Assignments A.P. Modern European History Unit 1: The Renaissance and the Reformation Below are listed all of the assignments you will be expected to complete as we study the Renaissance and the Reformation. Each assignment includes authors, page numbers, vocabulary and several questions, which will be discussed in class. You should read each section and take notes and/or highlight paying particular attention to any information, which relates to the discussion questions and vocabulary words listed. 1) Europe at the Beginning of the Modern Age Palmer, A History of the Modern World, (hereafter referred to as Palmer). 10th ed. pp. 73-77 1) Describe the ways the following areas were governed paying particular attention to the ways in which kings consolidated and expanded their power. a) Spain b) England c) France d) The Holy Roman Empire e) Poland f) The Ottoman Empire g) Russia h) Italy 2) Vocabulary: The Inquisition 2) Introduction to the Renaissance Palmer, 10th ed. 56-69 Sherman, Western Civilization: Sources, Images, & Interpretations (hereafter Referred to as Sherman). 7th ed. pp. 3 – 9, 14 – 18 1) Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy? 2) How did the Renaissance differ from the Middle Ages? 3) Describe the “new conception of man” and the new outlook on life, which appeared during the Renaissance. 4) According to Thorndike, why isn’t the term “Renaissance” a valid or useful concept? 5) Vocabulary: Renaissance, humanists, and humanism. 3) Renaissance Literature & Art Palmer, 10th ed. pp. 56-72 Sherman, pp. 9 – 14 1) How did the Renaissance affect the following areas? -scholarship -education -politics 2) Identify: (state the person’s occupation and describe why they are important) Petrarch, Boccaccio, Castiglione, Machiavelli, Erasmus, More 3) How did the northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance? 4) How did the Renaissance affect women? 5) How did the Renaissance affect art and architecture? 6) Identify and be prepared to report on a famous artist of the Renaissance (to be assigned in class). 7) Vocabulary: perspective 4) Origins of the Reformation Palmer, 10th ed. pp. 50-55 and 77-79. Sherman, pp. 19 – 20, 28 1) What problems did the Roman Catholic Church face during the Middle Ages? How did it deal with these problems? 2) What were the sources of discontent with the Church? 3) What other factors contributed to the Reformation? 4) Vocabulary: simony, nepotism, absenteeism, pluralities, indulgences. 5) Luther and Lutheranism & Calvin and Calvinism Palmer, 10th ed. 79-87 Sherman, pp. 20 – 24, 25 – 26 1) What was Luther’s intent? 2) What disagreements did he have with the Church? 3) Why did he survive? 4) Vocabulary: The 95 Theses, The Peasant Revolt, The Peace of Augsburg, The Schmalkaldic League 5) Distinguish between the views of Calvin and Luther. 6) Describe Calvin’s view on the issue of predestination. 7) What impact did Calvin have upon the city of Geneva? 8) Describe the spread of Calvinism. 9) How did Calvinism affect politics and economics? 6) The Reformation in England & The Left Wing of the Reformation Palmer, 10th ed. 87-92 Sherman pp. 28 - 29 1) Why did Henry VIII annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and leave the Catholic Church? 2) What religious changes were made by the following monarchs? Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth I 3) Vocabulary: The Act of Supremacy 1) How did the Anabaptists differ from other Protestants? 2) How were they treated? 3) Why did Simons reject the use of force in religious matters? 4) What beliefs did Protestants have in common? 7) The Counter Reformation Palmer, 10th ed. 93-98 Sherman, pp. 24 – 25, 27, 29 – 32 1) What actions were taken by the Council of Trent? 2) What evidence is there of renewed religious seriousness amongst Catholics in the last half of the 16th Century? 3) What actions were taken to stop the spread of Protestantism? 4) Was the Counter Reformation part of an ongoing process or simply a response to Protestant successes? 5) Identify: Loyola, Jesuits. Results of the Reformation Map assignment: Due: TBA On an outline map of Europe indicate the areas in which the established church was Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican and Calvinist. Also indicate areas in which Anabaptist, Calvinist and Catholic groups existed in opposition to the established church. A.P. Modern European History Assignments Unit 2: Economic and Political History, 1450-1648 1) A) Complete DBQ - due date will be announced in class. B) Causes of European Expansion Palmer, 10th ed. p. 99-100 Sherman, pp. 33 – 40 What motivated voyages of discovery? What changes made them possible? C) Group Assignment: Exploration and Colonization Using your textbooks and any other resources you choose, prepare a presentation for the country you have been assigned on the following topics. Make use of visual aids to help you in your presentation (maps, pictures, etc.). 1) Who were the best known explorers who worked for this country? What did they discover? 2) What territory did this country claim? Where did they actually set up colonies or trading posts? 