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									                                       Contract No. 212206

                                            Cost-Effective

                          Resource- and Cost-effective integration of
                           renewables in existing high-rise buildings


 SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME COOPERATION - THEME 4
 NMP-2007-4.0-5 Resource efficient and clean buildings
 Grant Agreement for:Collaborative Project
                      (ii) Large-scale integrating project


          D1.4.1 Report on performance evaluation and
         documentation of state-of-the-art technologies in
                     EU25, USA and China

 Due date of deliverable:      month 7

 Actual submission date:       30/04/2009

 Start date of project:        01/10/2008                       Duration:      48 months

 Organisation name of lead contractor for this deliverable: NKUA

 Final
Project co-funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework Programme (2007-
2013)
                                          Dissemination Level
PU        Public                                                                              x
PP        Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services)
RE        Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (incl. the Commission Services)
CO        Confidential, only for members of the consortium (incl. the Commission Services)
212206 Cost-Effective                 D1.4.1 Report on performance evaluation and documentation
                                           of state-of-the-art technologies in EU25, USA and China




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212206 Cost-Effective                 D1.4.1 Report on performance evaluation and documentation
                                           of state-of-the-art technologies in EU25, USA and China




Authors:
Afroditi Synnefa (NKUA)
Karlessi Theoni (NKUA)
Santamouris Mattheos (NKUA)
Bastian Wittstock (USTUTT)
Dominique Cacavelli (CSTB)


Address:
National and Kapodistrian      University of Stuttgart          Centre Scientifique et
University of Athens           Chair for Building Physics       Technique du Bâtiment
Physics Department, Section    Dept. Life Cycle Engineering     (CSTB)
Applied Physics                Hauptstrasse 113                 Département Energie, Santé
Group Building Environmental   70771 Echterdingen               et Environnement
Studies                        Germany                          290, Route des Lucioles
Building of Physics - 5,       Contact:                         BP 209, F-06904 Sophia
University Campus              bastian.wittstock@lbp.uni-       Antipolis Cedex, France
157 84 Athens, Greece          stuttgart.de                     Contact:
Contact:                                                        dominique.caccavelli@cstb.fr
msantam@phys.uoa.gr




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212206 Cost-Effective                                                  D1.4.1 Report on performance evaluation and documentation
                                                                            of state-of-the-art technologies in EU25, USA and China




Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................................... 6
1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................... 9
   1.2 THE COST EFFECTIVE PROJECT ............................................................................................................................. 9
   1.2 THE OBJECTIVE .................................................................................................................................................... 9
2. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF HIGH RISE BUILDINGS ....................................................................... 10
   2.1 THE APPROACH ................................................................................................................................................... 10
   2.2 DATA BASIS AND DATA ACQUISITION.................................................................................................................. 11
   2.3 STATISTICAL EVALUATION ................................................................................................................................. 11
      2.3.1 Overall Building Situation and General Historic Trends ........................................................................... 12
      2.3.2 Technical and Constructional Building Data incl. Building Use ............................................................... 12
      2.3.3 Facade-related Building Data .................................................................................................................... 14
      2.3.4 Energy-related Building Data .................................................................................................................... 15
      2.3.5 Economic Building-Data ............................................................................................................................ 16
      2.3.6 Climate-related Building Data ................................................................................................................... 17
3. PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES RELATED TO THE INSTALLATION OF LOW ENERGY AND
RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS ................................................................... 19
   3.1 THE APPROACH ................................................................................................................................................... 19
   3. 2 LOW & RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES IN BUILDINGS .............................................................................. 19
4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART
TECHNOLOGIES ..................................................................................................................................................... 24
   4.1      CLASSIFICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES ......................................................................................... 25
      4.1.1 High performance insulation systems......................................................................................................... 26
      4.1.2 Advanced glazing ....................................................................................................................................... 26
      4.1.3 Double skin Façade .................................................................................................................................... 27
      4.1.4 Building integrated solar component ......................................................................................................... 28
      4.1.5 Passive and active Cooling systems ........................................................................................................... 29
   4. 2     EVALUATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY ENERGY PERFORMANCE ........................................................... 30
      4.2.1 Methodology for the evaluation .................................................................................................................. 31
      4.2.2 Classification of advanced technologies .................................................................................................... 34




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                                                                    of state-of-the-art technologies in EU25, USA and China


