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modern europe terms by EXU3I6PL


									                           Post World War II
   1. Margaret Thatcher (r. 1979 – 1990) “Iron Lady” – Conservative Party, 1st
       women Prime Minister played an important role in bringing down Communism
       w/ Ronald Reagan; Thatcherism- reduced public spending, lower direct taxes,
       privatization of government owned industries; prosperity sometimes at the
       expense of others

   2. Leonid Brezhnev (1906-1982) General Secretary of the Communist Party and
      President of the USSR – invasion of Czech. (1968) and Afghanistan (1991)
      domestic stagnation and persecution of dissenters

   3. Boris Yeltsin (1931 – 2007) (r. 1991-1999) 1st democratically elected President
      of Russia (came into power over Communist party) – alcoholic; privatization of
      state-run enterprises; his economic reform project caused prices to skyrocket and
      heavy taxes

   4. Mikhail Gorbachev – (1931- present); (r. 1985-1991) - in power as Communist
      leader beginning in 1985; “Democratic Socialism” – Negotiated reform with
      Ronald Reagan ending the Cold War; reform attempts led to the end of the
      political supremacy of the Communist party and the dissolution of the Soviet

   5. Helmut Kohl - (1930 - present) leader of West Germany, member of the
      Conservative Christian Democrats, allied with U.S. to coordinate military and
      political policy towards the USSR; Chancellor of Germany (r. 1982-1998);
      architect of German reunification; helped to create a common economic market
      between 25 democratic countries within the European Union (EU)

   6. Charles de Gaulle – (1890-1970) prior to WWII was mostly known as a tank
      tactician and an advocate of the concentrated use of armored and aviation forces;
      leader of Free France in WWII and head of the provisional government (r. 1944-
      1966); inspired new constitution; 5th Republic’s 1st president (r. 1958 – 1969)
      resisted surrender to Germany and encouraged Churchill and Roosevelt to stop
      Hitler; Gaullism- France’s desire for independence from foreign power

   7. François Mitterand (1919- 1996) 1981 elected 1st Socialist President of France;
      holds record of longest serving president of France since Napoleon (14 years);
      abolished the death penalty, began his political career during The Resistance

   8. Jacques Chirac (1932 – present) President of France elected in 1995 reelected in
      2002; retired in 2007, stood for lower tax rates, the removal of price controls,
      strong punishment for crime and terrorism, and business privatization

   9. John Major- (b. 1943 – present) (r. 1990-1997) Prime Minister of Britain;
      Conservative; began “Back to Basics” campaign regarding education, economy,
      and policing; established the National Lottery; allied with the U.S. in the war with
      Iraq (invasion of Kuwait); “Tentacles of terrorism spread everywhere.”
10. Tony Blair – (r. 1997-2007) – British Prime Minister, Labour Party ending 18
    years of power for the Conservatives, youngest Prime Minster elected in two
    centruries (43), longest serving Labour Party Prime Minster, elected three
    consecutive general elections, forced to quit due to his unpopular decision to
    support Bush and the US in the War in Iraq

11. Winston Churchill (b. 1874-1965) Prime Minister of Great Britain (r. 1940-
    1945, 1951-1955) Conservative; worked with Roosevelt for U.S. involvement in
    WWII - critical of appeasement; argued for GB, France, and Russia to ally; one of
    the big three at Yalta Conference; Iron Curtain Speech - “From Stettin in the
    Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the

12. Edward Heath (b. 1916 – 2005) Prime Minister of Great Britain (r. 1970-1974);
    Conservative; signed the Treaty of Accession – joining the European Community;
    Visited Mao Tse-Tung in China; deployed troops in Northern Ireland

13. Lech Walesa - (1943- present) member of the Workers Defense Committee –
    protested against the Russian controlled communist government; jailed many
    times; promoted solidarity in Gdansk; won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983;
    President of Poland (r. 1990-1995)

14. Joseph Tito (1892-1980) 1945 Prime Minister of Yugoslavia; Communist; served
    in the Austrian Army WWI; resisted Soviet Communist domination under Stalin;
    Yugoslavia became independent - controlled Yugoslavia; ideas called Titoism –
    Communist policies had to differ in every country due to conditions; manipulator
    of post war politics for 35 years; bloody civil war erupted in Yugoslavia 1990

15. Nicolae Ceausescu – (1918–1989) Communist official leader of Romania from
    1965 until he was overthrown and killed in revolution caused by his order for his
    secret police to fire on demonstrators in December 1989; had secret police that
    exercised strict control over free speech and the media; him and his wife were
    killed by a firing squad

