the nobility                           3. Competition among various noble factions enabled
     · Replaced local officials with civil servants—       Mazarin to defeat the nobles.
intendants—who reported directly to the king                 4. Louis never forgot the humiliation he faced at the
     · Intendants were largely middle-class or minor       hands of the nobles early on and was determined to
nobles (“nobility of the robe”)                            control the nobility.
     · Each of the country’s 32 districts had an           C. Government organization
intendant responsible for justice, police and finance        1. Louis recruited his chief ministers from the middle
     · Gov’t became more efficient and centrally           class in order to keep the aristocracy out of government
controlled                                                   2. Continued the intendant system begun by Richelieu
   c. Built upon Sully’s economic achievements in            3. Checked the power of French institutions that might
further developing mercantilism                            resist his control
   d. Increased taxation to fund the military                 a. Parlements were fearful of resisting him after the
   e. Tax policies were not as successfully as Sully’s     failure of the Fronde
· Resorted to old system of selling offices                   b. Officials who criticized the government could be
· Tax farmers ruthlessly exploited the peasantry           arrested
   f. Richelieu subdued the Huguenots                         c. Louis never called the Estates General into session
     · Peace of Alais (1629): Huguenots lost their           4. Control over the peasantry (which accounted for
fortified cities & Protestant armies                       about 95% of the population)
     · Calvinist aristocratic influenced reduced              a. Some peasants kept as little as 20% of their cash crops
     · Huguenots still allowed to practice Calvinism       after paying their landlord, government taxes and tithes to the
  3. Thirty Years’ War                                     Church
   a. Richelieu and Louis XIII sought to weaken the           b. Corvée: forced labor that required peasants to work for a
Hapsburg Empire (a traditional French policy               month out of the year on roads and other public projects
dating back to Francis I in the early 16th century)           c. Idle peasants could be conscripted into the army or forced
     · Reversed Maria de’ Medici’s pro-Spanish policy      into workhouses
     · Declared war against Spain in 1635                     d. Rebellious peasants could be executed or used as
   b. France supported Gustavus Adolphus with money        galley slaves on ships
during the “Swedish Phase” of the war                      D. Versailles Palace
   c. Later, France entered the “International Phase” of     1. Under Louis XIV, the Palace at Versailles became the
the war and ultimately forced the Treaty of Westphalia     grandest and most impressive palace in all of Europe
on the Hapsburgs                                              a. The awe-inspiring scale of the palace reinforced his
IV. Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) – the “Sun King”              image as the most powerful absolute ruler in Europe.
A. Quintessential absolute ruler in European history          b. The palace had originally been a hunting lodge for his
  1. Personified the idea that sovereignty of the state    father, Louis XIII.
resides in the ruler                                          c. The Baroque architecture was largely work of Marquis
   a. “L’ état, c’est moi” (“I am the state”)              Louvois; the gardens were designed by LeVau
   b. He became known as the “Sun King” since he was          d. The façade was about 1/3 of a mile long; 1,400 fountains
at the center of French power (just as the sun is the      adorned the grounds
center of our solar system).                                  e. The royal court grew from about 600 people (when the
  2. Strong believer in “divine right” of kings            king had lived in Paris) to about 10,000 people at Versailles
(advocated by Bishop Bossuet)                                 f. The cost of maintaining Versailles cost about 60%
  3. He had the longest reign in European history (72      of all royal revenues! The Hall of Mirrors inside Versailles
years) · Inherited the throne when he was 5 years old      Palace
from his father Louis XIII (Henry IV was his                 2. Versailles Palace became in effect a pleasure prison for the
grandfather)                                               French nobility
  4. France became the undisputed major power in              a. Louis gained absolute control over the nobility
Europe during his reign                                       b. Fearful of noble intrigue, Louis required nobles to
   a. French population was the largest in Europe (17      live at the palace for several months each year in order to keep
million); accounted for 20% of Europe’s population         an eye on them
     · Meant that a massive standing army could be
Unit 3 Notes-p.3                                                   b. Dutch stadtholder William of Orange (later King
   c. Nobles were entertained with numerous recreational       William III of England) was the most important figure in
activities such as tournaments, hunts and concerts             thwarting Louis’ expansionism
     · Elaborate theatrical performances included the          B. War of Devolution (First Dutch War), 1667-68
works of Racine and Moliere                                      1. Louis XIV invaded the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium)
E. Religious Policies                                          without declaring war.
  1. Louis considered himself the head of the Gallican           2. Louis received 12 fortified towns on the border of the
Church (French Catholic Church)                                Spanish Netherlands but gave up the Franche-Comté
     · While he was very religious, he did not allow the       (Burgundy)
pope to exercise political power in the French Church          C. Second Dutch War (1672-78)
  2. Edict of Fountainbleau (1685)—revoked Edict of              1. Louis invaded the southern Netherlands as revenge
Nantes                                                         for Dutch opposition in the previous war.
   a. Huguenots lost their right to practice Calvinism           2. Peace of Nijmegan (1678-79)
   b. About 200,000 Huguenots fled France for England,             a. Represented the furthest limit to the expansion of Louis
Holland and the English colonies in North America              XIV.
  3. Louis supported the Jesuits in cracking down on               b. France took Franche-Comté from Spain, gained some
Jansenists (Catholics who held some Calvinist ideas)           Flemish towns and took Alsace
F. Mercantilism                                                D. War of the League of Augsburg (1688-97)
  1. State control over a country’s economy in order to          1. In response to another invasion of the Spanish Netherlands
achieve a favorable balance of trade with other countries.     by Louis XIV in 1683, the League of Augsburg formed in
     · Bullionism: a nation’s policy of accumulating as        1686: HRE, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, and Dutch
much precious metal (gold and silver) as possible while        Republic
preventing its outward flow to other countries.                · Demonstrated emergence of balance of power
  2. French mercantilism reached its height under Louis’         2. William of Orange (now king of England) brought
finance minister, Jean Baptiste Colbert (1661-1683)            England in against France. Began a period of Anglo-French
  3. Colbert’s goal was economic self-sufficiency for          military rivalry that lasted until Napoleon’s defeat in 1815.
France                                                           3. War ended with the status quo prior to the war. France
   a. Oversaw the construction of roads & canals               remained in control of Alsace and the city of Strasbourg (in
   b. Granted gov’t-supported monopolies in certain            Lorraine).