List of Figures

Figure 1: Visualization of the numbers of buildings per region and per decade of construction.. 12
Figure 2: Average gross building area per class of building height, incl. +/- standard deviation of
gross building height, indicated as vertical (red) bars. Assuming normal distribution of the values,
approx. 67 % of all values per class of building height lie within the vertical (red) bars. ............. 13
Figure 3: Relative shares of building usages, separately given for several classes of building
height. ....................................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 4: European buildings only: Number of buildings – separated into the different types of
usage – per major facade material, including all buildings from all regions. ............................... 15
Figure 5: Average heating energy consumption and average cooling energy consumption in
relation to the decade of the last change of the building. Note that the time range is greatly
reduced due to unavailability of heating energy consumption data. ........................................... 16
Figure 6: Average construction costs in € per m² gross floor area per decades of construction –
separately given for the EU, the USA and China. ...................................................................... 17
Figure 7: Average heating degree days and average cooling degree days per classes of latitude
north. ......................................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 8: Average heating energy consumption per classes of average heating degree days.
This graph is based on single buildings data. ............................................................................ 18
Figure 9: Façade area of the buildings and the non-opaque share ............................................ 20
Figure 10: Building categorization ............................................................................................. 21
Figure 11: Temperature: : Athens Tower (a ), Atrina (b), Avax (c) , Interamerican (d), Police HQ
(e), Mercator (f), Emona (g), TR3 (h) ......................................................................................... 23
Figure 12: Primary energy in 2003 (International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook 2006.)
.................................................................................................................................................. 24
Figure 13: Vacuum insulation panel with glass fiber textile as cover on top of blank panel ........ 26
Figure 14: Vacuum glazing ........................................................................................................ 27
Figure 15: Examples of double skin façade (Permasteelisa Group) ........................................... 28
Figure 16: Photovoltaic cells fully integrated into the façade ...................................................... 29
Figure           17:                Direct          (left)        and          indirect          (right)          evaporative              coolers
[http://www.mge.com/business/saving/madison/PA_42.html] .................................................... 30
Figure 18: Graphical representation of the heating and cooling contributions of the considered
envelope technologies in a specific climate ............................................................................... 31
Figure 19: Clustering of the heating and cooling contributions of the envelope technologies for a
specific climate .......................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 20: Graphical representation of the COP during the heating and cooling modes for the
HVAC and energy delivering technologies in a specific climate ................................................. 33
Figure 21: Clustering of the COP under heating and cooling modes for the HVAC and energy
delivering technologies for a specific climate ............................................................................. 33
Figure 22: Classification of cooling technologies for the Mediterranean zone ............................ 36
Figure 23: Classification of Artificial Lighting based on their Life Cycle cost .............................. 37




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Executive Summary

This public report is delivered in the framework of the project “Resource- and Cost-effective
integration of renewables in existing high-rise buildings” (Cost-Effective) within the European
Seventh Framework Programme. The main focus of the project is to convert façades of existing
“high-rise buildings” into multifunctional, energy-gaining components. The main objective of the
work described in this document is to collect all information necessary to support the execution
of the program and to identify problems and opportunities in existing high-rise buildings in EU25,
USA and China. This work is divided into three separate tasks:
a) Collection of statistical information on existing and new high-rise buildings in order to
determine the geographical distribution and the corresponding characteristics of high-rise
buildings.
The research and statistical analysis showed that:
      The high-rise construction activity has increased over time (except for incisions through
         World War II and in the 1990s) and the buildings generally got higher and larger over
         time (historic development).
      The majority of buildings are used as offices, with less significant other usages, mainly
         hotels, adding to that. Neither a major change in building use over time, nor different
         usages in different sizes of buildings could be observed.
      Facades are mostly made of brick masonry or glass curtain walls. Materials such as
         concrete and natural stone add to these facade setups. The use of materials for facades
         or for the construction itself or the type of facades did not change significantly over time.
      For heating and cooling energy consumption, which has been investigated only for
         European buildings, as no such data was available for the USA and China, no clear
         development of consumption values over time could be retrieved, neither a direct
         correlation between energy consumption and type of building.
      In terms of energy costs, a decreasing trend (with the exception of a peak with buildings
         of the 1980s) over time of the last change to buildings can be noted, however. The
         general level of energy consumption leaves a rather wide span for the improvement of
         energy efficiency.
Different aspects have been investigated for Europe separately, in addition to the evaluation,
using data from all regions. It can be seen here that the construction practice in general differs
especially between Europe and the USA. European buildings are erected with brick facades less
frequently than US buildings and European buildings use curtain wall facade systems with glass
as a material more constantly. Construction costs generally increase with building height and
building size and it appears as if buildings in the USA are generally erected at lower costs as in
Europe or in China. Direct correlations between heating energy consumption and heating
degree days – as an indicator for the necessity to heat – and between cooling energy
consumption and cooling degree days could be derived. Yet, no additional climate-related
energy consumption patterns were visible.
The authors believe that this report should be used by the different partners of the COST-
EFFECTIVE project to support their respective actions of dealing with specific tasks and
questions within the project. These actions range from model development, e.g. for economic
analysis purposes, via component development with its technical considerations to the
212206 Cost-Effective                       D1.4.1 Report on performance evaluation and documentation
                                                 of state-of-the-art technologies in EU25, USA and China

