APE uroreading Assignments by Ns92M02


                           A.P. Modern European History
                    Unit 1: The Renaissance and the Reformation

Below are listed all of the assignments you will be expected to complete as we study the
Renaissance and the Reformation. Each assignment includes authors, page numbers,
vocabulary and several questions, which will be discussed in class. You should read each
section and take notes and/or highlight paying particular attention to any information,
which relates to the discussion questions and vocabulary words listed.
1)   Europe at the Beginning of the Modern Age

       Palmer, A History of the Modern World, (hereafter referred to as Palmer).
               10th ed. pp. 73-77

               1) Describe the ways the following areas were governed paying
                  particular attention to the ways in which kings consolidated and
                  expanded their power.
                  a) Spain
                  b) England
                  c) France
                  d) The Holy Roman Empire
                  e) Poland
                  f) The Ottoman Empire
                  g) Russia
                  h) Italy
               2) Vocabulary: The Inquisition

2)   Introduction to the Renaissance
       Palmer, 10th ed. 56-69
       Sherman, Western Civilization: Sources, Images, & Interpretations (hereafter
               Referred to as Sherman). 7th ed. pp. 3 – 9, 14 – 18

               1) Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
               2) How did the Renaissance differ from the Middle Ages?
               3) Describe the “new conception of man” and the new outlook on life,
                  which appeared during the Renaissance.
               4) According to Thorndike, why isn’t the term “Renaissance” a valid or
                  useful concept?
               5) Vocabulary: Renaissance, humanists, and humanism.
3)   Renaissance Literature & Art
       Palmer, 10th ed. pp. 56-72
       Sherman, pp. 9 – 14
               1) How did the Renaissance affect the following areas?
               2) Identify: (state the person’s occupation and describe why they are
                     Petrarch, Boccaccio, Castiglione, Machiavelli, Erasmus, More
              3) How did the northern Renaissance differ from the Italian
              4) How did the Renaissance affect women?
              5) How did the Renaissance affect art and architecture?
              6) Identify and be prepared to report on a famous artist of the
                 Renaissance (to be assigned in class).
              7) Vocabulary: perspective

4) Origins of the Reformation

       Palmer, 10th ed. pp. 50-55 and 77-79.
       Sherman, pp. 19 – 20, 28
              1) What problems did the Roman Catholic Church face during the
                 Middle Ages? How did it deal with these problems?
              2) What were the sources of discontent with the Church?
              3) What other factors contributed to the Reformation?
              4) Vocabulary: simony, nepotism, absenteeism, pluralities, indulgences.
5)   Luther and Lutheranism & Calvin and Calvinism
       Palmer, 10th ed. 79-87
       Sherman, pp. 20 – 24, 25 – 26
              1)   What was Luther’s intent?
              2)   What disagreements did he have with the Church?
              3)   Why did he survive?
              4)   Vocabulary: The 95 Theses, The Peasant Revolt, The Peace of
                   Augsburg, The Schmalkaldic League
              5)   Distinguish between the views of Calvin and Luther.
              6)   Describe Calvin’s view on the issue of predestination.
              7)   What impact did Calvin have upon the city of Geneva?
              8)   Describe the spread of Calvinism.
              9)   How did Calvinism affect politics and economics?

6)   The Reformation in England & The Left Wing of the Reformation
       Palmer, 10th ed. 87-92
       Sherman pp. 28 - 29
              1) Why did Henry VIII annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and
                 leave the Catholic Church?
              2) What religious changes were made by the following monarchs?
                    Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth I
              3) Vocabulary: The Act of Supremacy
              1) How did the Anabaptists differ from other Protestants?
              2) How were they treated?
              3) Why did Simons reject the use of force in religious matters?
              4) What beliefs did Protestants have in common?
7)   The Counter Reformation
       Palmer, 10th ed. 93-98
       Sherman, pp. 24 – 25, 27, 29 – 32
               1) What actions were taken by the Council of Trent?
               2) What evidence is there of renewed religious seriousness amongst
                  Catholics in the last half of the 16th Century?
               3) What actions were taken to stop the spread of Protestantism?
               4) Was the Counter Reformation part of an ongoing process or simply a
                  response to Protestant successes?
               5) Identify: Loyola, Jesuits.
     Results of the Reformation
      Map assignment: Due: TBA
               On an outline map of Europe indicate the areas in which the established
               church was Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican and Calvinist. Also indicate
               areas in which Anabaptist, Calvinist and Catholic groups existed in
               opposition to the established church.

                           A.P. Modern European History
                  Unit 2: Economic and Political History, 1450-1648
1)   A) Complete DBQ - due date will be announced in class.

     B) Causes of European Expansion

       Palmer, 10th ed. p. 99-100
       Sherman, pp. 33 – 40
              What motivated voyages of discovery? What changes made them

     C) Group Assignment: Exploration and Colonization

     Using your textbooks and any other resources you choose, prepare a presentation for
     the country you have been assigned on the following topics. Make use of visual aids
     to help you in your presentation (maps, pictures, etc.).

     1) Who were the best known explorers who worked for this country? What did they
     2) What territory did this country claim? Where did they actually set up colonies or
         trading posts?
     3) With whom did they experience conflict in order to make good their claims?
     4) How did this country benefit economically from their overseas empire?