industries.                                                    E. War of Spanish Succession (1701-13)
   c. Cracked down on guilds                                     1. Cause: The will of Charles II (Hapsburg king) gave all
   d. Reduced local tolls (internal tariffs) that inhibited    Spanish territories to the grandson of Louis XIV. European
trade                                                          powers feared that Louis would consolidate the thrones of
   e. Organized French trading companies for                   France and Spain, thus creating a monster power that would
international trade (East India Co., West India Co.)           upset the balance of power
  4. By 1683, France was Europe’s leading industrial             2. Grand Alliance emerged in opposition to France: England,
country                                                        Dutch Republic, HRE, Brandenburg, Portugal, and Savoy
   a. Excelled in such industries as textiles, mirrors,          3. Battle of Blenheim (1704)
lace-making and foundries for steel manufacturing and              a. A turning point in the war that began a series of military
firearms.                                                      defeats for France
   b. Colbert’s most important accomplishment:                     b. England’s army, led by the Duke of Marlborough (John
developing the merchant marine                                 Churchill—ancestor of the 20th century leader Winston
  5. Weaknesses of mercantilism and the French                 Churchill) and military forces of Savoy (representing the
economy                                                        HRE) were victorious
   a. Poor peasant conditions (esp. taxation) resulted in        4. Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
large emigration out of France                                     a. Most important treaty between the Treaty of Westphalia
   b. Louis opted for creating a massive army instead of       (1648) and the Treaty of Paris (1763)
a formidable navy. Result: France later lost naval wars             · Maintained the balance of power in Europe
with England                                                        · Ended the expansionism of Louis XIV
   c. War in later years of Louis’ reign nullified Colbert’s       b. Spanish possessions were partitioned
gains. Louis was at war for 2/3 of his reign                   · Britain was the biggest winner
V. Wars of Louis XIV                                                o Gained the asiento (slave trade) from Spain and the right
A. Overview                                                    to send one English ship to trade in Spain’s New World
  1. Wars were initially successful but eventually became      empire. Gained the Spanish territories of Gibraltar
economically ruinous to France                                 and Minorca. Belgium (Spanish Netherlands) given to Austria
  2. France developed the professional modern army             · Netherlands gain some land as a buffer against future French
  3. Perhaps the first time in modern European history         aggression
that one country was able to dominate politics                     c. Though Louis’ grandson was enthroned in Spain,
  4. A balance of power system emerged                         the unification of the Spanish and Bourbon
   a. No one country would be allowed to dominate the          dynasties were prohibited.
continent since a coalition of other countries would rally        d. Kings were recognized as such in Sardinia (Savoy)
against a threatening power.                                   and Prussia (Brandenburg)
Unit 3 Notes-p.4                                               4. Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659): marked end of Spain as a
F. Costs of Louis XIV’s wars:                                Great Power
  1. Destroyed the French economy                               a. War between Spain and France continued for 11 years
  2. 20% of the French subjects died                         after the end of the Thirty Years’ War
  3. Huge debt would be placed on the shoulders of the          b. Spain lost parts of the Spanish Netherlands and
Third Estate. French gov’t was bankrupt.                     territory in northern Spain to France
  4. Financial and social tensions would sow the seeds of      5. By 1700, the Spanish navy had only 8 ships and most
the French Revolution later in the century.                  of its army consisted of foreigners.
VI. The Spanish Empire in the 17th Century                     6. The War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713) resulted
A. “The Golden Age of Spain” in the 16th century             in Spain losing most of its European possessions at the Treaty
  1. The reign of Ferdinand and Isabella began the           of Utrecht
process of centralizing power (“New Monarchs”).              VII. The Baroque (see also Unit 2.1)
  2. The foundation for absolutism in Spain was laid by      A. Reflected the age of absolutism
Charles V (1519-1556) and Phillip II                           1. Began in Catholic Reformation countries to teach in a
  3. Spain’s power reached its zenith under Philip II        concrete and emotional way and demonstrate the glory and
(r.1556-1598)                                                power of the Catholic Church (see Unit 2.1)
   a. Madrid (in Castile) became the capital of Spain           a. Encouraged by the papacy and the Jesuits
   b. Built the Escorial Palace to demonstrate his              b. Prominent in France, Flanders, Austria, southern
power                                                        Germany and Poland
   c. A command economy developed in Madrid                    2. Spread later to Protestant countries such as the
   d. Numerous rituals of court etiquette reinforced the     Netherlands and northern Germany and England
king’s power                                                   3. Characteristics
  4. The Spanish Inquisition continued to persecute those       a. Sought to overwhelm the viewer: Emphasized grandeur,
seen as heretics (especially Jews and Moors)                 emotion, movement, spaciousness and unity surrounding a
B. Decline of the Spanish economy in the 17th century        certain theme
  1. The Spanish economy was hurt by the loss of the            b. Versailles Palace typifies baroque architecture: huge
middle class Moors and Jews. Population of Spain             frescoes unified around the emotional impact of a single
shrank from 7.5 million in 1550 to 5.5 million in 1660.      theme.
  2. Spanish trade with its colonies fell 60% between        B. Architecture and sculpture
1610 and 1660. Largely due to English and Dutch                1. Baroque architecture reflected the image and power of
competition.                                                 absolute monarchs and the Catholic Church
  3. The Spanish treasury was bankrupt and had to              2. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1650) personified baroque
repudiate its debts at various times between 1594            architecture and sculpture
and 1680.                                                       a. Colonnade for the piazza in front of St. Peter’s Basilica in
  4. National taxes hit the peasantry particularly hard      Rome was his greatest architectural achievement.
   a. Many peasants were driven from the countryside            b. He sculpted the incredible canopy over the high altar of
and swelled the ranks of the poor in cities.                 St. Peter’s Cathedral
   b. Food production decreased as a result                     c. His altarpiece sculpture, The Ecstasy of St. Teresa,
  5. Inflation from the “price revolution” hurt domestic     evokes tremendous emotion
industries that were unable to export goods.                    d. His statue of David (see right) shows movement and
  6. A poor work ethic stunted economic growth               emotion
   a. Upper classes eschewed work and continued a life          e. Constructed several fountains throughout Rome
of luxury.                                                     3. Versailles Palace built during the reign of Louis XIV is
   b. Many noble titles were purchased; provided tax         the quintessential baroque structure
exemptions for the wealthy                                     4. Hapsburg emperor Leopold I built Schönbrunn in Austria
   c. Capitalism was not really prevalent (as it was in      in response to the Versailles Palace
the Netherlands and England)                                   5. Peter the Great in Russia built the Winter Palace in St.
C. Political and military decline                            Petersburg largely on the influence of Versailles
  1. Symbolically, England’s defeat of the Spanish             6. Frederick I in Prussia began building his palace in Berlin
Armada in 1588 is seen by some historians as the             in 1701
beginning of the decline of the Spanish empire.              C. Baroque painting
   · However, Spain had the most formidable military           1. Characteristics
until the mid-17th century.                                     a. Strong sense of emotion and movement
  2. Poor leadership by three successive kings in the 17th      b. Stressed broad areas of light and shadow rather
century damaged Spain’s political power                      than on linear arrangements of the High Renaissance.
   · Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II (one of worst           · Tenebrism (“dark manner”): extreme contrast
rulers in Hapsburg history)                                  between dark to light
  3. Spain’s defeat in Thirty Years’ War was politically        c. Color was an important element as it appealed to
and economically disastrous                                  the senses and more true to nature.
   a. Spain officially lost the Netherlands                     d. Not concerned with clarity of detail as with overall
   b. 1640, Portugal reestablished its independence.         dynamic effect.
Unit 3 Notes-p.5                                             Biblical scenes.
   e. Designed to give a spontaneous personal                   c. Later focused on landscape painting
experience. Bernini, David Schönbrunn Winter Palace,            d. His style is not typical baroque
St. Petersburg, Russia                                          e. Painted temporarily in the court of Louis XIII.