3) With whom did they experience conflict in order to make good their claims? Explain. 4) How did this country benefit economically from their overseas empire? Textbook pages: 1) Portugal: Palmer, 10th ed. 100-102 2) Spain: Palmer, 10th ed. pp. 102-106 3) Netherlands: Palmer, 10th ed. 150-152, 267 4) England: Palmer, 10th ed. pp. 103-104, 155-156, 183-188, 287-296, 267-270. 5) France: 10th ed. 103-104, 183-188, 287-296. 267-270 2) The Effects of European Expansion & Economic Changes in Europe, 1450-1648 Palmer, 10th ed. 97-114 Sherman, pp. 40 – 44 1) How did expansion affect Europe? How did it affect the non- European world? 2) Why did Europe change economically during this period? 3) How did Europe change economically? 4) What were the goals of mercantilists? How did they seek to achieve them? 3) The Hapsburgs: Charles V & Philip II Handout on Charles V Palmer, 10th ed. 121-130 1) What was Charles V’s goal? Why did he fail to achieve it? 2) What were Phillip II’s goals and ambitions? What problems did he face both at home and abroad? How did he deal with these problems? How successful was he? 3) Vocabulary: The Escorial 4) French Wars of Religion, 1559-1589 & French Politics, 1589—1642 Palmer, 10th ed. 130-135 Sherman, pp. 48 – 49 1) Describe the political and religious situation in France prior to the wars of religion. 2) What was the immediate cause of the wars of religion? 3) Describe how Henry IV became king. 4) Vocabulary: The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, the politiques, The War of the Three Henrys, The Edict of Nantes, Catherine D’Medici 5) Describe the accomplishments of Henry IV 6) What were Richelieu ‘s goals? How did he seek to accomplish them? 5) Tudor England, 1485-1603 Handout on Tudor England: TBA Palmer, pp. 73 – 74, 87 – 88, 90 1) How did the Tudors, particularly Elizabeth, consolidate and expand their control over England? 2) How were mercantilist principles applied in England? 6) The Thirty Years War & The Results of the Thirty Years War Palmer, 10th ed. 135-143 Sherman, pp. 50 – 53, 55 – 58 1) What were the sources of tension in the Holy Roman Empire and in Europe prior to the 30 Years War? 2) How did the Thirty Years War begin? 3) Why did the following nations get involved? a) Denmark b) Sweden c) France 4) Identify: a) The Battle of White Mountain b) Wallenstein c) The Edict of Restitution d) Adolphus 5) In general, what were the results of the 30 Years War? 6) Identify: The Peace of Westphalia 7) Complete map assignment (see dittos) 7) Eastern Europe, 1450-1550 Palmer, 10th ed. 189-190,194-196, 211-217 1) How did economic and social developments in eastern Europe differ from those in western Europe? 2) How was Poland governed during this time period? What were the weaknesses of this system? 3) Why did Russia remain relatively unaffected by developments in other parts of Europe prior to the 17th Century? 4) What were the accomplishments of Ivan III? of Ivan IV? 5) Identify: The Time of Troubles Assignments A.P. European History Unit 3: European Politics, 1648-1740 1) The Dutch Republic & The Grand Monarque: Louis XIV Palmer, 10th ed. 149-155 & 169-177 Sherman, pp. 67 1) Characterize the economic status of the Dutch republic in the 17th Century. How did this come about? 2) How was the Dutch Republic governed? 3) Who did the Dutch go to war with in the 17th Century? What were the results? 4) What were the reasons given to justify absolute monarchy 17th Century France? 5) What circumstances encouraged the development of absolutism in France? What did Louis XIV do to help bring it about? 6) Vocabulary: The Frondes 2) Louis XlV’s Domestic Policy & Foreign Policy Palmer, 10th ed. 145-149, 177-188 Sherman, pp. 63 – 64 1) What were the weaknesses of the French tax system? Why were there no reforms? 2) How did Colbert apply mercantilist theory in France? 3) Describe Louist religious policy. What effect did it have? 4) Summarize the concept of balance of power. 5) What were Louis XIV’S foreign policy goals? How did he seek to achieve them? Did he succeed? Explain. 6) What were the causes and results of the following wars? a) The War of the League of Augsburg? b) The War of the Spanish Succession? 7) What long-term impact did Louis’ wars have on France? 8) Vocabulary: The Peace of Utrecht 3) Causes of the Puritan Revolution & The Puritan Revolution Palmer, 10th ed. 155-162 Sherman, pp. 49 – 50, 53 – 55, 58 – 59 1) Why was there conflict between James I and Parliament? 2) Why was there conflict between James I and Puritans? 3) Describe the various religious factions in England prior to the Puritan Revolution. 4) Why were there conflicts between Charles I and Parliament? 5) Why were there conflicts between Charles I and Puritans? 6) Vocabulary: The Petition of Right 7) What were the immediate causes of the English Civil War? 8) What were Cromwell’s goals? Did he achieve them? Explain. 9) What were Cromwell’s accomplishments? 10) Describe how Cromwell dealt with the Irish. 11) Evaluate Cromwell as a ruler and as a person. 