     Textbook pages:
     1) Portugal:
                    Palmer, 10th ed. 100-102
     2) Spain:
                 Palmer, 10th ed. pp. 102-106
     3) Netherlands:
                       Palmer, 10th ed. 150-152, 267
     4) England:
                  Palmer, 10th ed. pp. 103-104, 155-156, 183-188, 287-296, 267-270.
     5) France:
                 10th ed. 103-104, 183-188, 287-296. 267-270
2) The Effects of European Expansion & Economic Changes in Europe, 1450-1648
       Palmer, 10th ed. 97-114
       Sherman, pp. 40 – 44

                 1) How did expansion affect Europe? How did it affect the non-
                    European world?
                 2) Why did Europe change economically during this period?
                 3) How did Europe change economically?
                 4) What were the goals of mercantilists? How did they
                    seek to achieve them?
3)   The Hapsburgs: Charles V & Philip II
       Handout on Charles V
       Palmer, 10th ed. 121-130

                 1) What was Charles V’s goal? Why did he fail to achieve it?
                 2) What were Phillip II’s goals and ambitions? What problems did he
                    face both at home and abroad? How did he deal with these problems?
                    How successful was he?
                 3) Vocabulary: The Escorial
4)   French Wars of Religion, 1559-1589 & French Politics, 1589—1642

       Palmer, 10th ed. 130-135
       Sherman, pp. 48 – 49

                 1) Describe the political and religious situation in France prior to the
                    wars of religion.
                 2) What was the immediate cause of the wars of religion?
                 3) Describe how Henry IV became king.
                 4) Vocabulary: The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, the politiques,
                    The War of the Three Henrys, The Edict of Nantes, Catherine
                 5) Describe the accomplishments of Henry IV
                 6) What were Richelieu ‘s goals? How did he seek to accomplish them?

5)   Tudor England, 1485-1603

       Handout on Tudor England: TBA
     Palmer, pp. 73 – 74, 87 – 88, 90

               1) How did the Tudors, particularly Elizabeth, consolidate and expand
                  their control over England?
               2) How were mercantilist principles applied in England?

6)   The Thirty Years War & The Results of the Thirty Years War

       Palmer, 10th ed. 135-143
       Sherman, pp. 50 – 53, 55 – 58

               1) What were the sources of tension in the Holy Roman Empire and in
                  Europe prior to the 30 Years War?
               2) How did the Thirty Years War begin?
               3) Why did the following nations get involved?
                       a) Denmark          b) Sweden          c) France
               4) Identify: a) The Battle of White Mountain b) Wallenstein c) The Edict
                  of Restitution d) Adolphus
               5) In general, what were the results of the 30 Years War?
               6) Identify: The Peace of Westphalia
               7) Complete map assignment (see dittos)

7)   Eastern Europe, 1450-1550

       Palmer, 10th ed. 189-190,194-196, 211-217

               1) How did economic and social developments in eastern Europe differ
                  from those in western Europe?
               2) How was Poland governed during this time period? What were the
                  weaknesses of this system?
               3) Why did Russia remain relatively unaffected by developments in
                  other parts of Europe prior to the 17th Century?
               4) What were the accomplishments of Ivan III? of Ivan IV?
               5) Identify: The Time of Troubles

                                A.P. European History
                         Unit 3: European Politics, 1648-1740

1) The Dutch Republic & The Grand Monarque: Louis XIV

       Palmer, 10th ed. 149-155 & 169-177
       Sherman, pp. 67

              1) Characterize the economic status of the Dutch republic in the 17th
                 Century. How did this come about?
              2) How was the Dutch Republic governed?
              3) Who did the Dutch go to war with in the 17th Century? What were the
              4) What were the reasons given to justify absolute monarchy 17th
                 Century France?
              5) What circumstances encouraged the development of absolutism in
                 France? What did Louis XIV do to help bring it about?
              6) Vocabulary: The Frondes

2) Louis XlV’s Domestic Policy & Foreign Policy

       Palmer, 10th ed. 145-149, 177-188
       Sherman, pp. 63 – 64

              1) What were the weaknesses of the French tax system? Why were there
                 no reforms?
              2) How did Colbert apply mercantilist theory in France?
              3) Describe Louist religious policy. What effect did it have?
              4) Summarize the concept of balance of power.
              5) What were Louis XIV’S foreign policy goals? How did he seek to
                 achieve them? Did he succeed? Explain.
              6) What were the causes and results of the following wars?
                    a) The War of the League of Augsburg?
                    b) The War of the Spanish Succession?
              7) What long-term impact did Louis’ wars have on France?
              8) Vocabulary: The Peace of Utrecht

3) Causes of the Puritan Revolution & The Puritan Revolution

       Palmer, 10th ed. 155-162
       Sherman, pp. 49 – 50, 53 – 55, 58 – 59

              1) Why was there conflict between James I and Parliament?
              2) Why was there conflict between James I and Puritans?
              3) Describe the various religious factions in England prior to the Puritan
              4) Why were there conflicts between Charles I and Parliament?
              5) Why were there conflicts between Charles I and Puritans?
              6) Vocabulary: The Petition of Right
              7) What were the immediate causes of the English Civil War?
              8) What were Cromwell’s goals? Did he achieve them? Explain.
              9) What were Cromwell’s accomplishments?
              10) Describe how Cromwell dealt with the Irish.
              11) Evaluate Cromwell as a ruler and as a person.
              12) Vocabulary: a) The Long Parliament b) Pride’s Purge c) The Rump
                  Parliament d) Interregnum e) Protectorate f) Instrument of