16. Alexander Dubček (1921-1992) Communist Party Leader in Czechoslovakia -
    wanted to bring about Social Democratic Revolution – “Socialism with a human
    face”, 1968 Brezhnev and the Soviet Union sent 500,000 troops, reforms were
    abandoned, 1989 a democratic government was established, 1990 country
    renamed Czech Republic and Slovak Union

17. Imre Nagy (b. 1896-1958) Prime Minister of Hungary (r. 1953-55) - 1956
    Revolution tried and executed (by Communist Russians), installed liberal policies,
    announced Hungary’s withdrawal of the Warsaw Pact

18. Nikita Khrushchev (b. 1894 – 1971) First Secretary of the Communist Party
    1953-1964; propaganda master who believed Communism would triumph over
    Capitalism; 1962 deployed nuclear weapons to Cuba – spies tipped off Kennedy
    eventual removal of Russian nukes from Cuba

19. Joseph Stalin (1879 – 1953) Communist Dictator of USSR, turned the backward
    country into a superpower, 1949 second world power in nukes, Cold War, Purged
    dissenters including Trotsky
   20. Konstantin Chernenko (b. 1911-1985) General Secretary of the Soviet Union
       for 13 months 1984-1985, died shortly after taking power, opened the door for
       Gorbachev and new policies

   21. Pope John Paul II – (1920-2005) – Karol Jozef Wojtyla, 1st non-Italian Polish
       (Marxist, atheist country at the time) Pope in 455 years in 1978, all embracing –
       first Pope to visit a Jewish synagogue, most traveled Pope in history, 8 months
       after elected went to Poland to support the Solidarity movement and challenge the
       Communist government, spoke out against communism, Marxism, socialism,
       imperialism, hedonism, materialism, fascism, racism, secularism, unrestrained
       capitalism, and oppression

   22. George Kennan – (1904-2005) – American advisor, diplomat, political scientist,
       historian, best known as the “father of containment” – wrote “The Long
       Telegram” 1946 and “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” 1947 – aims of the Soviet
       Union expansionist – must be “contained” – foundational texts of the Cold War,

Identify the consequences of the following :
   1. Truman Doctrine – Harry Truman March 12 1947, defined the U.S. as the
       “world’s policeman” breaking pre-war “isolationism” need to send aid to Turkey
       and Greece – support for national independence, “containment” of Communism –
       support “free peoples”

   2. Brezhnev Doctrine – 1968 Soviet Union’s response to Dubcek and
      Czechoslovakia’s experiment with humanizing communism, Brezhnev declared
      the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country
      whenever necessary

   3. Helsinki Accord – (1975) Helsinki, Finland, 35 Nations signed the agreement to
      secure human rights and political freedoms of their countries, self-determination
      of peoples

   4. Gdansk Agreement – signed Aug. 1980, 1st of many concessions made by the
      Communist Polish government, recognized workers rights and free trade unions,
      promised new economic concessions, and the removal some discredited
      communist officials – attributed to Lech Walesa

   5. Solidarity – 1980 formation of the Polish Trade Union, free democratic workers,
      intellectuals, and the Roman Catholic Church, became the union of the Nation,
      9.5 million people, published newspapers, nationwide strikes gave them the
      power to negotiate with Communist bosses, 1981 Communist Polish gov’t
      arrested the Solidarity leaders, continued underground until 1989

   6. Maastricht Treaty – European Union 1992, major steps towards Union of
      European Nations, economically - monetary union (Euro) 1999 and eventual
      political union

   7. Warsaw Pact – 1955 Treaty of Friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance,
      Military Alliance of Eastern Bloc, they saw NATO as a threat, USSR, Poland,
      Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, East Germany, Hungary, Czech
8. Berlin Airlift – June 1948-May 1949, first battleground for the emerging Cold
   War, delicate balance b/w France, Great Britain, US, and Soviet Union, Germany
   divided into 4 sectors, Berlin divided into 4 sectors, western powers combined
   their zones into one military province and will introduce a new currency, Stalin
   and the Soviet Union cut off all traffic to West Berlin since Berlin was located in
   the Soviet Zone, Truman will avoid war and humiliating defeat through creative
   containment – sends 2 million tons and 270,000 flights feed the people of Berlin,
   Soviets lifted the ban in May of 1949

9. NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949, Defensive military alliance,
   originally 12 nations, an attack on one was an attack on all, reaction to the Soviet
   Unions attempt to spread communism throughout Europe