12) Vocabulary: a) The Long Parliament b) Pride’s Purge c) The Rump Parliament d) Interregnum e) Protectorate f) Instrument of Government 4) The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution Palmer, 10th ed. 162-169 Sherman, pp. 67 – 68 1) How were the political and religious conflicts of the previous years resolved during the reign of Charles II? 2) Why were there conflicts between Charles II and Parliament? 3) Why were there conflicts between James II and Parliament? 4) How did William of Orange become the king of England? 5) What were the results of the struggles between the Stuarts and Parliament? 6) What was the English policy towards the Irish after the Glorious Revolution? 7) Vocabulary: a) The Test Act b) Whigs c) Tories d) the Popish Plot d) the Glorious Revolution e) The Bill of Rights f) The Toleration Act g) The Act of Settlement (1701) h) The Act of Union 5) The Emergence of Austria & Prussia Palmer, 10th ed. 190-194, 199-211 Sherman, pp. 62 – 63, 80 – 81 1) How did the Austrian Hapsburgs compensate for their losses in the Thirty Years War? 2) How was the Austrian Empire governed? 3) Vocabulary: Eugene of Savoy, The Pragmatic Sanction 4) What were the territorial goals of the Hohenzollerns in the 17th and 18th centuries? How did they seek to accomplish these goals? 5) How did the emphasis placed on the army in Prussia effect other aspects of life? 6) Identify: Frederick William, the Great Elector and Frederick William I. 6) The Westernizing of Russia Palmer, 10th ed. 211-224 1) How did Peter want to change Russia? Why did he want to change it? What did he do to accomplish his goal? How successful was he? 2) Vocabulary: The Great Northern War 7) West European Economics and Politics, 1700-1740 & The Great Wars of the Mid Eighteenth Century Palmer, 10th ed. 257-258, 265-296 Sherman, pp. 81 – 82 1) How did Europe change economically during the 18th century? What brought about this change? 2) Who were the most important commercial powers in the 18th century? Why? 3) How did France change politically after 1713? 4) How did Britain change politically after 1713? 5) What were the “Bubbles”? What effect did they have? 6) Vocabulary: Robert Walpole 7) What were the two principal issues in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War? 8) How did the War of the Austrian Succession begin? What were the results? What was their significance? 9) What were the results of the Seven Years War? What was their significance? 10) Vocabulary: The Diplomatic Revolution Assignments A.P. European History Unit 4: European Social, Cultural and Intellectual History 1600—1789 European Political History, 1740-1789 1) European Social History, 1600-1789 Palmer, 10th ed. 114-120 and 258-265 Sherman, pp. 43 – 44, 59 – 60, 66, 68 – 69, 82 – 91 1) a) What were the three main social classes in early modern Europe? b) Who was in each? 2) How did life differ for members of the upper and lower classes during the early modern period? 3) What was the status of women during the early modern period? 4) a) Why did Europeans turn to Africa as a source for slaves during the 15th century? b) What caused the demand for slaves to increase? c) What attitudes did Europeans have towards blacks during the early modern period? 2) European Art, Literature and Music, 1600-1789 Handout: TBA Palmer, look at the pictures between pp. 288 & 289 Sherman, pp. 84 – 86 1) How did art change in the 17th century? 2) What were the three types of Baroque Art? 3) How did art change in the early 18th century? in the mid-18th century? 4) How did French styles during the Age of Louis XIV affect the rest of Europe? 5) How did Louis XIV encourage the arts? 6) vocabulary: Cervantes, El Greco, Moliere, John Milton, Jonathon Swift, Peter Paul Rubens, Diego Velasquez, Rembrandt, Jaques Louis David 7) Identify: Monteverdi, Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart 3) The Scientific Revolution Palmer , 10th ed. 225-240 Sherman, pp. 71 - 78 1) Why did science develop slowly before the 17th century? 2) What factors led to the Scientific Revolution? 3) What sources of knowledge does the scientific method rely upon? What types of reasoning does it utilize? What assumptions is it based on? 4) What were the accomplishments of Bacon and Descartes? What were their approaches to discovering truth? 5) Define: Scientific Revolution 6) Construct a chart such as the following including these scientists: Vesalius, Harvey, Pascal, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Boyle, Newton. Scientist Field Discoveries and Accomplishments 7) Define: geocentric theory, heliocentric theory 8) Question: How did people’s thinking change as a result of the scientific revolution? 4) The Enlightenment & Enlightenment Thinkers: Hobbes and Locke Palmer, 10th ed. 240-255 Sherman, pp. 53 – 54, 64 – 65, 94 – 95 1) In what ways could the Enlightenment be considered a continuation of the Scientific Revolution? 2) How did the Enlightenment affect legal principles arid procedures? How did it affect the study of history? of religion? 3) Describe the philosophy of natural law. (307-308 in Palmer) 4) According to Kant and D’Holbach, what does it mean to be enlightened? 