4) The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution

       Palmer, 10th ed. 162-169
       Sherman, pp. 67 – 68
          1) How were the political and religious conflicts of the previous years
             resolved during the reign of Charles II?
          2) Why were there conflicts between Charles II and Parliament?
          3) Why were there conflicts between James II and Parliament?
          4) How did William of Orange become the king of England?
          5) What were the results of the struggles between the Stuarts and Parliament?
          6) What was the English policy towards the Irish after the Glorious
          7) Vocabulary: a) The Test Act b) Whigs c) Tories d) the Popish Plot d) the
             Glorious Revolution e) The Bill of Rights f) The Toleration Act g) The
             Act of Settlement (1701) h) The Act of Union

5) The Emergence of Austria & Prussia

       Palmer, 10th ed. 190-194, 199-211
       Sherman, pp. 62 – 63, 80 – 81

              1) How did the Austrian Hapsburgs compensate for their losses in the
                 Thirty Years War?
              2) How was the Austrian Empire governed?
              3) Vocabulary: Eugene of Savoy, The Pragmatic Sanction

              4) What were the territorial goals of the Hohenzollerns in the 17th and
                 18th centuries? How did they seek to accomplish these goals?
              5) How did the emphasis placed on the army in Prussia effect other
                 aspects of life?
              6) Identify: Frederick William, the Great Elector and Frederick
                                  William I.

6) The Westernizing of Russia

       Palmer, 10th ed. 211-224

              1) How did Peter want to change Russia? Why did he want to change it?
                 What did he do to accomplish his goal? How successful was he?
              2) Vocabulary: The Great Northern War

7) West European Economics and Politics, 1700-1740 & The Great Wars of the Mid
   Eighteenth Century

       Palmer, 10th ed. 257-258, 265-296
       Sherman, pp. 81 – 82

              1) How did Europe change economically during the 18th century? What
                 brought about this change?
              2) Who were the most important commercial powers in the 18th
                 century? Why?
              3) How did France change politically after 1713?
              4) How did Britain change politically after 1713?
              5) What were the “Bubbles”? What effect did they
              6) Vocabulary: Robert Walpole
              7) What were the two principal issues in the War of the Austrian
                  Succession and the Seven Years War?
              8) How did the War of the Austrian Succession begin? What were the
                  results? What was their significance?
              9) What were the results of the Seven Years War? What was their
              10) Vocabulary: The Diplomatic Revolution

                             A.P. European History
             Unit 4: European Social, Cultural and Intellectual History
                       European Political History, 1740-1789

1)   European Social History, 1600-1789

       Palmer, 10th ed. 114-120 and 258-265
       Sherman, pp. 43 – 44, 59 – 60, 66, 68 – 69, 82 – 91

              1) a) What were the three main social classes in early modern Europe?
                 b) Who was in each?
              2) How did life differ for members of the upper and lower classes during
                 the early modern period?
              3) What was the status of women during the early modern period?
              4) a) Why did Europeans turn to Africa as a source for slaves during the
                 15th century? b) What caused the demand for slaves to increase? c)
                 What attitudes did Europeans have towards blacks during the early
                 modern period?
2)   European Art, Literature and Music, 1600-1789
       Handout: TBA
       Palmer, look at the pictures between pp. 288 & 289
       Sherman, pp. 84 – 86

              1) How did art change in the 17th century?
              2) What were the three types of Baroque Art?
              3) How did art change in the early 18th century? in the mid-18th
              4) How did French styles during the Age of Louis XIV affect the rest of
              5) How did Louis XIV encourage the arts?
              6) vocabulary: Cervantes, El Greco, Moliere, John Milton, Jonathon
                 Swift, Peter Paul Rubens, Diego Velasquez, Rembrandt, Jaques Louis
              7) Identify: Monteverdi, Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart
3) The Scientific Revolution
       Palmer , 10th ed. 225-240
       Sherman, pp. 71 - 78

              1) Why did science develop slowly before the 17th century?
              2) What factors led to the Scientific Revolution?
              3) What sources of knowledge does the scientific method rely upon?
                 What types of reasoning does it utilize? What assumptions is it based
              4) What were the accomplishments of Bacon and Descartes? What were
                 their approaches to
                 discovering truth?
              5) Define: Scientific Revolution
              6) Construct a chart such as the following including
                 these scientists: Vesalius, Harvey, Pascal,
                 Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Boyle, Newton.