development of marketing strategies or the preparation of a distribution of the systems to be
developed into the market.
In general, the availability of data is crucial for the task of providing a statistical basis for further
work within the COST-EFFECTIVE project. Yet, it proved that various relevant data are available
only in very limited extend and representative statements that are valid for all buildings can be
given only in a rather limited extend. It appears that in the past, no increased interest, e.g. of
statistical bodies such as national statistical offices or EUROSTAT saw a need for recording
building details on a broad basis. In this context, a commercially available database such as the
EMPORIS database used may support the task, yet here as well, data availability is not
homogenous over large ranges of buildings. Also, single data have to be verified critically, as
several apparent erratic values appeared in the data extracted from the EMPORIS database.
Within this task, that validation was part of the data acquisition and validation procedure.

b)Identification of problems and opportunities regarding the use of innovative systems in existing
high-rise buildings.

The first step for the development of new multifunctional components which combine
conventional and innovative low energy features is the identification of the problems and
opportunities related to their installation. This identification is the major objective of this work in
combination with a well based analysis of existing high-rise buildings. For this reason data
acquisition from high-rise buildings covering 7 EU countries was performed by the completion of
two questionnaires, an extended one to be filled in by the building manager concerning building
information (General Information, Building Description -Envelope-Interior Surroundings, Heating-
Cooling- Ventilation System, Lighting System, Other Equipment, Building Energy Management,
Indoor Conditions, Environmental Performance) and a short questionnaire for the occupants with
information for indoor conditions and system controls. The classification of the case buildings
was based on the installation of renewable and low energy systems and for the cases that these
systems did not exist; it was completed with the buildings that have the potential for installing low
energy systems according to the identified problems, as explained to their descriptions.
According to the analysis performed:
     most of the case buildings have low energy systems installed on the façade. Systems
        applied are mainly double skin facades consisting of double glazing and low-e coatings
        and systems consisting of triple sun protective glazing.
     In 8 buildings low energy systems installed concern HVAC technology and mainly the
        following: cold and thermal storage, night ventilation, TABS on the roof and underground
        cooling.
     Lighting system is the sector that requires consideration by the majority of the buildings
        investigated, for the improvement of their performance.
Requirements also focus on HVAC systems, façade and controls for a large part of the case
buildings. In nine buildings, no renovation has been performed since their construction. Four
buildings have been completely refurbished, while major renovations are related to façade and
HVAC systems.
A survey concerning the building user’s perception of indoor environmental conditions was
conducted in 8 building.

c) Cross-sectional analysis of the performance of the various state-of-the-art energy and
environmental technologies applied in high-rise buildings.

A state-of-the-art on advanced energy-efficient technologies has been performed. Thirty-three
promising technologies have been selected and documented for that purpose. They address the
major areas of energy use in buildings: space conditioning, water heating, lighting and
ventilation. Besides describing energy-using technologies, this state-of-the-art also presents
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212206 Cost-Effective                   D1.4.1 Report on performance evaluation and documentation
                                             of state-of-the-art technologies in EU25, USA and China

building envelope technologies and building integrated solar components. Adaptation to high-
rise buildings has been permanently considered. A specific focus on technologies for which R&D
had the potential to advance commercialization was given.
Furthermore, a simplified methodology for evaluating the-state-of-the-art technologies with
respect to the building energy performance was developed. The methodology is adapted to suit
all the various technologies. Each participant has evaluated technologies in his/her own area of
expertise on the basis of available data. The methodology that was developed considers the
most important energy related parameters and splits energy conservation technologies in three
clusters:
a)Envelope Technologies
b)HVAC and Systems delivering Energy
c)Lighting Technologies
For each cluster, a qualitative evaluation is proposed that permits to identify the energy
conservation potential for a specific climate.