  2. Carvaggio (1571-1610), Italian painter (Rome)             2. Jean Racine (1639-1699), dramatist
   a. Perhaps 1st important painter of the Baroque era          a. His plays (along with Moliere’s) were often funded by
   b. Depicted highly emotional scenes                       Louis XIV
   c. Sharp contrasts of light and dark to create drama.        b. Plays were written in the classical style (e.g. adherence to
   d. Criticized by some for using ordinary people as        the three unities)
models for his depictions of Biblical scenes                    c. Wrote some of the most intense emotional works for the
  3. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Flemish painter          stage.
   a. Worked much for the Hapsburg court in Brussels           3. Jean-Baptiste Moliere (1622-1673), dramatist
(the capital of the Spanish Netherlands)                        a. His plays often focused on social struggles
   b. Emphasized color and sensuality; animated figures         b. Made fun of the aristocracy, upper bourgeoisie and high
and melodramatic contrasts; monumental size.                 church officials
   c. Nearly half of his works dealt with Christian          F. Baroque Music
subjects.                                                      1. Characteristics
   d. Known for his sensual nudes as Roman goddesses,           a. Belief that the text should dominate the music; the lyrics
water nymphs, and saints and angels.                         and libretto were most important
  4. Diego Velázquez (1599-1660)                                b. Baroque composers developed the modern system of
   a. Perhaps the greatest court painter of the era          major-minor tonalities.
   b. Numerous portraits of the Spanish court and their         c. Dissonance was used much more freely than during the
surroundings                                                 Renaissance
  5. Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1652)                         2. Claudio Monteverdi (1547-1643) developed the opera and
   · Famous for vivid depictions of dramatic scenes and      the modern orchestra · Orfeo (1607) is his masterpiece—the
her “Judith” paintings                                       first opera
D. The Dutch Style                                             3. J. S. Bach (1685-1750)
  1. Characteristics                                            a. Greatest of the baroque composers
   a. Did not fit the Baroque style of trying to overwhelm      b. Often wrote dense and polyphonic structures (in contrast
the viewer                                                   to the later balance and restraint of the Classical Period—
   b. Reflected the Dutch Republic’s wealth and religious    Mozart & Haydn)
toleration of secular subjects                                  c. Wrote in a variety of genres, both choral and
   c. Reflected the urban and rural settings of Dutch life   instrumental, for a variety of instruments · e.g. masses, organ
during the “Golden Age of the Netherlands”                   works, concertos
   d. Many works were commissioned by merchants or              d. Extremely prolific
government organizations                                       4. George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
  2. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669), painter                    a. Like Bach, wrote in a variety of genres
   a. Perhaps the greatest of all Baroque artists although      b. His masterpiece is the oratorio The Messiah Poussin, The
he doesn’t fit neatly into any category.                     Arcadian Shepherds, 1627
   b. Scenes covered an enormous range throughout his
career                                                       Constitutionalism in Western Europe: c. 1600-
   c. Used extremes of light and dark in the Baroque         1725
style: tenebrism                                             Constitutionalism: Government power is limited by law.
   d. His works were far more intimate and psychological     There is a delicate balance between the power of
than typical Baroque works                                   government and the rights and liberties of individuals.
   e. Painted with the restraint of the classicist style     I. English society in the 17th century
  3. Jan Vermeer (1632-1675)                                 A. Capitalism played a major role in the high degree of social
     · Paintings specialized in simple domestic interior     mobility
scenes of ordinary people                                     1. The Commercial Revolution significantly increased the
     · Like Rembrandt, he was a master in the use of         size of the English middle-class
light Peter Paul Rubens, Prometheus Bound, 1611-12            2. Improved agricultural techniques improved farming and
Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Beheading Holofernes,          husbandry
1620, Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lecture, 1632                    3. The size of the middle-class became proportionately larger
Vermeer, Woman with a Water Jug, 1665                        than any country in Europe, with the exception of the
  4. Frans Hals (1580-1666)                                  Netherlands.
   · Portraits of middle-class people and militia            B. Gentry
companies                                                     1. Wealthy landowners in the countryside who dominated
E. French Classicism                                         politics in the House of Commons (England’s lower house in
  1. Nicolas Poussin (1593-1665), painter                    Parliament)
   a. Paintings rationally organized to achieve harmony       2. Many of the gentry had been commercially successful and
and balance; even his landscapes are orderly.                had moved up from the middle-class into the upper-class
   b. Focused early on classical scenes from antiquity or
Unit 3 Notes-p.6                                              C. Twice dissolved Parliament over issues of taxation and
 3. Relied heavily on legal precedent to limit the power      parliamentary demands for free speech.
of the king on economic and political matters                   1. Elizabeth I left behind a large debt
 4. Were willing to pay taxes so long as the House of           2. A series of wars (including the 30 Years’ War) were costly
Commons had a say in national expenditures                    and required large gov’t revenues
   a. Unlike France, there was no stigma to paying taxes        3. James unwisely flaunted his wealth (not to mention his
in England. Since the tax burden was more equitable in        male lovers) and thus damaged the prestige of the monarchy.
England, the peasantry was not as heavily exploited.          IV. Charles I (r. 1625-1649)
   b. The issue of taxation brought the House of              A. Background
Commons and the monarchy into direct conflict                   1. Son of James I
C. Religion                                                     2. Like James, he claimed “divine right” theory of absolute
 1. Calvinists comprised perhaps the largest percentage       authority for himself as king and sought to rule without
of the population by the early 17th century while the         Parliament
Anglican Church lost ground                                     3. Also sought to control the Church of England.
 2. Puritans (the most reform-minded of the Calvinists)       B. Tax issues pitted Charles I against Parliament
sought to “purify” the Church of England by removing            1. Charles needed money to fight wars
many of its Catholic elements                                   2. To save money, soldiers were quartered in English homes
 3. The “Protestant work ethic” profoundly impacted           during wartime (this was very unpopular)
members of the middle-class and gentry.                         3. Some English nobles were arrested for refusing to lend
 4. Calvinists in particular were highly opposed to any       money to the government
influence by the Catholic Church (while James I and             4. By 1628, both houses of Parliament were firmly opposed
Charles I seemed to be sympathetic to Catholicism)            to the king
II. Problems facing English monarchs in the 17th              C. Petition of Right (1628)
century                                                         1. Parliament attempted to encourage the king to grant basic
A. The Stuarts ruled England for most of the 17th             legal rights in return for granting tax increases
century                                                         2. Provisions:
 1. Although they exhibited absolutist tendencies, they          a. Only Parliament had right to levy taxes, gifts, loans, or
were restrained by the growth of Parliament.                  contributions.
   a. They lacked the political astuteness of Elizabeth I.       b. No one should be imprisoned or detained without due
   b. James I (1603-1625): first of the Stuart kings—         process of law.
struggled with Parliament                                        c. All had right to habeas corpus (trial)
   c. Charles I (1625-1629): twice suspended                     d. No forced quartering of soldiers in homes of private
Parliament; beheaded during the English Civil War             citizens.
   d. Charles II (1660 -1685): restored to the throne but        e. Martial law could not be declared in peacetime.
with the consent of Parliament                                D. Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629
   e. James II (1685-1688): exiled to France during the         1. Parliament had continued to refuse increased taxation
“Glorious Revolution”                                         without its consent
B. Two major issues prior to the Civil War:                     2. Parliament also had demanded that any movement of the
 1. Could the king govern without the consent of              gov’t toward Catholicism and Arminianism (rejection of
Parliament or go against the wishes of Parliament?            Church authority based on “liberty of conscience”) be treated
 2. Would the form of the Anglican Church follow the          as treason.
established hierarchical episcopal form or acquire a            3. Charles’ rule without Parliament between 1629 and 1640
presbyterian form?                                            became known as the “Thorough”
   a. Episcopal form meant king, Archbishop of                   a. In effect, Charles ruled as an absolute monarch during
Canterbury, and bishops of church determined                  these 11 years
Church doctrine and practices (used in England).                 b. He raised money using Medieval forms of forced taxation
   b. Presbyterian form allowed more freedom of               (those with a certain amount of wealth were obligated to pay)
conscience and dissent among church members (used in             c. “Ship money”: all counties now required to pay to outfit
Scotland).                                                    ships where before only coastal communities had paid.