5) Vocabulary: Enlightenment, Montaigne, Spinoza, relativism, rationalism 7) Describe the political and religious philosophies of Hobbes and Locke. 8) Vocabulary: Hugo Grotius 5) Enlightenment Thinkers: Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau and Smith & Enlightened Despotism in Austria and Prussia Palmer, 10th ed. 297-320 Sherman, pp. 95 – 105 1) Describe the political and religious philosophies of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau. 2) Describe the economic ideas of Adam Smith. 3) Vocabulary: philosophe, salons, Diderot 4) What were the characteristics of enlightened despotism? 5) What brought about the trend towards enlightened despotism? 6) What changes did Joseph II make in the Austrian Empire? Why did he make these changes? What opposition did he face? Why did he fail? 7) What changes did Frederick the Great make in Prussia? Why didn’t he make use of other people to help him rule? 6) Enlightened Despotism in Russia & The Enlightenment and West European Politics Palmer, 10th ed. 312-315, 320-338 Sherman, pp. 105 – 106 1) What changes were made by Catherine the Great? What changes didn’t she make? 2) What were Catherine the Great’s foreign policy goals? How did she try to achieve them? How successful was she? 3) What hindrances did “enlightened” rulers face as they tried to make reforms? To what extent were they truly “enlightened”? 5) How did the Enlightenment affect France politically? 6) How did the Enlightenment affect Britain politically? Assignments A.P. European History Unit 5: The French Revolution and Napoleon 1) Causes of the French Revolution Palmer, 10th ed. 329-331 and 342-356 Sherman, pp. 110 – 112, 116 – 123 1) Characterize the revolutionary movement of 1760- 1848. 2) What impact did the American Revolution have upon Europe? 3) What were the underlying and immediate causes of the French Revolution? 2) The National Assembly Palmer, 10th ed. 356-370 Sherman, pp. 112 – 116 1) How did the French Revolution begin? 2) What were the aims of the nobility? 3) How might the king have minimized the impact of the Revolution? 4) What reforms were made by the National Assembly? 5) Why has the Civil Constitution of the Clergy been called “the greatest tactical blunder of the Revolution? 6) Vocabulary: The National Assembly, the Tennis Court Oath, the Bastille, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, the Great Fear, the Law of the Fourth of August, the Flight to Varennes, the Jacobins, the Girondins, emigres 3) The Legislative Assembly and the National Convention Palmer, 10th ed. 370-383 Sherman, pp. 116 – 117, 124 – 125 1) How did the rest of Europe react to the French Revolution? What impact did the emigres have? 2) What impact did the war with Austria and Prussia have upon French politics? 3) What problems did the National Convention face? How did it deal with these problems? 4) What was Robespierre’s goal? 5) Vocabulary: The Declaration of Pillnitz, the Commune, the Mountain, sans culottes, enrages, Robespierre, the Reign of Terror, the Committee of Public Safety, levee en masse, Hebertists, Thermidorean Reaction 4) The Directory and Napoleon Palmer, 10th ed. 383-394 Sherman, pp. 128 – 131 1) What were the weaknesses of the Directory? 2) What were its strengths? 3) What was the significance of the coup d’etat of Fructidor? 4) How did the Directory come to an end? 5) What were the reforms and accomplishments of Napoleon? 6) What was the significance of Napoleon’s coronation? 7) Vocabulary: Consulate, Napoleonic Code, Concordat 5) Napoleon’s Wars & Empire Palmer, 10th ed. 395-414 Sherman, pp. 131 – 133 1) What was the significance of each of the following battles? a) Trafalgar b) Austerlitz c) Jena. 2) Vocabulary: First Coalition, Second Coalition, Third Coalition, Alexander I, Confederation of the Rhine, the Treaty of Tilsit 3) What were the objectives of the Continental System? How successful was it? 4) What changes did Napoleon bring to Europe? Who supported him? 5) What was the Peninsular Campaign? Why was it significant? 6) Napoleon’s Defeat and Legacy and The Congress of Vienna Palmer, 10th ed. 414-416 and 421-431 Sherman, pp. 133 – 135 1) Why was there opposition to Napoleon? 2) Why did Napoleon invade Russia? What was the result? 3) What was the significance of each of the following battles? a) Borodino b) Leipzig c) Waterloo 4) What was the effect of the 100 days? 5) Vocabulary: Metternich, Castlereigh 6) What evidence is there to support the view that Napoleon was an enlightened despot? that he was a dictator? that he was a preserver of the revolution? 7) What were the goals of the major powers who participated in the Congress of Vienna? What actions did they take? 8) What were the principles of the settlement made at the Congress? What were its strengths and weaknesses? 9) What were the purposes of the Quadruple Alliance and the Holy Alliance? Assignments A.P. European History Unit 6: The Industrial Revolution and The Age of Revolution and Reaction (181 5—1 848) 1) Causes and Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution Palmer, 10th ed. 433-443 Sherman, pp. 144 – 151 1) What impact did the Industrial Revolution have upon Europe and its relationship with the rest of the world? 