Scientist                      Field                            Discoveries and

              7) Define: geocentric theory, heliocentric theory
              8) Question: How did people’s thinking change as a result of the
                                  scientific revolution?
4)   The Enlightenment & Enlightenment Thinkers: Hobbes and Locke
       Palmer, 10th ed. 240-255
       Sherman, pp. 53 – 54, 64 – 65, 94 – 95

              1) In what ways could the Enlightenment be considered a continuation
                 of the Scientific Revolution?
              2) How did the Enlightenment affect legal principles arid procedures?
                 How did it affect the study of history? of religion?
              3) Describe the philosophy of natural law. (307-308 in Palmer)
              4) According to Kant and D’Holbach, what does it mean to be
              5) Vocabulary: Enlightenment, Montaigne, Spinoza, relativism,
              7) Describe the political and religious philosophies of Hobbes and
              8) Vocabulary: Hugo Grotius
5)   Enlightenment Thinkers: Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau and Smith &
     Enlightened Despotism in Austria and Prussia
        Palmer, 10th ed. 297-320
        Sherman, pp. 95 – 105

              1) Describe the political and religious philosophies of Montesquieu,
                 Voltaire, and Rousseau.
              2) Describe the economic ideas of Adam Smith.
              3) Vocabulary: philosophe, salons, Diderot
              4) What were the characteristics of enlightened despotism?
              5) What brought about the trend towards enlightened despotism?
              6) What changes did Joseph II make in the Austrian Empire? Why did
                 he make these changes? What opposition did he face? Why did he
              7) What changes did Frederick the Great make in Prussia? Why didn’t
                 he make use of other people to help him rule?

6)   Enlightened Despotism in Russia & The Enlightenment and West European Politics
       Palmer, 10th ed. 312-315, 320-338
       Sherman, pp. 105 – 106

              1) What changes were made by Catherine the Great? What changes
                 didn’t she make?
              2) What were Catherine the Great’s foreign policy goals? How did she
                 try to achieve them? How successful was she?
              3) What hindrances did “enlightened” rulers face as they tried to make
                 reforms? To what extent were they truly “enlightened”?
              5) How did the Enlightenment affect France politically?
              6) How did the Enlightenment affect Britain politically?

                             A.P. European History
                   Unit 5: The French Revolution and Napoleon

1) Causes of the French Revolution
     Palmer, 10th ed. 329-331 and 342-356
     Sherman, pp. 110 – 112, 116 – 123

              1) Characterize the revolutionary movement of 1760-
              2) What impact did the American Revolution have upon Europe?
              3) What were the underlying and immediate causes of the French

2) The National Assembly
     Palmer, 10th ed. 356-370
     Sherman, pp. 112 – 116
              1) How did the French Revolution begin?
              2) What were the aims of the nobility?
              3) How might the king have minimized the impact of the Revolution?
              4) What reforms were made by the National Assembly?
              5) Why has the Civil Constitution of the Clergy been called “the greatest
                 tactical blunder of the Revolution?
              6) Vocabulary: The National Assembly, the Tennis Court Oath, the
                 Bastille, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, the Great Fear, the
                 Law of the Fourth of August, the Flight to Varennes, the Jacobins, the
                 Girondins, emigres

3) The Legislative Assembly and the National Convention
     Palmer, 10th ed. 370-383
     Sherman, pp. 116 – 117, 124 – 125

      1)   How did the rest of Europe react to the French Revolution? What impact did
           the emigres have?
      2)   What impact did the war with Austria and Prussia have upon French politics?
      3)   What problems did the National Convention face? How did it deal with these
      4)   What was Robespierre’s goal?
      5)   Vocabulary: The Declaration of Pillnitz, the Commune, the Mountain, sans
           culottes, enrages, Robespierre, the Reign of Terror, the Committee of Public
           Safety, levee en masse, Hebertists, Thermidorean Reaction

4) The Directory and Napoleon
     Palmer, 10th ed. 383-394
     Sherman, pp. 128 – 131

              1)   What were the weaknesses of the Directory?
              2)   What were its strengths?
              3)   What was the significance of the coup d’etat of Fructidor?
              4)   How did the Directory come to an end?
              5)   What were the reforms and accomplishments of Napoleon?
              6)   What was the significance of Napoleon’s coronation?
              7)   Vocabulary: Consulate, Napoleonic Code, Concordat

5) Napoleon’s Wars & Empire
      Palmer, 10th ed. 395-414
      Sherman, pp. 131 – 133

              1) What was the significance of each of the following battles? a)
                 Trafalgar b) Austerlitz c) Jena.
              2) Vocabulary: First Coalition, Second Coalition, Third Coalition,
                 Alexander I, Confederation of the Rhine, the Treaty of Tilsit
              3) What were the objectives of the Continental System? How successful
                 was it?
              4) What changes did Napoleon bring to Europe? Who supported him?
              5) What was the Peninsular Campaign? Why was it significant?
6) Napoleon’s Defeat and Legacy and The Congress of Vienna
      Palmer, 10th ed. 414-416 and 421-431
      Sherman, pp. 133 – 135

              1) Why was there opposition to Napoleon?
              2) Why did Napoleon invade Russia? What was the result?
              3) What was the significance of each of the following battles? a)
                 Borodino b) Leipzig c) Waterloo
              4) What was the effect of the 100 days?
              5) Vocabulary: Metternich, Castlereigh
              6) What evidence is there to support the view that Napoleon was an
                 enlightened despot? that he          was a dictator? that he was a
                 preserver of the revolution?
              7) What were the goals of the major powers who participated in the
                 Congress of Vienna? What actions did they take?
              8) What were the principles of the settlement made at the Congress?
                 What were its strengths and weaknesses?
              9) What were the purposes of the Quadruple Alliance and the Holy