III. James I (r. 1603-1625)                                      d. Religious persecution of Puritans became the biggest
A. Background                                                 reason for the English Civil War.
 1. Elizabeth I left no heir to the throne when she died in   E. The “Short Parliament”, 1640
1603                                                            1. A Scottish military revolt in 1639-40 occurred when
 2. James VI of Scotland was next in line to assume the       Charles attempted to impose the English Prayer Book on the
throne; thus England got a Scottish king                      Scottish Presbyterian church. The Scots remained loyal to the
B. James believed in “divine right” of kings                  Crown despite the revolt over religious doctrine
 1. Claimed “No bishop; no king” in response to                 2. Charles I needed new taxes to fight the war against
Calvinists who wanted to eliminate system of bishops          Scotland
in the Church of England.                                       3. Parliament was re-convened in 1640 but refused to grant
 2. Firm believer in absolutism (such as that seen by his     Charles his new taxes if he did not accept the rights outlined in
contemporaries in France, Henry IV and later, Louis           the Petition of Right and grant church reforms
XIII)                                                           4. Charles disbanded Parliament after only a month
Unit 3 Notes-p.7                                             system if they would help defeat Cromwell)
F. “Long Parliament” (1640-1648)                               5. Pride’s Purge (1648): Elements of the New Model
 1. Desperate for money after the Scottish invasion of       Army (without Cromwell’s knowledge) removed all non-
northern England in 1640, Charles finally agreed to          Puritans and Presbyterians from Parliament leaving a “Rump
certain demands by Parliament.                               Parliament” with only 1/5 of members remaining.
   a. Parliament could not be dissolved without its own        6. Charles I was beheaded in 1649
consent                                                         a. This effectively ended the civil war
   b. Parliament had to meet a minimum of once every            b. First king in European history to be executed by
three years                                                  his own subjects
   c. “Ship money” was abolished                             D. New sects emerged
   d. The leaders of the persecution of Puritans were to       1. Levellers: Radical religious revolutionaries; sought
be tried and executed (including Archbishop                  social & political reforms—a more egalitarian society
Laud)                                                          2. Diggers: denied Parliament’s authority and rejected
   e. The Star Chamber (still used to suppress nobles)       private ownership of land
was abolished                                                  3. Quakers: believed in an “inner light”, a divine spark
   f. Common law courts were supreme to the king’s           that existed in each person
courts.                                                         a. Rejected church authority
   g. Refused funds to raise an army to defeat the Irish        b. Pacifists
revolt                                                          c. Allowed women to play a role in preaching
 2. The Puritans came to represent the majority in           VI. The Interregnum under Oliver Cromwell
Parliament against the king’s Anglican supporters            A. The Interregnum: 1649-1660 rule without king
V. The English Civil War                                       1. The Commonwealth (1649-1653): a republic that
A. Immediate cause                                           abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords
 1. Charles tried to arrest several Puritans in Parliament      a. In reality, became a military state with an army of
but a crowd of 4,000 came to Parliament’s defense            44,000 (the best in Europe)
     · Charles did this because an Irish rebellion broke        b. Scottish Presbyterians, who opposed Puritan rule,
out and Parliament was not willing to give the king          proclaimed Charles II as the new king and
an army.                                                     Cromwell once again defeated a Scottish invasion
 2. In March 1642 Charles declared war against his             2. The Protectorate (1653-1659), Oliver Cromwell
opponents in Parliament                                      Lord Protector (in effect, a dictatorship)
     · His army came from the nobility, rural country           a. Dissolved the “Rump Parliament” in 1653 after a
gentry, and mercenaries.                                     series of disputes
 3. Civil War resulted:                                         b. England divided into 12 districts, each under the
   a. Cavaliers supported the king                           control of a military general
       · Clergy and supporters of the Anglican Church           c. Denied religious freedom to Anglicans and
       · Majority of the old gentry (nobility); north and    Catholics
west                                                             d. Allowed Jews to return to England in 1655 (Jews
      · Eventually, Irish Catholics (who feared              had not been allowed since 1290)
Puritanism more than Anglicanism)                            B. Cromwell’s military campaigns
   b. Roundheads (Calvinists) opposed the king                 1. 1649, Cromwell invaded Ireland to put down an Irish
     · Consisted largely of Puritans                         uprising.
(Congregationalists) and Presbyterians (who                       · Act of Settlement (1652): The land from 2/3 of
favored the Scottish church organization)                    Catholic property owners was given to Protestant English
     · Allied with Scotland (in return for guarantees        colonists.
that Presbyterianism would be imposed on                       2. Cromwell conquered Scotland in 1651-52
England after the war)                                       C. The Puritan-controlled gov’t sought to regulate the moral
     · Supported by Presbyterian-dominated London            life of England by commanding that people follow strict moral
     · Comprised a majority of businessmen                   codes that were enforced by the army.
     · Included some nobles in the south and east              1. The press was heavily censored, sports were prohibited,
    · Had the support of the navy and the merchant           theaters were closed
marine                                                         2. This seriously alienated many English people from
B. Oliver Cromwell, a fiercely Puritan Independent           Cromwell’s military rule
and military leader of the Roundheads, eventually led his    D. Cromwell died in 1658 and his son, Richard, was
New Model Army to victory in 1649                            ineffective as his successor. The Stuarts under Charles II were
 1. Battle of Nasby was the final major battle.              restored to the
 2. Charles surrendered himself to the Scots in 1646         throne in 1660.
 3. A division between Puritans and Presbyterians (and       VII. The Restoration under Charles II and James II
non-Puritans) developed late in the war.                     A. A Cavalier Parliament restored Charles II (r. 1660-1685)
 4. Parliament ordered the army to disband; Cromwell         to the throne in 1660.
refused.                                                       1. While in exile, Charles had agreed to abide by
      · Cromwell successfully thwarted a Scottish invasion   Parliament’s decisions in the post-war settlement
(Charles I had promised Scotland a Presbyterian                2. Parliament was stronger in relation to the king than
Unit 3 Notes-p.8                                              VIII. The Glorious Revolution, 1688
ever before in England                                        A. The Glorious Revolution of 1688-89 was the final act in
     · The king’s power was not absolute                      the struggle for political sovereignty in England.
  3. Charles agreed to a significant degree of religious        1. Parliament not willing to sacrifice constitutional gains
toleration, especially for Catholics to whom he was           of the English Civil War and return to absolute
partial                                                       monarchy.