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1. Introduction

1.2 The Cost Effective project

This public report is delivered in the framework of the project “Resource- and Cost-effective
integration of renewables in existing high-rise buildings” (Cost-Effective) within the European
Seventh Framework Programme.
The main focus of the project is to convert façades of existing “high-rise buildings” into
multifunctional, energy-gaining components. In order to achieve this goal, the following tasks will
be performed:
   Development of integrated building concepts, suitable for a major share of the high-rise
    building stock, which can be characterised as the most cost-effective combinations of
    existing and/or newly developed components
   Development of new multi-functional façade components which combine standard features
    and the use of renewable energy resources
   Development of new business and cost models which consider the entire life cycle of a
    building and which incorporate the benefits of reduced operating costs and greenhouse-gas
    emissions.
   Development of a decision support tool which will help the planners to find the best
    integrated building concept.


The achievement of the project tasks involve the collaboration of 26 partners for a period of 48
months. The project contains eight work packages including Management and is coordinated by
the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE)




1.2 The Objective

This Deliverable sums up the work that has been carried out in the framework of the first Work
Package of the Cost Effective project. The first WP aims to collect all information necessary to

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support the execution of the program and to identify problems and opportunities in existing high-
rise buildings in EU25, USA and China. More specifically the objectives are:




a) To collect statistical information on existing and new high-rise buildings in order to determine
the geographical distribution and the corresponding characteristics of high-rise buildings.
b) To identify problems and opportunities regarding the use of innovative systems in existing
high-rise buildings.
c) To do a cross-sectional analysis of the performance of the various state-of-the art energy and
environmental technologies applied in high-rise buildings.
In the following paragraphs the methodology to achieve these objectives is described as well as
the main results.



2. Statistical evaluation of high rise buildings

The main developments of the Cost Effective project are intended to be broadly applied to the
stock of existing high-rise buildings. Therefore, a statistical analysis of the high-rise building
stock is intended to support a general understanding of market opportunities, as well as to
provide the developers of the planned building concepts and facade components with
background data for use in the planning and design process, as well as to provide data that may
be used in the development of market analyses and business concepts.
Purpose and objective of this task is the provision of such statistical data to enable all project
partners to base their considerations of the target building stock on a profound data basis, rather
than on guessing.



2.1 The approach

The processes set up to collect and prepare the statistical data, assures that several
requirements are met and that the data can processed appropriately:
      consistent – as far as possible – collection of data for Europe, the USA and China,
      consistent and practicable collection of data by different partners,
      support of the combination of different types of data to compensate for inhomogeneous
       data and gaps in data acquisition for different countries,
      harmonization of differently recorded data of the same type (e.g. different units, etc.),

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                                                of state-of-the-art technologies in EU25, USA and China

      addressing of inconsistent and incomplete data due to different levels of availability.
For the collection of data, spreadsheet templates for the individual countries have been
distributed to all contributing partners and the results have been fed into a relational database.


The structure of this database has been specifically laid out to host different types of data with
different spatial, temporal, and subjective references. It allows the direct addition of new data,
both imported from spreadsheet templates, and as direct inputs into forms.
The evaluation of the data is done with the help of pivot tables and direct links to the data basis.
This allows the evaluation of data after an update of data. It also permits the partitioning of the
data into classes for focused analyses.



2.2 Data basis and data acquisition

The data acquisition for the different countries is done using a variety of different sources.
Where applicable, direct data from the building owners or building maintenance is included. In
addition to such direct information, databases with information, e.g. from different EU research
projects (El-Tertiary, HOPE, TOBUS, DATAMINE, ERABUILD, etc.) is used to mainly provide
specific values for specific groups of buildings. National statistical and meteorological (for
climatic data) organizations and EUROSTAT are evaluated. Additionally, a literature research is
conducted, trying to identify relevant literature-values and a significant share of information on
single buildings is taken from the “EMPORIS” database, which is commercially available from
Emporis Corp. For single buildings, a total of 18.402 datasets are provided. For economic data,
a total of 133 different datasets are given, for energy data, the total number of datasets amounts
to 409 and for climatic data, a total of 500 datasets is listed in the database.