10. Dayton Peace Agreement – 1995 The United States, Great Britain, France,
    Germany, Russia originally recognized independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
    cease fire, after 3 ½ years of fighting (Civil War former Yugoslavia) three main
    participants – Slobodan Milosevic – Serbia, Franjo Tudman – Croatia, Alija
    Izetbegovic – Bosnia, American negotiator Richard Holbrooke – agreements
    initiated in Dayton Ohio, signed in Paris by Jacque Chirac France, Bill Clinton –
    US, John Major – UK, Helmut Kohl – Germany, Viktor Chernomyrdin – Russia –
    provided a constitution, cease-fire, respect for human rights, boundaries, free &
    fair elections

11. Treaty of Rome – 1957 six nations from the coal and steel community signed to
    create the European Economic Community generally know as the Common
    Market – goals gradual reduce tariffs, create a single market equal to the U.S.,
    great success towards economic and political union of Europe

12. Marshall Plan – 1947 Secretary of State, George C. Marshall plans to send
    economic aid to Turkey and Greece-to repel the spread of Communism;
    centerpiece of Kennan containment plan, money would be used to buy goods
    from the US, and they had to be shipped across the Atlantic on American
    merchant vessels – by 1953 US had pumped $13 billion dollars into the Western
    European nations

13. Christian Democrats – post WWII – after Nazi and Fascists many were willing
    to experiment – new groups and new leaders, progressive Catholics became
    influential in France and Germany

14. Decolonization – imperial collapse of empires, Asia and Africa’s rising demand
   for self-determination, racial equality, and personal dignity, post WWII many
   countries did not want bloody colonial wars, Gandhi and India “noncooperation”
   which became a blueprint for independence

15. Neocolonialism – although no longer politically controlling colonies, many
    countries began to invest, create special trading privileges, provide French and
    English language education, undermined the promise of political independence
    through economic domination – Asia, Africa, US – Latin America

16. De-Stalinization – 1953-1964, after Stalin died in 1953 the dictatorship he built
   began to change, reform necessary, secret police power reduced, forced labor
   camps gradually closed, led by Nikita Krushchev, “secret speech” before the
   Twentieth Party Congress in 1955 revealed the atrocities of Stalin, economic
   changes – shift towards consumer goods and agriculture less emphasis on heavy
   industry and the military, improved low standard of living, created greater
   intellectual literary and cultural freedom – encouraged eastern satellite European
   nations to seek national independence – Poland 1956, Hungary 1956, Berlin Wall
   1961, Czechoslovakia 1968

17. Velvet Revolution – Gorbachev’s policies sparked historical acceleration and
   revolutions of 1989, across the Eastern European landscape, in Czechoslovakia
   1989 Communism died, popular demonstrations by intellectuals, students, led by
   Vaclav Havel, protesters took control of the streets and ousted the Communist
   leaders and the Czechoslovakian assembly elected Havel as President

18. Big Science – post WWII inspired a new model for science, combines theoretical
   work with sophisticated engineering in a large organization, attack difficult
   problems, better consumer products, improved military weapons, gov’t and large
   corporations sponsored – nuclear weapons, Apollo program, medical research

19. Détente – 1969-1979 French word “relaxation”, progressive piecemeal relaxation
   of Cold War tensions b/w US and Soviet Union, President Nixon traveled to
   Moscow (1972), Brezhnev traveled to US – projecting the spirit of friendship,
   tensions were renewed with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979

20. OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Arab led establishment
   created at the Baghdad Conference 1960, 11 nations – Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi
   Arabia, and Venezuela - five founding nations – controls the price of oil

21. Baby Bust – 21st century social trend, birthrates fell – shrinking and aging
   population of the future

22. New World Order – 1991 United States President Bush (senior) after the quick
   defeat of Iraq in the first Gulf War demonstrated the awesome power of the US
   military, new order world led by US and cooperation with the United Nations
   working together to create stability throughout the world

23. Globalization – freer global economy, greater integration, and connectivity b/w
   nations – economic, social, technology, cultural, political, and ecological

24. KLA – 1998 frustrated Kosovar militants, began to fight for independence,
   Serbian repression attacked – displacing 250,000 people, 1999 US air raids
   caused Milosevic and the Serbs to withdrawal their troops, Kosovo fought for
   self-government Milosevic refused – 780,000 more Kosovars forced from their
   homes by Serbian paramilitary forces – 2001 Milosevic turned over to Western
   powers and put on trial for war crimes against humanity – died in prison before
   the trial ended – after the end of the Cold War – ethnic conflict and nationalism
   emerged AGAIN

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