                               A.P. European History
                          Unit 6: The Industrial Revolution
                         The Age of Revolution and Reaction
                                   (181 5—1 848)

1)   Causes and Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution

       Palmer, 10th ed. 433-443
       Sherman, pp. 144 – 151

              1) What impact did the Industrial Revolution have upon Europe and its
                 relationship with the rest of the world?
              2) What factors helped to bring about the Industrial Revolution?
              3) Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain rather than
                 someplace else?
              4) What inventions helped to stimulate the Industrial Revolution?
              5) What were the social consequences of the Industrial Revolution?
                 (look at population, cities, income, social classes, mental health,
                 living and working conditions)
              6) Why was so little done to improve social conditions resulting from
                 the Industrial Revolution?

2)   Social and Industrial Reform in England & New Economic Ideas
       Palmer, 10th ed. 447-449 (socialism), 474-476
       Sherman, pp. 138 – 144

              1) What social and industrial reforms were made in Great Britain after
              2) Vocabulary: a) The Anti-Corn Law League b) The Fabian Society c)
                 The Labor Representative Committee
              3) Define and characterize socialism.
              4) Identify: a) Robert Owen b) Henri Saint-Simon
                 c) Charles Fourier d) Louis Blanc.

3) 19th Century Political Ideas
      Palmer, 10th ed. 414-419, 443-447 and 451-457
      Sherman, pp. 98, 164 – 166, 187

              1) Define and characterize: a) liberalism b) nationalism c) conservatism
              2) Identify: a) John Stuart Mill b) Mary Wollstonecraft c) Leopold von

4) Revolution and Reaction, 1815-1830
      Palmer, 10th ed. 457-477
      Sherman, pp. 154 – 156, 164

              1) What were the goals of European governments and leaders in years
                 following the Napoleonic wars?
              2) How was revolutionary activity dealt with in France, the German
                 States, Britain and Russia during this period? (generalize)
              3) How did the great powers deal with revolutionary activity in Southern
                 Europe, Spain and the Near East? (generalize)
              4) Identify: a) Burschenshaft b) Carlsbad Decrees,c) Peterloo Massacre
                 d) Congress of Tropau e) The Protocol of Tropau f) Congress of
              5) Why did the Congress System fail?

5) The Revolutions of 1830 & The Revolutions of 1848: France
      Palmer, 10th ed. 468- 490
      Sherman, pp. 156 – 159, 162 – 163

              1) What were the causes of the revolution which occurred in France in
              2) What political changes occurred in the following places in the
                 a) France b) Belgium c) Great Britain
              3) What were the results of revolutionary activity in Poland, Germany,
                 Italy, Switzerland, Spain and Portugal in 1830? (summarize)
              4)     Vocabulary: Chartists
              5) Why was their discontent in France during the reign of Louis
                 Philippe? b) What did the various factions want? (use Flory)
              6) What changes occurred in France between February 1848 and
                 December 1851?
              7) Why did the revolt of May 1848 occur? How was it dealt with?
              8) Why was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected President in December,
              9) How did the revolutions of 1848 affect Britain?
               10) Vocabulary: Bloody June Days

6)   The Revolutions of 1848: Central Europe and Italy
       Palmer, 10th ed. 490-505
       Sherman, pp. 159 – 162

               5) Where did revolutions occur in central Europe and Italy in 1848 and
                  1849? What were the ultimate results?
               6) What was the Frankfurt Assembly? What were its goals? What made
                  it possible? What were its weaknesses? What actions did it take?
                  What did it accomplish ultimately?
               7) Vocabulary: a) Great Germans b) Little Germans

                                A.P. European History
                         Unit 7: European Politics, 1848-1914

1)   The Crimean War and the Unification of Italy

       Palmer, 10th ed. 517-525
       Sherman, pp. 170 – 171, 179 – 180

               1) How did Europe change between 1859 and 1871? How did this come
                  about? How did the Crimean War contribute to this trend?
               2) Who fought in the Crimean War? What caused it? What were the
               3) Describe the political philosophy of Cavour.
               4) Why did Napoleon help Piedmont in its war with Austria? Why did
                  he withdraw from the war?
               5) List and explain the specific steps leading to Italian unification.

2)    The Unification of Germany & The German Empire and the Dual Monarchy

       Palmer, 10th ed. 525-536 & 595-597
       Sherman, pp. 168 – 170, 171 – 173, 180

               1) Describe Bisinark’s philosophy and program.
               2) List and explain the steps taken by Bismark which resulted in the
                   unification of Germany (beginning with the war with Denmark).
               3) How did the unification of Germany affect the rest of Europe?
               4) Vocabulary: The North German Confederation, Ems dispatch, The
                   Treaty of Frankfurt
               5) Describe the government of the German Empire.
               6) What strategies did Bismark use to deal with liberal opposition?
                  Catholic opposition? Socialist opposition?
               7) Why was Bismark forced to resign? How did Germany change as a
               8) How did the Compromise of 1867 change the Austrian Empire?
               9) Vocabulary: Ferdinand LaSalle, Kulturkampf, Social Democratic
                   Party, Ausgleich
3) French Politics & British Politics, 1848—1914
      Palmer, 10th ed. 512-516 and 584-595