  4. He was known as the “Merry Monarch” for his                2. Two issues in particular drove Parliament to action:
affable personality                                              a. James’s reissue of Declaration of Indulgence (granting
B. Development of political parties                           freedom of worship to Catholics) and his demand that the
  1. Tories                                                   declaration be read in the Anglican Church on two successive
   a. Nobles, gentry and Anglicans who supported the          Sundays
monarchy over Parliament                                         b. Birth of a Catholic heir to the English throne in
   b. Essentially conservative                                1688
  2. Whigs                                                    B. James II was forced to abdicate his throne
   a. Middle-class and Puritans who favored Parliament          1. James’ daughters, Mary and Anne, were Protestants
and religious toleration                                        2. Parliament invited Mary’s husband, the Dutch
   b. More liberal in the classical sense                     stadholder William of Orange, to assume the throne.
C. The Clarendon Code                                         · William agreed only if he had popular support in
  1. Instituted in 1661 by monarchists and Anglicans          England and could have his Dutch troops accompany him.
  2. Sought to drive all Puritans out of both political and     3. William thus prepared to invade England from
religious life                                                Holland.
  3. Test Act of 1673 excluded those unwilling to receive       4. In late 1688, James fled to France after his offers for
the sacrament of the Church of England from voting,           concessions to Parliament were refused.
holding office, preaching, teaching, attending                  5. William and Mary were declared joint sovereigns by
universities, or assembling for meetings.                     Parliament.
D. Charles seemed to support Catholicism and drew             C. The Bill of Rights (1689)
criticism from Whigs in Parliament                              1. William and Mary accepted what became known as the
  1. Granted freedom of worship to Catholics                  “Bill of Rights”.
  2. Made a deal with Louis XIV in 1670 whereby France          2. England became a constitutional monarchy
would give England money each year in exchange for               a. This became the hallmark for constitutionalism in
Charles relaxing restrictions on Catholics                    Europe
  3. Charles dissolved Parliament when it passed a law           b. The Petition of Right (1628), Habeas Corpus Act
denying royal succession to Catholics (Charles’               (1679), and the Bill of Rights (1689) are all part of
brother, James, was Catholic)                                 the English Constitution.
  4. He declared himself a Catholic on his deathbed             3. Provisions
E. Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus Act in 1679               a. King could not be Roman Catholic.
  1. Whig Parliament sought to limit Charles’ power              b. Laws could be made only with the consent of
  2. Provisions:                                              Parliament.
   a. Enabled judges to demand that prisoners be in court        c. Parliament had right of free speech.
during their trials.                                             d. Standing army in peace time was not legal without
   b. Required just cause for continued imprisonment.         Parliamentary approval.
   c. Provided for speedy trials.                                e. Taxation was illegal without Parliamentary approval.
   d. Forbade double jeopardy (being charged for a crime         f. Excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments were
of which one had already been acquitted)                      prohibited.
F. Charles took control of Scotland                              g. Right to trial by jury, due process of law, and reasonable
  1. Scotland again gained its independence when Charles      bail was guaranteed.
II assumed the throne in 1660.                                   h. People had the right to bear arms (Protestants but not
  2. Charles reneged on his 1651 pledge that                  Catholics)
acknowledged Presbyterianism in Scotland and in 1661             i. Provided for free elections to Parliament and it could be
declared himself the head of the Church of Scotland           dissolved only by its own consent.
     · He sought to impose the episcopal form of church          j. People had right of petition.
hierarchy in Scotland, similar to the Anglican Church.          4. The “Glorious Revolution” did not amount to a democratic
  3. Thousands were killed in Scotland for resisting          revolution
Charles’ dictatorship                                            a. Power remained largely in the hands of the nobility and
     · Last few years of Charles’ reign in Scotland was       gentry until at least the mid-19th century
known as the “Killing Time”                                      b. Parliament essentially represented the upper classes
G. James II (r. 1685-88)                                         c. The majority of English people did not have a say in
  1. Inherited the throne at age 55 from his brother,         political affairs
Charles II.                                                      d. The most notable defense of the “Glorious Revolution”
  2. He sought to return England to Catholicism               came from political philosopher John Locke in his Second
     · Appointed many Catholics to high positions in          Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
gov’t and in colleges
Unit 3 Notes-p.9                                                 1. Each province sent a representative to the Estates
      · He stated that the people create a government to       General
protect their “natural rights” of life, liberty and property     2. Holland and Zeeland were the two richest and most
D. Toleration Act of 1689                                      influential provinces
   a. Granted right to worship for Protestant                    3. Each province and city was autonomous (self-governing)
nonconformists (e.g. Puritans, Quakers) although they            4. Each province elected a stadholder (governor) and
could not hold office.                                         military leader
   b. Did not extend religious liberties to Catholics, Jews      5. During times of crisis, all seven provinces would elect
or Unitarians (although they were largely left alone)          the same stadholder, usually from the House of Orange
E. Act of Settlement, 1701                                     C. The Dutch Republic was characterized by religious
  1. If King William, or his sister-in-law, Anne, died         toleration
without children, the Crown would pass to the                    1. Calvinism was the dominant religion but was split between
granddaughter of James I, the Hanoverian electress             the Dutch Reformed (who were the majority and the most
dowager, or to her Protestant heirs.                           powerful) and Arminian factions
  2. The Stuarts were no longer in the line of succession         a. Arminianism: Calvinism without the belief in
  3. When Anne died in 1714, her Hanoverian heir               predestination
assumed the throne as George I.                                   b. Arminians enjoyed full rights after 1632
F. Act of Union, 1707                                             c. Consisted of much of the merchant class
  1. United England and Scotland into Great Britain              2. Catholics and Jews also enjoyed religious toleration but
  2. Why would Scotland agree to give up its                   had fewer rights.
independence?                                                    3. Religious toleration enabled the Netherlands to foster a
   a. The Scots desperately desired access to England’s        cosmopolitan society that promoted trade
trade empire and believed that it would continue to fall       D. The Netherlands became the greatest mercantile nation of
behind if it did not enter into a union.                       the 17th century
   b. Scottish Presbyterians feared that the Stuarts (who        1. Amsterdam became the banking and commercial center
were now staunchly Catholic) might attempt                     of Europe
to return to the throne in Scotland.                              a. Replaced Antwerp that had dominated in the late-16th
  3. Within a few decades, Scotland transformed into a         century
modern society with dynamic economic and intellectual             b. Richest city in Europe with a population of over 100,000
growth                                                            c. Offered far lower interest rates than English banks; this
IX. The Cabinet system in the 18th century                     was the major reason for its banking dominance
A. Structure:                                                    2. Had to rely on commerce since it had few national
  1. Leading ministers, who were members of the House          resources
of Commons and had the support of the majority of its             a. The Dutch had the largest fleet in the world dedicated to
members, made common policy and conducted the                  trade
business of the country.                                          b. Had several outstanding ports that became a hub of
  2. The Prime Minister, a member of the majority, was         European trade
the leader of the government                                     3. Did not have government controls and monopolies
B. Robert Walpole is viewed as the first Prime Minister        that interfered with free enterprise
in British history (although the title of Prime Minister         4. Fishing was the cornerstone of the Dutch economy
was not yet official)                                            5. Major industries included textiles, furniture, fine
  1. Led the cabinet from 1721-1742                            woolen goods, sugar refining, tobacco cutting, brewing,
  2. Established the precedent that the cabinet was            pottery, glass, printing, paper making, weapons manufacturing
responsible to the House of Commons                            and ship building
C. The King’s role                                               6. Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India
  1. George I (1714-1727), the first of the Hanoverian         Company organized as cooperative ventures of private
kings, normally presided at cabinet meetings.                  enterprise and the state
  2. George II (1727-1760) discontinued the practice of           a. DEIC challenged the Portuguese in East including
meeting with the cabinet.                                      South Africa, Sri Lanka, and parts of Indonesia.