2) What factors helped to bring about the Industrial Revolution? 3) Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain rather than someplace else? 4) What inventions helped to stimulate the Industrial Revolution? 5) What were the social consequences of the Industrial Revolution? (look at population, cities, income, social classes, mental health, living and working conditions) 6) Why was so little done to improve social conditions resulting from the Industrial Revolution? 2) Social and Industrial Reform in England & New Economic Ideas Palmer, 10th ed. 447-449 (socialism), 474-476 Sherman, pp. 138 – 144 1) What social and industrial reforms were made in Great Britain after 1832? 2) Vocabulary: a) The Anti-Corn Law League b) The Fabian Society c) The Labor Representative Committee 3) Define and characterize socialism. 4) Identify: a) Robert Owen b) Henri Saint-Simon c) Charles Fourier d) Louis Blanc. 3) 19th Century Political Ideas Palmer, 10th ed. 414-419, 443-447 and 451-457 Sherman, pp. 98, 164 – 166, 187 1) Define and characterize: a) liberalism b) nationalism c) conservatism 2) Identify: a) John Stuart Mill b) Mary Wollstonecraft c) Leopold von Ranke. 4) Revolution and Reaction, 1815-1830 Palmer, 10th ed. 457-477 Sherman, pp. 154 – 156, 164 1) What were the goals of European governments and leaders in years following the Napoleonic wars? 2) How was revolutionary activity dealt with in France, the German States, Britain and Russia during this period? (generalize) 3) How did the great powers deal with revolutionary activity in Southern Europe, Spain and the Near East? (generalize) 4) Identify: a) Burschenshaft b) Carlsbad Decrees,c) Peterloo Massacre d) Congress of Tropau e) The Protocol of Tropau f) Congress of Verona 5) Why did the Congress System fail? 5) The Revolutions of 1830 & The Revolutions of 1848: France Palmer, 10th ed. 468- 490 Sherman, pp. 156 – 159, 162 – 163 1) What were the causes of the revolution which occurred in France in 1830? 2) What political changes occurred in the following places in the 1830’s? a) France b) Belgium c) Great Britain 3) What were the results of revolutionary activity in Poland, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain and Portugal in 1830? (summarize) 4) Vocabulary: Chartists 5) Why was their discontent in France during the reign of Louis Philippe? b) What did the various factions want? (use Flory) 6) What changes occurred in France between February 1848 and December 1851? 7) Why did the revolt of May 1848 occur? How was it dealt with? 8) Why was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected President in December, 1848? 9) How did the revolutions of 1848 affect Britain? 10) Vocabulary: Bloody June Days 6) The Revolutions of 1848: Central Europe and Italy Palmer, 10th ed. 490-505 Sherman, pp. 159 – 162 5) Where did revolutions occur in central Europe and Italy in 1848 and 1849? What were the ultimate results? 6) What was the Frankfurt Assembly? What were its goals? What made it possible? What were its weaknesses? What actions did it take? What did it accomplish ultimately? 7) Vocabulary: a) Great Germans b) Little Germans Assignments A.P. European History Unit 7: European Politics, 1848-1914 1) The Crimean War and the Unification of Italy Palmer, 10th ed. 517-525 Sherman, pp. 170 – 171, 179 – 180 1) How did Europe change between 1859 and 1871? How did this come about? How did the Crimean War contribute to this trend? 2) Who fought in the Crimean War? What caused it? What were the results? 3) Describe the political philosophy of Cavour. 4) Why did Napoleon help Piedmont in its war with Austria? Why did he withdraw from the war? 5) List and explain the specific steps leading to Italian unification. 2) The Unification of Germany & The German Empire and the Dual Monarchy Palmer, 10th ed. 525-536 & 595-597 Sherman, pp. 168 – 170, 171 – 173, 180 1) Describe Bisinark’s philosophy and program. 2) List and explain the steps taken by Bismark which resulted in the unification of Germany (beginning with the war with Denmark). 3) How did the unification of Germany affect the rest of Europe? 4) Vocabulary: The North German Confederation, Ems dispatch, The Treaty of Frankfurt 5) Describe the government of the German Empire. 6) What strategies did Bismark use to deal with liberal opposition? Catholic opposition? Socialist opposition? 7) Why was Bismark forced to resign? How did Germany change as a result? 8) How did the Compromise of 1867 change the Austrian Empire? 9) Vocabulary: Ferdinand LaSalle, Kulturkampf, Social Democratic Party, Ausgleich 3) French Politics & British Politics, 1848—1914 Palmer, 10th ed. 512-516 and 584-595 1) Compare Napoleon III to Napoleon I. 2) Describe Napoleon’s political philosophy. 3) How did Napoleon III try to encourage France’s economic development? 4) What form of government was established after th4 fall of Napoleon III? Why? Who controlled its executive branch? 