               1) Compare Napoleon III to Napoleon I.
               2) Describe Napoleon’s political philosophy.
               3) How did Napoleon III try to encourage France’s economic
               4) What form of government was established after th4 fall of Napoleon
                   III? Why? Who controlled its executive branch?
               5) What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Third Republic?
               6) I.D.: a) The National Assembly b) The Paris Commune
                   b) The Boulanger Affair d) The Dreyfus Affair
               7) Trace the development of democracy in Britain.
               8) What reforms were made under Gladstone? under Disraeli?
               9) How did the emergence of the Labour party affect British politics?
               10) What reforms were made under the Liberal Party between 1906 and
               11) What were the grievances of the Irish? How were they dealt with?

4)   Russian Politics, 1848—1914

       Palmer, 10th ed. 537-54, 672-677, 721-723, 728-733

               1) What reforms were made by Alexander II? Why? What effect did
                  these reforms have?
               2) Characterize the policies of Alexander III.
               3) How did the Russo-Japanese War affect Russia?
               4) How did Russia change in the closing decades of the 19th Century?
               5) What caused the Revolution of 1905? What were its results?
               6) Vocabulary: Westernizers, Slavophiles, intelligentsia, Bloody
                  Sunday, Constitutional Democratic Party

5)   The Nature and Causes of Imperialism & Imperialism in Africa
       Palmer, 10th ed. 629-638 & 648-659
       Sherman, pp. 173 – 179, 181 – 183

              1) What is imperialism? How did it differ from the colonialism of the
                  16th and 17th centuries?
              2) What were the different forms of imperialism?
              3) What were the causes of imperialism?
              4) How did the British gain control of Egypt?
              5) How did the Belgians gain control of the Congo?
              6) What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference? What general
                 agreements were made there?
              7) How, in general, did Europeans gain control in Sub-Saharan Africa?
              8) How did Europeans rule the areas they took control of in Africa?
              9) How did imperialism in Africa effect relations between Europeans?
                 (include the Fashoda Crisis and the Boer Wars)
6) Imperialism in Asia
       Palmer, 10th ed. 659-675
       Sherman, pp. 176, 181 – 183

               1) How did the British gain control of India? What was the significance
                  of the Sepoy Mutiny?
               2) How did Europeans establish spheres of influence in China? What
                  was the significance of the Opium Wars, the Taiping Rebellion, the
                  Sino Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion with regard to this
               3) How did Europeans rule the various areas that they controlled in Asia?
                  How did their policies differ? (For example, what were the
                  differences between the way the British ruled and the way the French

                               A.P. European History
                   Unit 8: Cultural, Intellectual and Social History

1) Science in the 19th Century
     Palmer, 10th ed. 609-615
      Sherman, pp. 186 – 189

               1) Why did the popularity of science grow after 1870?
               2) Describe the impact of the following upon European thinking:
                     a) the theory of evolution
                     b) the science of anthropology
                     c) the science of psychology
               3) Identify: a) Charles Darwin b) Ivan Pavlov c) Sigmund Freud
               4) What advances were made in physics between 1895 and 1905?
               5) How did the work of Albert Einstein change the way physicists view the
                   natural world?
               6) Vocabulary: radioactivity

2) Art and Literature in the 19th Century
        Palmer, 10th ed. 443-445 and the color prints in the text numbered 2-1 through 2-8
        Sherman, pp. 194 – 197

               1) Define and characterize Romanticism.
               2) How did Romanticism affect the following?
                       a) literature b) art c) music
               3) Identify: a) Wordsworth b) Coleridge c) Beethoven d) Dickens e)
                  Monet f) Van Gough.
               4) How did art change after 1870?

3) 19th Century Philosophy & Marxism

       Palmer, 10th ed. 449-451, 543-544, 512-525, 615-628
       Sherman, pp. 189 – 194, 197 – 199
             1) Define: a) materialism b) skepticism c) positivism d) agnosticism e)
             2) Describe the philosophies of: a) Herbert Spencer b) Friedrich
                 Nietzsche c) George Sorel
             3) Define: a) nihilism b) anarchism c) populism.
             4) How did religious beliefs change in the late 1800s? Why did they
             5) What caused the rise of anti-Semitism by about 1900? How was it
                 manifested? How did Jews react to it?
             6) How did Liberalism change in the late 1800s? Why did it change?
             7) Identify: Hegel
             8) Describe the impact of French revolutionism, the British Industrial
                 Revolution and German philosophy upon the development of Marxist
             9) How did Marx interpret the past? What predictions did he make
                 about the future?
             10) What were the strengths and weaknesses of Marxism?

