THE CONDITION OF THE CHURCH(1400-1517):
1. What events badly damaged papal prestige during the 14th and 15th
2. Who wrote “We Italians are irreligious and corrupt above others,
because the Church and her representatives set us the worst example.”
3. List the other literary pieces that criticized the RCC:
4. Identify and define the three clerical disorders:
5. What other abuses existed among local priests?
6. Define absenteeism and pluralism:
7. Why did many nations resent the benefices of the papacy?
8. How were government officials rewarded?
9. Why did this lead to corruption within the RCC?
10. Identify the “Brethren of the Common Life”?
11. How did they help to improve the image of the Church?
12. Identify Thomas Kempis:
13. How did Julius II try to reform the Church?
Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism
1. Describe Martin Luther’s background:
2. What event caused Martin Luther to become a monk?
3. Who was archbishop Albrect?
4. How did he abuse the system?
5. How did Albrect raise money to pay back the Fugger family?
6. Define the three principles regarding indulgences?
7. Who was John Tetzel?
8. Where did Luther post the 95 Theses?
9. What was Luther’s original intent?
10. How did the RCC react to Luther’s 95 Theses?
11. Describe the purpose and events leading to the Diet of Worms:
12. Identify Ulrich Zwingli:
13. Where did the word Protestant originate?
14. Compare/Contrast the following: Salvation, religious authority, what
is the Church, and what is the highest form of Christian life?
15. What is the difference between transubstantiation and
consubstantiation and the Lord’s Supper?
16. What social invention helped to spread Luther’s idea?
The Social Impact of Luther’s Beliefs
1. What two significant late medieval developments prepared the way for
2. Define preacherships:
3. What words from Luther’s On Christian Liberty (1520) caused the
peasants to revolt?
4. Identify the Peasant Revolts:
5. How did Luther react?
6. What is the rationale behind Luther’s An Admonition to Peace (1525)?
7. Identify the importance of Luther’s Against the Murderous, Thieving
Hordes of the Peasants (1525)
8. How did sociologist Erik Erikson pay tribute to Luther?
9. When did Luther translate the Bible? What language?
10. How did Luther regard women?
Germany and the Protestant Reformation
1. How did Germany differ from England, Spain, and France?
2. Identify the seven elector states?
3. Who inherited the crown of the Holy Roman Empire?
4. What royal family did he belong to?
5. Luther’s motives were primarily religious. What motivated many
other’s to convert to the Protestant faith?
6. How did the Hapsburg family solidify their power?
7. Why is Charles V considered the last Medieval Europe?
The Political Impact of Luther’s Beliefs
1. Why did many fear the existence of more than one religion?
2. What message did Luther send in his Appeal to the Christian Nobility of
the German Nation?
3. What does the expression “these words fell on welcome ears and itchy
4. What other interests distracted Charles V from the issues regarding
5. Describe the Habsburg-Valois Wars and their effect on Germany?
6. Identify the Peace of Augsburg?
The Growth of the Protestant Reformation
1. Identify John Calvin:
2. Describe the “city that was a Church”:
3. What major work did Calvin propose his ideas?
4. Define predestination:
5. Why were Calvin’s ideas energizing?
6. Describe the Calvin Consistory:
7. Identify Michael Serventus:
8. How did Calvin’s ideas differ from Luther’s?
1. What were the basic beliefs of the Anabaptists?
2. How were the Anabaptists treated?
3. How did their ideas affect the U.S. Constitution?
The English Reformation
1. Identify England’s motivation for reform?
2. Explain the circumstances surrounding Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn:
3. Identify the laws passed by Parliament that made it possible for the
Reformation in England?
4. What was the fate of John Fisher and Thomas More?
5. List the wives and children of Henry VIII:
6. What did Henry do with the Roman Catholic lands?
7. How did his actions change the political climate in England?
8. List the changes in England that resemble the MODERN NATION
9. Who was instrumental in making these changes:
10. Identify Thomas Cranmer:
11. Identify Mary Tudor (r. 1553-1558):
12. Identify Elizabeth (r. 1558-1603):
13. What was the purpose of the Elizabethan Settlement:
14. Identify the contributions of John Knox:
15. How did Protestantism affect Ireland?
16. How did the Reformation affect Sweden, Norway, and Denmark?
17. What factors proved differently in Eastern Europe?
THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION and the
1. Identify the dates in which Protestantism makes major advances?
2. What were the dates of the Catholic and Counter Reformation?
3. How are they different?
4. Which popes made efforts to reform the Church and When?
5. Why did many popes fear the meeting of council?
Council of Trent
1. Who presided over the Council of Trent?
2. Identify the dates in which the Council met?
3. What were the goals of the Council?
4. What obstacles did they face?
5. List the achievements of the Council?
6. How did the Council change marriage?
7. What were the failures of the Council?
8. Identify the Ursuline Nuns:
9. Identify the Jesuits:
10. How did these two groups help the cause of the Counter Reformation?
11. Explain the actions of the Holy Office:
12. What the Reformation a Revolution? EXPLAIN?