5) What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Third Republic? 6) I.D.: a) The National Assembly b) The Paris Commune b) The Boulanger Affair d) The Dreyfus Affair 7) Trace the development of democracy in Britain. 8) What reforms were made under Gladstone? under Disraeli? 9) How did the emergence of the Labour party affect British politics? 10) What reforms were made under the Liberal Party between 1906 and 1916? 11) What were the grievances of the Irish? How were they dealt with? 4) Russian Politics, 1848—1914 Palmer, 10th ed. 537-54, 672-677, 721-723, 728-733 1) What reforms were made by Alexander II? Why? What effect did these reforms have? 2) Characterize the policies of Alexander III. 3) How did the Russo-Japanese War affect Russia? 4) How did Russia change in the closing decades of the 19th Century? 5) What caused the Revolution of 1905? What were its results? 6) Vocabulary: Westernizers, Slavophiles, intelligentsia, Bloody Sunday, Constitutional Democratic Party 5) The Nature and Causes of Imperialism & Imperialism in Africa Palmer, 10th ed. 629-638 & 648-659 Sherman, pp. 173 – 179, 181 – 183 1) What is imperialism? How did it differ from the colonialism of the 16th and 17th centuries? 2) What were the different forms of imperialism? 3) What were the causes of imperialism? 4) How did the British gain control of Egypt? 5) How did the Belgians gain control of the Congo? 6) What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference? What general agreements were made there? 7) How, in general, did Europeans gain control in Sub-Saharan Africa? 8) How did Europeans rule the areas they took control of in Africa? 9) How did imperialism in Africa effect relations between Europeans? (include the Fashoda Crisis and the Boer Wars) 6) Imperialism in Asia Palmer, 10th ed. 659-675 Sherman, pp. 176, 181 – 183 1) How did the British gain control of India? What was the significance of the Sepoy Mutiny? 2) How did Europeans establish spheres of influence in China? What was the significance of the Opium Wars, the Taiping Rebellion, the Sino Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion with regard to this process? 3) How did Europeans rule the various areas that they controlled in Asia? How did their policies differ? (For example, what were the differences between the way the British ruled and the way the French ruled? Assignments A.P. European History Unit 8: Cultural, Intellectual and Social History 1815—1914 1) Science in the 19th Century Palmer, 10th ed. 609-615 Sherman, pp. 186 – 189 1) Why did the popularity of science grow after 1870? 2) Describe the impact of the following upon European thinking: a) the theory of evolution b) the science of anthropology c) the science of psychology 3) Identify: a) Charles Darwin b) Ivan Pavlov c) Sigmund Freud 4) What advances were made in physics between 1895 and 1905? 5) How did the work of Albert Einstein change the way physicists view the natural world? 6) Vocabulary: radioactivity 2) Art and Literature in the 19th Century Palmer, 10th ed. 443-445 and the color prints in the text numbered 2-1 through 2-8 Sherman, pp. 194 – 197 1) Define and characterize Romanticism. 2) How did Romanticism affect the following? a) literature b) art c) music 3) Identify: a) Wordsworth b) Coleridge c) Beethoven d) Dickens e) Monet f) Van Gough. 4) How did art change after 1870? 3) 19th Century Philosophy & Marxism Palmer, 10th ed. 449-451, 543-544, 512-525, 615-628 Sherman, pp. 189 – 194, 197 – 199 1) Define: a) materialism b) skepticism c) positivism d) agnosticism e) syndicalism 2) Describe the philosophies of: a) Herbert Spencer b) Friedrich Nietzsche c) George Sorel 3) Define: a) nihilism b) anarchism c) populism. 4) How did religious beliefs change in the late 1800s? Why did they change? 5) What caused the rise of anti-Semitism by about 1900? How was it manifested? How did Jews react to it? 6) How did Liberalism change in the late 1800s? Why did it change? 7) Identify: Hegel 8) Describe the impact of French revolutionism, the British Industrial Revolution and German philosophy upon the development of Marxist thought. 9) How did Marx interpret the past? What predictions did he make about the future? 10) What were the strengths and weaknesses of Marxism? 4) 19th Century Demographics and Everyday Life & The World Economy of the Nineteenth Century Palmer, 10th ed. 561-584 Sherman, pp. 199 – 200 1) Why did Europeans consider their civilization to be superior to others? 2) How did the “inner” zone of Europe differ from the “outer” zone? 3) How did Europe change demographically in the 1800’s? 4) How did Europe change economically in the 1800’s? (look for main points) Assignments A.P. European History Unit 9: World War I, the Years Between the Wars, and World War II 1) The Underlying Causes of World War I: Nationalism, Alliances and Militarism Palmer, 10th ed. 677-684 Sherman, pp. 204 – 206, 212 – 213 1) How did the following manifestations of nationalism help to create tension between the Great Powers? a) Revanchism b) Weltpolitik c) the desire for independence amongst the subjects of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. 