4) 19th Century Demographics and Everyday Life & The World Economy of the
Nineteenth Century

      Palmer, 10th ed. 561-584
      Sherman, pp. 199 – 200

             1) Why did Europeans consider their civilization to be superior to
             2) How did the “inner” zone of Europe differ from the “outer” zone?
             3) How did Europe change demographically in the 1800’s?
             4) How did Europe change economically in the 1800’s? (look for main


                                 A.P. European History

      Unit 9: World War I, the Years Between the Wars, and World War II

      1) The Underlying Causes of World War I: Nationalism, Alliances and

          Palmer, 10th ed. 677-684

         Sherman, pp. 204 – 206, 212 – 213

                    1) How did the following manifestations of nationalism help to
                    create tension between the Great Powers?
             a) Revanchism b) Weltpolitik c) the desire for independence
             amongst the subjects of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

             2) a) What were the goals of the Great Powers in the Balkans? b)
             What conflicts helped to make the Balkans the “powder keg” of

             3) How did the alliance system contribute to World War I?

             4) What were the purposes of the following? a) The Three
             Emperors League b) The Dual Alliance c) The Reinsurance Treaty
             d) The Franco-Russian Alliance (see Palmer).

             5) Why did Britain enter the alliance system? (use both Palmer and
             Flory for this one)

             6) What was dangerous about the military plans of Britain and
             France prior to World War I?

2) Events of World War I

      Palmer, 10th ed. 683-703.

      Sherman, pp. 209 – 211, 214 – 216

          1. How did World War I begin? Why did each of the Great Powers
             get involved?
          2. Who was responsible for the war? Why?

             3) How did the stalemate in the west affect the war elsewhere?

          4. How did the Allies violate international law? Why did they do it?
             How did the Germans respond?
          5. What did the powers involved in the war do outside of the military
             realm to boost their prospects?
          6. Identify: The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
          7. How did World War I end?

3) The Russian Revolution

   Palmer, 10th ed. 719-728 and 733-742.

   Sherman, pp. 206 – 207, 216
              1) What revolutionary groups existed in Russia prior to the
              Revolution? What did each stand for?

              2) What were the underlying causes of the Revolution of March
              1917? What was the immediate cause? What were the results?

              3) What was the role of the Petrograd Soviet in the Russian

              4) How did the Provisional Government fall in November, 1917?
              Why did it fall?

              5) What were the results of the Revolution of November, 1917?

              6) Compare the Russian Revolution to the French Revolution.

4) The Results of World War I

       Palmer, 10th ed. 703-718.

       Sherman, pp. 207 – 209, 212

          1. How did World War I affect Europe politically? economically?
          2. What was required of the Germans by the Treaty of Versailles?
          3. What problems did Paris Peace Settlement create?
          4. What were the weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles?

5) The Twenties & The Great Depression

       Palmer, 10th ed. 763-773, 785-793, 799-801, 803-805.

       Sherman, pp. 218 – 228

          1. What political and economic reforms were made during the
          2. What political and economic problems did the governments of
             Central and Eastern Europe (especially Germany) face during the
          3. What problems did Britain and France face during the 1920’s?
          4. Why was there cause for optimism in Europe during the mid-
          5. What were the weaknesses of the League of Nations? (see Flory).
                      6. Identify: a) The Treaty of Rapallo b) The Dawes Plan c) The
                          Kellog-Brand Pact (The Pact of Paris) d) The Locarno Pacts
                      7. What were the weaknesses in the prosperity of the twenties?
                      8. What caused the Great Depression in Europe?
                      9. How did European governments react to the Great Depression?
                          How did this affect the world economy?
                      10. What economic problems did the British face in the twenties? How
                          did they cope with the Great Depression?

6) Totalitarianism:

       Palmer, 10th ed. 808-825 and 744-758.

       Sherman, pp. 230 – 245

               1) What are the characteristics of totalitarianism?

               2) What group controlled the government in the Soviet Union?

               3) What circumstances helped Mussolini to become the head of the
                  Italian government? What changes did he make? What were his
                  beliefs? What impact did his movement have outside of Italy?
               4) What factors contributed to Hitler’s rise to power? Explain. What
                  changes did he make?
               5) How did Soviet-style totalitarianism differ from fascist-style
                  totalitarianism? (be sure to look at Palmer and Sherman for this)
               6) Vocabulary: a) National Socialist German Worker’s Party b) Beer Hall
                  Putsch c) Mein Kampf d) The Nuremberg Laws e) the Gestapo

7) Culture Between the Wars & The Road to War

     Palmer, 10th ed. 707-709 and 791 (bottom)-793, 828-837

     Sherman, pp. 262 – 265

                         1) How did women’s lives change in the post-war years?

                         2) How did sexual standards change? Why?

                         3) How did intellectuals react to World War I?

                         4) Define and describe the following: a) Logical Empiricism b)

                         5) How did the intellectual trends of this period affect religion?
                         How did they affect literature?
                      6 ) What were the trends in architecture, painting and music during
              this period?

                 7)    Identify: a) Karl Barth b) James Joyce d) T.S. Elliot d) Igor
                   8) What was the attitude of many in the Western democracies
                        towards war during the years between the wars? Why?
                   9) What actions did Hitler and Mussolini take between 1933 and
                        March 1939 which might be considered to be antagonistic
                        towards the West and/or in violation of the Treaty of Versailles?
                        How did the West respond?
                   10) How did the Spanish Civil War begin? How did the major
                        nations react to it? How did it affect relations between Italy and
                   11) Why didn’t the Western democracies deal with Hitler more
                   12) How did the two sides prepare for war in the months between
                        March 1939 and September 1939?