  3. Both kings did not speak English fluently and                b. DWIC traded extensively with Latin American and
seemed more concerned with their territory in Hanover.         Africa
· Decision making of the crown declined as a result.           E. Foreign policy
X. The United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch                1. Dutch participation against the Hapsburgs in the
Republic)                                                      Thirty Years’ War led to its recognition as an
A. 1st half of the 17th century was the “golden age” of        independent country, free from Spanish influence
the Netherlands                                                  2. War with England and France in the 1670s damaged
  1. The government was dominated by the bourgeoisie           the United Provinces
whose wealth and power limited the power of the state               · Dikes in Holland were opened in 1672 and much
  2. Government was run by representative institutions         of the region was flooded in order to prevent the French army
B. The government consisted of an organized                    from taking Amsterdam.
confederation of seven provinces, each with                      3. By the end of the War of Spanish Succession in 1713,
representative gov’t                                           the Dutch Republic saw a significant economic decline
Unit 3 Notes-p.10                                             2. In France, the nobility’s power had been limited, the
· Britain and France were now the two dominant              middle-class was relatively strong, and peasants were
powers in the Atlantic trade.                               generally free from serfdom.
IX. Sweden                                                       · Louis XIV built French absolutism upon the
A. King Gustavus Adolphus (r. 1611-32) reorganized          foundations of a well-developed medieval
the gov’t                                                   monarchy and a strong royal bureaucracy.
     · The Baltic region came under Swedish domination      C. Threat of war with European and Asian invaders were
and Sweden became a world power                             important motivations for eastern European monarchs’ drive
B. The Riksdag, an assembly of nobles, clergy,              to consolidate power.
townsmen, and peasants, supposedly had the highest            1. Resulted in reduced political power of the nobility.
legislative authority.                                           · However, nobles gained much greater power over the
C. The real power rested with the monarchy and nobility     peasantry.
  1. Nobles had the dominant role in the bureaucracy and      2. Three important methods of gaining absolute power:
the military                                                   a. Kings imposed and collected permanent taxes without the
  2. The central gov’t was divided into 5 departments,      consent of their subjects.
each controlled by a noble                                     b. States maintained permanent standing armies.
D. Sweden focused on trade rather than building up a           c. States conducted relations with other states as they
huge military (too costly)                                  pleased.
                                                              3. Absolutism in eastern Europe reached its height with
Absolutism in Eastern Europe: c. 1600-1740                  Peter the Great of Russia.
I. Overview of Eastern Europe (“HOP RAP”)                        · Absolutism in Prussia was stronger than in Austria.
A. Three aging empires—Holy Roman Empire,                   II. Serfdom in eastern Europe
Ottoman Empire and Polish Kingdom—gave way to new           A. After 1300, lords in eastern Europe revived serfdom to
empires of Russia, Austria and Prussia                      combat increasing economic challenges.
 1. Holy Roman Empire (HRE): religious divisions due          1. Areas most affected included Bohemia, Silesia,
to the Reformation and religious wars in 16th and 17th      Hungary, eastern Germany, Poland, Lithuania, and
centuries split Germany among Catholic, Lutheran and        Russia.
Calvinist princes                                             2. Drop in population in the 14th century (especially from the
 2. Ottoman Empire: could not maintain possessions in       “Black Death”) created tremendous labor shortages and hard
eastern Europe and the Balkans in the face of Austrian      times for nobles.
and Russian expansion                                         3. Lords demanded that their kings and princes issue laws
   a. Ottoman Empire was built on expansion                 restricting or eliminating peasants’ right of moving freely
    · The Sultan had absolute power in the empire              a. By 1500 Prussian territories had laws requiring runaway
    · After 1560 the decline in western expansion           peasants to be hunted down and returned to their lords
resulted in the gradual disintegration of the empire           b. Laws were passed that froze peasants in their social class.
   b. Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566) was             4. Lords confiscated peasant lands and imposed heavier labor
perhaps the most powerful ruler in the world during the     obligations.
16th century                                                  5. The legal system was monopolized by the local lord.
    · Nearly conquered Austria in 1529, captured              6. Non-serf peasants were also affected
Belgrade (Serbia), nearly 1/2 of eastern Europe including        · Robot: In certain regions, peasants were required to work
all Balkan territories, most of Hungary, and part of        3-4 days without pay per week for their local lord
southern Russia.                                            B. Serfdom consolidated between 1500 and 1650
   c. Highly talented Christian children from the             1. Hereditary serfdom was re-established in Poland, Russia,
conquered provinces were incorporated into the              and Prussia by the mid-17th century.
Ottoman Empire’s bureaucracy                                  2. In Poland, nobles gained complete control over peasants in
   d. “Janissary corps”: those Christian slaves who         1574 and could legally impose death penalties on serfs
were not selected for the Ottoman bureaucracy               whenever they wished.
served loyally instead in the Turkish army                    3. 1694, the Russian tsar rescinded a 9-year term limit on
   e. Ottoman Empire was fairly tolerant regarding          recovery of runaway serfs.
religion in its conquered provinces                           4. This period saw growth of estate agriculture, especially in
 3. Poland: liberum veto – voting in Polish parliament      Poland and eastern Germany.
had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little       a. Food prices increased due to influx of gold & silver
could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom      from the Americas.
    · Russia and Prussia encouraged certain members to         b. Surpluses in wheat and timber were sold to big foreign
invoke the liberum veto to weaken Poland.                   merchants who exported them to feed the wealthier west.
    · By 1800, Poland ceased to exist as a sovereign        C. Why serfdom in eastern Europe and not western
state; carved up by Russia, Austria and Prussia             Europe?
B. Eastern European absolutism differed from                  1. Reasons were not necessarily economic.
French absolutism                                                · West was also devastated by the Black Death and the
 1. Eastern absolutism was based on a powerful nobility,    resulting labor shortages helped labor.
weak middle class, and an oppressed peasantry                 2. Political reasons more plausible-supremacy of noble
composed of serfs.                                          landlords.
Unit 3 Notes-p.11                                              1. Ferdinand II (1619-1637) took control of Bohemia during
   a. Most kings, in fact, were essentially “first among     the 30 Years’ War
equals” in the noble class and directly benefited from         2. Ferdinand III (1637-1657): centralized gov’t in the old
serfdom.                                                     hereditary provinces of Austria proper.
   b. Eastern lords had more political power than in the       3. Leopold I (1658-1705)
west; monarchs needed the nobles                                a. Severely restricted Protestant worship
   c. Constant warfare in eastern Europe and political          b. Siege of Vienna: Successfully repelled Turks from gates
chaos resulted in noble landlord class increasing their      of Vienna in 1683
political power at the expense of monarchs.                       · Last attempt by the Ottoman Empire to take central
   d. Weak eastern kings had little power to control         Europe.
landlord policies aimed at peasants.                           4. Emperor Charles VI (1711-1740): Issued Pragmatic
     · Strong sovereign kings were not in place prior to     Sanction in 1713
1650.                                                           a. Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided and
   e. Peasants were weaker politically than in the west.     henceforth to be passed intact to a single heir.