2) a) What were the goals of the Great Powers in the Balkans? b) What conflicts helped to make the Balkans the “powder keg” of Europe? 3) How did the alliance system contribute to World War I? 4) What were the purposes of the following? a) The Three Emperors League b) The Dual Alliance c) The Reinsurance Treaty d) The Franco-Russian Alliance (see Palmer). 5) Why did Britain enter the alliance system? (use both Palmer and Flory for this one) 6) What was dangerous about the military plans of Britain and France prior to World War I? 2) Events of World War I Palmer, 10th ed. 683-703. Sherman, pp. 209 – 211, 214 – 216 1. How did World War I begin? Why did each of the Great Powers get involved? 2. Who was responsible for the war? Why? 3) How did the stalemate in the west affect the war elsewhere? 4. How did the Allies violate international law? Why did they do it? How did the Germans respond? 5. What did the powers involved in the war do outside of the military realm to boost their prospects? 6. Identify: The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 7. How did World War I end? 3) The Russian Revolution Palmer, 10th ed. 719-728 and 733-742. Sherman, pp. 206 – 207, 216 1) What revolutionary groups existed in Russia prior to the Revolution? What did each stand for? 2) What were the underlying causes of the Revolution of March 1917? What was the immediate cause? What were the results? 3) What was the role of the Petrograd Soviet in the Russian Revolution? 4) How did the Provisional Government fall in November, 1917? Why did it fall? 5) What were the results of the Revolution of November, 1917? 6) Compare the Russian Revolution to the French Revolution. 4) The Results of World War I Palmer, 10th ed. 703-718. Sherman, pp. 207 – 209, 212 1. How did World War I affect Europe politically? economically? socially? 2. What was required of the Germans by the Treaty of Versailles? 3. What problems did Paris Peace Settlement create? 4. What were the weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles? 5) The Twenties & The Great Depression Palmer, 10th ed. 763-773, 785-793, 799-801, 803-805. Sherman, pp. 218 – 228 1. What political and economic reforms were made during the twenties? 2. What political and economic problems did the governments of Central and Eastern Europe (especially Germany) face during the twenties? 3. What problems did Britain and France face during the 1920’s? 4. Why was there cause for optimism in Europe during the mid- twenties? 5. What were the weaknesses of the League of Nations? (see Flory). 6. Identify: a) The Treaty of Rapallo b) The Dawes Plan c) The Kellog-Brand Pact (The Pact of Paris) d) The Locarno Pacts 7. What were the weaknesses in the prosperity of the twenties? 8. What caused the Great Depression in Europe? 9. How did European governments react to the Great Depression? How did this affect the world economy? 10. What economic problems did the British face in the twenties? How did they cope with the Great Depression? 6) Totalitarianism: Palmer, 10th ed. 808-825 and 744-758. Sherman, pp. 230 – 245 1) What are the characteristics of totalitarianism? 2) What group controlled the government in the Soviet Union? 3) What circumstances helped Mussolini to become the head of the Italian government? What changes did he make? What were his beliefs? What impact did his movement have outside of Italy? 4) What factors contributed to Hitler’s rise to power? Explain. What changes did he make? 5) How did Soviet-style totalitarianism differ from fascist-style totalitarianism? (be sure to look at Palmer and Sherman for this) 6) Vocabulary: a) National Socialist German Worker’s Party b) Beer Hall Putsch c) Mein Kampf d) The Nuremberg Laws e) the Gestapo 7) Culture Between the Wars & The Road to War Palmer, 10th ed. 707-709 and 791 (bottom)-793, 828-837 Sherman, pp. 262 – 265 1) How did women’s lives change in the post-war years? 2) How did sexual standards change? Why? 3) How did intellectuals react to World War I? 4) Define and describe the following: a) Logical Empiricism b) Existentialism 5) How did the intellectual trends of this period affect religion? How did they affect literature? 6 ) What were the trends in architecture, painting and music during this period? 7) Identify: a) Karl Barth b) James Joyce d) T.S. Elliot d) Igor Stravinsky 8) What was the attitude of many in the Western democracies towards war during the years between the wars? Why? 9) What actions did Hitler and Mussolini take between 1933 and March 1939 which might be considered to be antagonistic towards the West and/or in violation of the Treaty of Versailles? How did the West respond? 10) How did the Spanish Civil War begin? How did the major nations react to it? How did it affect relations between Italy and Germany? 11) Why didn’t the Western democracies deal with Hitler more firmly? 12) How did the two sides prepare for war in the months between March 1939 and September 1939? 13) What do Kennan, Taylor, Eubank and Buchanan say about the West’s actions? What do you think? 