                   13) What do Kennan, Taylor, Eubank and Buchanan say about the
                       West’s actions? What do you think?
                   14) Vocabulary: a) The Munich Conference b) appeasement c) The
                       Nazi-Soviet Pact

8) World War II & The Holocaust and Peace

   Palmer, 10th ed. 837-864.

   Sherman, pp. 248 – 250

                   1) What areas were conquered and occupied by the Germans
                      between April, 1940 and September 1942? Why were they able
                      to win so easily?
                   2) How was Hitler’s empire governed?
                   3) What was the significance of the Battle of Britain?
                   4) What was the strategy of the West (U.S and Britain) before
                      November 1942? How did the Soviets react to this strategy?
                   5) What events caused the tide to turn in the war?

                    6) What atrocities were committed by the Nazis during World War
              II? Why?

                      7) Identify: The Atlantic Charter

                      8) What decisions were made at Casablanca? at Teheran? at Yalta?
                      at Potsdam? What was the significance of these decisions?
                     9) Why wasn’t a peace treaty ever signed with Germany?

                     10) How did World War II shape the future? (think about this one
                     to prepare for class, it is not addressed in either text)

                              A. P. European History
                             Unit 10 Post-War Europe

1) The Cold War: Causes & Events

      Palmer, 10th ed. 865-886, 995-1010, 1021-1027
      Sherman, pp. 258 – 262, 265

              1) How did the power structure of the world change as a result of World
                 War II? What was significant about this change?
              2) What were the causes of the Cold War? (Be sure to consider this from
                 both the U.S. and the Soviet point of view)
              3) How did western Europe recover from the war economically?
              4) Vocabulary: The Cold War, The Truman Doctrine, The Marshall
                 Plan, The European Coal and Steel Community, the European
                 Economic Community, NATO
              5) Trace important events in the Cold War from 1948 to 1991. What
                 were the causes of worsening or improving relations during this time?
              6) Vocabulary: The Berlin Blockade, NATO, Warsaw Pact, Détente,
                 Helsinki Accords
              7) How did the Cold War come to an end?

2) The Soviet Union & Eastern Europe, 1945-1985

      Palmer, 10th ed. 952-959
      Sherman, pp. 250 – 252

              1) Characterize Stalin’s rule in the post-war era.
              2) Who were Stalin’s successors? What changes did they make? What
                 problems persisted?
              3) What political changes occurred in eastern Europe after World War II?
                 How did these changes occur?
              4) How successful were the economic reforms made in Eastern Europe
                 during Stalin’s rule?
              5) How did eastern Europe change after the death of Stalin? How did the
                 Soviets limit the extent of these changes?
              6) Vocabulary: The Cominform, Council for Mutual Economic
                 Assistance, The “Prague Spring” The “Brezhnev Doctrine”

3) The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1985-Present

        Palmer, 10th ed. 1033-1064
              1) What is the significance of the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe
                 and the Soviet Union?
              2) What changes did Mikhail Gorbachev make?
              3) Trace the fall of Communism in the following countries:
                 a) Poland b) Hungary c) East Germany d) Czechoslovakia e)
                    Bulgaria f) Romania
              4) What made the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe possible?
              5) Vocabulary: Solidarity, Glasnost, Peristroika
              6) Trace the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union in 1991.
              7) What problems have the nations of Eastern Europe and the Soviet
                 Union faced since the fall of Communism? What changes have

4) Western Europe, 1945-1974

       Palmer, 10th ed. 915, 886-896
       Sherman, pp. 252 – 256, 265 – 267

              1) What happened to European colonial empires after World War II?
                 Why did this happen? How did this happen?
              2) How did Western Europe recover economically from World War II?
              3) How did the nations of Western Europe cooperate with one another
              4) How, in general, did the nations of Western Europe change politically
                 after World War II?
              5) Analyze the changes which occurred and the problems faced in Great
                 Britain between 1945 and 1974.
              6) Vocabulary: The Marshall Plan, The European Coal and Steel
                 Community, the European Economic Community
              7) Analyze the changes which occurred and the problems faced in the
                 following countries between 1945 and 1974: 1) France 2) West
                 Germany 3) Italy 4) Spain 5) Portugal.
              8) I.D.: Charles De Gaulle, Konrad Adenauer, Alice de Gasperi,

5) Western Europe, 1974-Present & Social and Intellectual History, 1945-Present

    Palmer, 10th ed. 1010-1021, 1066-1071, and 1072-1074, 1079-1099
    Sherman, pp. 256 – 258

              1) Analyze the economic, political and social trends in western Europe as
                 a whole during this era.
              2) Analyze the changes which occurred in the following countries
                 between 1974 and 2000: 1) Great Britain 2) France 3) West Germany
                 4) Italy
              3) ID: Margaret Thatcher
              4) Analyze the scientific and technological changes which have occurred
                  since World War II. What ethical and moral questions have these
                  changes brought up?
              5) Analyze the changes which have occurred in the following areas since
                  World War II? a) art b) literature c) philosophy d) religion
               6) I.D. Pope John XXIII, The Second Vatican Council, John Paul II
               7) What was the Youth Movement or Youth Rebellion of the 1900’s?
               8) What were the objectives of the Women’s Liberation Movement?

6) Prepare for your final exam.

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