     · Uprisings did not succeed.                               b. His daughter, Maria Theresa, inherited Charles’ empire in
     · Peasant solidarity in the east was weaker than        1740 and ruled for 40 years
western communities.                                         IV. Prussia: House of Hohenzollern
   f. Landlords undermined medieval privileges of towns      A. Brief background of Brandenburg
and power of urban classes.                                    1. Ruler of Brandenburg was designated as one of 7 electors
     · Population of towns and importance of urban           in the Holy Roman Empire in 1417.
middle classes declined significantly.                         2. Yet by the 17th century, Brandenburg was not
III. The Hapsburg Empire (Austrian Empire)                   significantly involved in HRE affairs
A. Rise of Austria                                             3. Marriages increasingly gave the Hohenzollerns control of
  1. Ruler of Austria was traditionally selected as Holy     German principalities in central and western Germany.
Roman Emperor                                                  4. The prince had little power over the nobility
  2. After War of Spanish Succession (1701-13) and the       B. Frederick William, the “Great Elector” (r. 1640-88)
Treaty of Utrecht (1713), the Spanish throne was now           1. Background
occupied by the Bourbons; Habsburg power was                    a. Strict Calvinist but granted religious toleration to
concentrated in Austria.                                     Catholics and Jews
  3. Austrian Habsburg Empire included:                         b. Admired the Swedish system of government and the
   a. Naples, Sardinia, and Milan in Italy                   economic power of the Netherlands
   b. Austrian Netherlands (Belgium)                            c. Ongoing struggle between Sweden and Poland for control
   c. Hungary and Transylvania (modern-day Romania)          of Baltic after 1648 and wars of Louis XIV created
  4. Ineffective Habsburg rule in the HRE forced             atmosphere of permanent crisis.
monarchs to turn their attention inward and eastward to           · Prussia was invaded in 1656-57 by Tartars of southern
consolidate their diverse holdings into a strong unified     Russia who killed or carried off as slaves more than 50,000
state.                                                       people.
   a. Reorganization of Bohemia was a major step                  · Invasion weakened the noble Estates and strengthened
towards absolutism.                                          the urgency of the elector’s demands for more money for a
     · Czech (Bohemian) nobility was wiped out during        larger army.
the Bohemian phase of 30 Years’ War                               · Prussian nobles refused to join representatives of towns
     · Ferdinand II (1619-1637) redistributed Czech lands    in resisting royal power
to aristocratic soldiers from all over Europe.                 2. The “Great Elector” established Prussia as a Great
     · Conditions for serfs declined.                        Power and laid the foundation for the future unification of
   b. Old hereditary provinces of Austria proper were        Germany in the 19th century
centralized by Ferdinand III (1637-1657).                       a. Most significant: Oversaw Prussian militarism and
     · Ferdinand created a permanent standing army;          created the most efficient army in Europe.
unprecedented for the Hapsburg empire                           b. Employed military power and taxation to unify his
   c. Hungary was the third and largest part of its          Rhine holdings, Prussia, and Brandenburg into a strong state.
dominion.                                                       c. Increased military spending achieved through
     · Magyars were the dominant cultural group              heavy taxes (twice that of Louis XIV in France)
  5. Serfdom intensified in Hapsburg lands                        · Prussian nobility not exempted.
B. Government of the Austrian Empire.                             · Soldiers also served as tax collectors and policemen, thus
  1. Austria was NOT a national state – its multinational    expanding the government’s bureaucracy.
empire included:                                                d. “Junkers” formed the backbone of the Prussian military
   a. Austria proper: Germans, Italians                      officer corps; these nobles and landowners dominated the
   b. Bohemia: Czechs                                        Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia.
   c. Hungary: Hungarians, Serbs, Croats, Romanians               · 1653, hereditary subjugation of serfs established as a way
  2. No single constitutional system or administration       of compensating the nobles for their support of the Crown
existed in the empire as each region had a different legal     3. Encouraged industry and trade
relationship to the Emperor.                                 a. Imported skilled craftsmen and Dutch farmers
C. Important Hapsburg rulers
Unit 3 Notes-p.12                                            Austrian Hapsburgs
   b. New industries emerged: Woolens, cotton, linens,       V. Russia
velvet, lace, silk, soap, paper and iron products            A. Historical background
   c. Efforts at overseas trade largely failed due to          1. During the Middle Ages the Greek Orthodox Church was
Prussia’s lack of ports and naval experience                 significant in assimilating Scandinavian ancestors of the
C. Frederick I (Elector Frederick III) “The                  Vikings with the Slavic peoples of eastern Europe.
Ostentatious” (1688-1713); 1st “King of Prussia”               2. In the 13th century, the Mongols from Asia invaded
 1. Most popular of Hohenzollern kings                       eastern Europe and ruled the eastern Slavs for over two
   a. Sought to imitate the court of Louis XIV               centuries
   b. Encouraged higher education                                 · Authoritarian Mongol rule, led by the Mongol khan,
    · Founded a university and encouraged the founding       left a legacy of ruthless leadership that would continue in
of an academy of science                                     Russia in future centuries.
    · Welcomed immigrant scholars                              3. Eventually, princes of Moscow, who served the khan,
 2. Fought in two wars against Louis XIV to preserve the     began to consolidate their own rule and replaced Mongol
European balance of power:                                   power. (Ivan I and Ivan III were the most important)
   a. War of the League of Augsburg (1688-97) and the          4. Muscovy began to emerge as the most significant
War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713)                        principality that formed the nucleus of what later became
   b. Allied with the Hapsburgs                              Russia. However, the Russian nobles (boyars) and the free
   c. Elector of Brandenburg/Prussia was now recognized      peasantry made it difficult for Muscovite rulers to strengthen
internationally as the “King of Prussia” in return for aid   the state
to Habsburgs.                                                B. Ivan III (“Ivan the Great”) (1442-1505)
    · Thus, Frederick I was the first “king of Prussia”        1. 1480, ended Mongol domination of Muscovy
D. Frederick William I (r. 1713-1740) “Soldiers’ King”         2. Established himself as the hereditary ruler of Muscovy
 1. Most important Hohenzollern regarding the                   a. This was in response to the fall of the Byzantine
development of Prussian absolutism                           Empire and his desire to make Moscow the new center of the
   a. Calvinist, like his father                             Orthodox Church: the “Third Rome”
   b. Obsessed with finding tall soldiers for his army            · The tsar became the head of the church
 2. Infused militarism into all of Prussian society               · The “2nd Rome” had been Constantinople before it was
   a. Prussia became known as “Sparta of the North”          conquered by the Ottoman
    · Society became rigid and highly disciplined.           Empire in 1453
    · Unquestioning obedience was the highest virtue.             · Many Greek scholars, craftsmen, architects and artists
    · Most militaristic society of modern times.             were brought into Muscovy
   b. Nearly doubled the size of the army                       b. Tsar claimed his absolute power was derived from divine
    · Best army in Europe                                    right as ruler
    · Became Europe’s 4th largest army (next to                 c. Ivan struggled with the Russian boyars for power.