14) Vocabulary: a) The Munich Conference b) appeasement c) The Nazi-Soviet Pact 8) World War II & The Holocaust and Peace Palmer, 10th ed. 837-864. Sherman, pp. 248 – 250 1) What areas were conquered and occupied by the Germans between April, 1940 and September 1942? Why were they able to win so easily? 2) How was Hitler’s empire governed? 3) What was the significance of the Battle of Britain? 4) What was the strategy of the West (U.S and Britain) before November 1942? How did the Soviets react to this strategy? 5) What events caused the tide to turn in the war? 6) What atrocities were committed by the Nazis during World War II? Why? 7) Identify: The Atlantic Charter 8) What decisions were made at Casablanca? at Teheran? at Yalta? at Potsdam? What was the significance of these decisions? 9) Why wasn’t a peace treaty ever signed with Germany? 10) How did World War II shape the future? (think about this one to prepare for class, it is not addressed in either text) Assignments A. P. European History Unit 10 Post-War Europe 1) The Cold War: Causes & Events Palmer, 10th ed. 865-886, 995-1010, 1021-1027 Sherman, pp. 258 – 262, 265 1) How did the power structure of the world change as a result of World War II? What was significant about this change? 2) What were the causes of the Cold War? (Be sure to consider this from both the U.S. and the Soviet point of view) 3) How did western Europe recover from the war economically? 4) Vocabulary: The Cold War, The Truman Doctrine, The Marshall Plan, The European Coal and Steel Community, the European Economic Community, NATO 5) Trace important events in the Cold War from 1948 to 1991. What were the causes of worsening or improving relations during this time? 6) Vocabulary: The Berlin Blockade, NATO, Warsaw Pact, Détente, Helsinki Accords 7) How did the Cold War come to an end? 2) The Soviet Union & Eastern Europe, 1945-1985 Palmer, 10th ed. 952-959 Sherman, pp. 250 – 252 1) Characterize Stalin’s rule in the post-war era. 2) Who were Stalin’s successors? What changes did they make? What problems persisted? 3) What political changes occurred in eastern Europe after World War II? How did these changes occur? 4) How successful were the economic reforms made in Eastern Europe during Stalin’s rule? 5) How did eastern Europe change after the death of Stalin? How did the Soviets limit the extent of these changes? 6) Vocabulary: The Cominform, Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, The “Prague Spring” The “Brezhnev Doctrine” 3) The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1985-Present Palmer, 10th ed. 1033-1064 1) What is the significance of the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union? 2) What changes did Mikhail Gorbachev make? 3) Trace the fall of Communism in the following countries: a) Poland b) Hungary c) East Germany d) Czechoslovakia e) Bulgaria f) Romania 4) What made the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe possible? 5) Vocabulary: Solidarity, Glasnost, Peristroika 6) Trace the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union in 1991. 7) What problems have the nations of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union faced since the fall of Communism? What changes have occurred? 4) Western Europe, 1945-1974 Palmer, 10th ed. 915, 886-896 Sherman, pp. 252 – 256, 265 – 267 1) What happened to European colonial empires after World War II? Why did this happen? How did this happen? 2) How did Western Europe recover economically from World War II? 3) How did the nations of Western Europe cooperate with one another economically? 4) How, in general, did the nations of Western Europe change politically after World War II? 5) Analyze the changes which occurred and the problems faced in Great Britain between 1945 and 1974. 6) Vocabulary: The Marshall Plan, The European Coal and Steel Community, the European Economic Community 7) Analyze the changes which occurred and the problems faced in the following countries between 1945 and 1974: 1) France 2) West Germany 3) Italy 4) Spain 5) Portugal. 8) I.D.: Charles De Gaulle, Konrad Adenauer, Alice de Gasperi, 5) Western Europe, 1974-Present & Social and Intellectual History, 1945-Present Palmer, 10th ed. 1010-1021, 1066-1071, and 1072-1074, 1079-1099 Sherman, pp. 256 – 258 1) Analyze the economic, political and social trends in western Europe as a whole during this era. 2) Analyze the changes which occurred in the following countries between 1974 and 2000: 1) Great Britain 2) France 3) West Germany 4) Italy 3) ID: Margaret Thatcher 4) Analyze the scientific and technological changes which have occurred since World War II. What ethical and moral questions have these changes brought up? 5) Analyze the changes which have occurred in the following areas since World War II? a) art b) literature c) philosophy d) religion 6) I.D. Pope John XXIII, The Second Vatican Council, John Paul II 7) What was the Youth Movement or Youth Rebellion of the 1900’s? 8) What were the objectives of the Women’s Liberation Movement? 6) Prepare for your final exam.
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