France, Russia & Austria)                                         · Eventually, the boyars’ political influence decreased but
   c. 80% of gov’t revenues went towards the military        they began exerting more control of their peasants.
   d. Prussian army was designed to avoid war through        C. Ivan IV (“Ivan the Terrible”) (1533-1584)
deterrence.                                                    1. Background
    · Only time Frederick William I fought a war was            a. Grandson of Ivan III
when Sweden occupied a city in northern                         b. First to take the title of “tsar” (Caesar)
Germany; the Swedes were subsequently forced out                c. Married a Romanov
 3. Most efficient bureaucracy in Europe                       2. Territorial expansion
   a. Removed the last of the parliamentary estates and         a. Controlled the Black Sea region
local self-government                                           b. Gained huge territories in the Far East
   b. Demanded absolute obedience and discipline from           c. Gained territories in the Baltic region
civil servants                                                 3. Began westernizing Muscovy
    · Promotions based on merit                                   · Encouraged trade with England and the Netherlands
    · Some commoners were able to rise to positions            4. For 25 years, he fought unsuccessful wars against Poland-
of power                                                     Lithuania
   c. High levels of taxation                                   a. Military obligations deeply affected both nobles and
 4. Junkers remained the officers’ caste in the army in      peasants
return for supporting the king’s absolutism                     b. These wars left much of central Europe depopulated
 5. Established approximately 1,000 schools for peasant         c. Cossacks: Many peasants fled the west to the newly-
children                                                     conquered Muscovite territories in the east and formed free
E. Frederick II (“Frederick the Great”) – (r. 1740-          groups and outlaw armies. Gov’t responded by increasing
1786)                                                        serfdom
 1. Most powerful and famous of the Prussian kings             5. Reduced the power of the boyars
 2. Considered to be an “Enlightened Despot” for his            a. All nobles had to serve the tsar in order to keep their
incorporation of Enlightenment ideas into his reign.         lands
    · Instituted a number of important reforms                  b. Serfdom increased substantially to keep peasants tied to
 3. Increased Prussia’s territory at the expense of the      noble lands
Unit 3 Notes-p.13                                              a. These Moscow guards had overthrown previous
   c. Many nobles were executed                             leaders
     · Ivan blamed the boyars for his wife’s death and         b. The security of Peter’s reign was now intact
thus became increasingly cruel and demented                   3. Military power was Peter’s greatest concern
  6. Merchants and artisans were also bound to their           a. Each Russian village was required to send recruits
towns so that the tsar could more efficiently tax them      for the Russian army; 25-year enlistments
   · This contrasts the emergence of capitalism in             b. 75% of the national budget was spent on the military by
western Europe where merchants gained influence and         the end of Peter’s reign
more security over private property.                             · Royal army of over 200,000 men plus additional 100,000
  7. “Time of Troubles” followed Ivan IV’s death in         special forces of Cossacks and foreigners
1584                                                           c. Established royal, military and artillery academies
   a. Period of famine, power struggles and war                d. All young male nobles required to leave home and serve
   b. Cossack bands traveled north massacring nobles        5 years of compulsory education
and officials                                                  e. Large navy built on the Baltic (though it declined after
   c. Sweden and Poland conquered Moscow                    Peter’s death)
   d. In response, nobles elected Ivan’s grand-nephew          f. Non-nobles had opportunities to rise up the ranks
as new hereditary tsar and rallied around him to              4. Great Northern War (1700-1721)
drive out the invaders                                         a. Russia (with Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies) vs.
D. Romanov dynasty                                          Sweden (under Charles XII)
  1. Lasted from the ascent of Michael Romanov in 1613         b. Battle of Poltava (1709) was the most decisive battle in
to the Russian Revolution in 1917.                          Russia defeating Sweden.
  2. Michael Romanov (1613-1645)                               c. Treaty of Nystad (1721): Russia gained Latvia and
   a. Romanov favored the nobles in return for their        Estonia and thus gained its “Window on the West” in the
support                                                     Baltic Sea.
     · Reduced military obligations significantly             5. Modernization and westernization was one of Peter’s
   b. Expanded Russian empire to the Pacific Ocean in       major focuses
the Far East.                                                  a. He traveled to the West as a young man to study its
   c. Fought several unsuccessful wars against Sweden,      technology and culture
Poland and the Ottoman Empire                                    · Military technology was his primary concern
  3. Russian society continued to transform in the 17th        b. He imported to Russia substantial numbers of western
century                                                     technicians and craftsmen to aid in the building of large
   a. Nobles gained more exemptions from military           factories
service.                                                       c. By the end of his reign, Russia out-produced England in
   b. Rights of peasants declined                           iron production (though Sweden and Germany produced
     · Bloody Cossack revolts resulted in further           more)
restrictions on serfs                                            · Industrial form of serfdom existed in factories
   c. “Old Believers” of the Orthodox Church resisted       where workers could be bought and sold
influx of new religious sects from the west (e.g.              d. State-regulated monopolies created (echoed
Lutherans and Calvinists)                                   mercantilist policies of western Europe)
     · In protest, 20,000 burned themselves to death over        · Actually stifled economic growth
20 years                                                         · Industrial serfs created inferior products
     · “Old Believers” were severely persecuted by            6. Government became more efficient
the government                                                 a. Tsar ruled by decree (example of absolute power)
   d. Western ideas gained ground                                · Tsar theoretically owned all land in the state; nobles and
     · Western books translated into Russian, new skills    peasants served the state
and technology, clothing and customs (such as men                · No representative political bodies
trimming their beards)                                           · All landowners owed lifetime service to the state (either
     · First Russian translation of the Bible began in      in the military, civil service, or court); in return they gained
1649                                                        greater control over their serfs
     · By 1700, 20,000 Europeans lived in Russia               b. Table of Ranks
e. By 1689, Russia was the world’s largest country (3            · Set educational standards for civil servants (most of
times the size of Europe)                                   whom were nobles)
E. Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725)                                · Peter sought to replace old Boyar nobility with new
  1. Background                                             service-based nobility loyal to the tsar
   a. His sister, Sophia, ruled as his regent early on.        c. Russian secret police ruthlessly and efficiently crushed
     · Her plot to kill him failed and Peter had her        opponents of the state
banished to a monastery; his mother Natalia took over as       d. Taxation
his regent                                                       · Heavy on trade sales and rent
     · Peter began ruling in his own right at age 22             · Head tax on every male
   b. He was nearly 7 feet tall and so strong he could         e. Turned the Orthodox Church into a government
bend a horse shoe with his bare hands                       department in 1700
  2. Revolt of the Strelski was defeated by Peter in 1698     7. St. Petersburg
Unit 3 Notes-p.14
   a. One of Peter’s crowning achievements-Sought to
create a city similar to Amsterdam and the Winter
Palace with the grandeur of Versailles
     · By his death, the city was the largest in northern
Europe (75,000 inhabitants)
   b. St. Petersburg became the capital of Russia
     · Cosmopolitan in character
   c. Construction began in 1703; labor was conscripted
   d. Peter ordered many noble families to move to the
city and build their homes according to Peter’s plans
   e. Merchants and artisans also ordered to live in the
city and help build it
   f. Peasants conscripted for heavy labor in the city’s
construction (heavy death toll)
  8. Peter’s reforms modernized Russia and brought it
closer to the European mainstream
   a. More modern military and state bureaucracy
   b. Emerging concept of interest in the state, as separate
from the tsars interest
   c. Tsar began issuing explanations to his decrees to
gain popular support

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