2.3 Statistical evaluation

The evaluations of statistical data, as given below, are intended to raise a general understanding
of the situation of high-rise buildings that is based on the available data and to provide the basis
for conclusions and hints that can be useful for the reader’s specific purpose. As these purposes
vary between a general insight into the situation of high-rise buildings, via hints for successful
technical design to economic conclusions, intentionally, only very little interpretation of the
presented results is done.



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All statements of mean values, etc. refer to the respective size of the sample of the regarded
type of data. As these sample sizes vary and are not necessarily based on the same buildings,
general conclusions can be drawn only to a very limited extend.


In order to outline region-specific specialties, several relevant evaluations are done separately
for Europe, the USA and China. This will give the users of this statistical evaluation the
possibility to tailor solutions more specifically to different climates, cultures and traditions and
habits of construction.



2.3.1 Overall Building Situation and General Historic Trends

Generally, an increasing construction activity over time in the field of high-rise buildings can be
noted. As an example of the evaluations done,
Figure 1 provides the number of buildings erected per decade for the EU, the USA and China.


                                           3.000




                                           2.500
             Number of erected buildings




                                           2.000




                                           1.500                                                                                                       China
                                                                                                                                                       USA
                                                                                                                                                       EU

                                           1.000




                                            500




                                              0
                                                    19th     1900s   1910s   1920s   1930s   1940s   1950s   1960s     1970s   1980s   1990s   2000s
                                                   century
                                                                                     Decade of building construction




      Figure 1: Visualization of the numbers of buildings per region and per decade of construction.

2.3.2 Technical and Constructional Building Data incl. Building Use

The single buildings table yields a number of parameters that give information about technical
specification of the buildings, as well as about typical types of construction. All the given figures


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serve to possibly conclude patterns of correlating patterns, or, to outline that general patterns
can hardly be concluded from the given data.
Figure 2 presents the average gross building area per classes of building height and vertical
bars, indicating the range of +/- standard deviation of the respective class.


                                        350.000

                                                          Average gross building area       +/- Standard deviation of gross building area

                                        300.000



                                        250.000
             Gross building area [m²]




                                        200.000



                                        150.000



                                        100.000



                                         50.000



                                             -
                                                  < 50   50-100        100-150          150-200        200-250        250-300          > 300
                                                                                 Building height [m]


 Figure 2: Average gross building area per class of building height, incl. +/- standard deviation of gross
building height, indicated as vertical (red) bars. Assuming normal distribution of the values, approx. 67 %
                  of all values per class of building height lie within the vertical (red) bars.


In order to investigate any possible correlations of the building’s usage with other parameters,
such as building height, year of construction or refurbishment (“last change to the building”) or
use area, Figure 3 as an example presents the relative distribution of building usages in several
classes of building height. While for all classes of building height, the usage type office prevails,
especially the highest buildings hold a significant share of the usage type lodging/hotel.




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                                          100%


                                          90%


                                          80%


                                          70%
              Shares of building usages

                                          60%
                                                                                                                     others

                                          50%                                                                        lodging / hotel
                                                                                                                     entertainment

                                          40%                                                                        commercial
                                                                                                                     industrial
                                          30%                                                                        office


                                          20%


                                          10%


                                           0%
                                                 < 50   50-100   100-150    150-200      200-250   250-300   > 300
                                                                       Building height [m]



   Figure 3: Relative shares of building usages, separately given for several classes of building height.




2.3.3 Facade-related Building Data

As the facade is the major subject of the COST-EFFECTIVE project, special focus is directed to
several parameters that describe the facade. These evaluations may be used to find general
patterns on which building parameters have an influence on the type and technical setup of the
facade – if such patterns may be retrieved.
Figure 4 for instance, presents the number of European buildings per major facade material
used in the respective buildings. The columns of the numbers of buildings are separated into the
different types of usage. This visualization also clearly shows that the majority of the investigated
buildings are office use buildings. In terms of used facade material, glass facades (usually post-
mullion-structures) dominate the distribution, followed by natural stone facades and concrete
based facades. Metal facades and other materials are of reduced significance for high-rise
buildings.




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                                    160
                                                                                                                  EU only

                                    140


              Number of buildings   120


                                    100

                                                                                                                   others
                                    80                                                                             lodging / hotel
                                                                                                                   entertainment
                                    60                                                                             commercial
                                                                                                                   industrial
                                                                                                                   office
                                    40


                                    20


                                      0
                                          Steel   Concrete   glass      brick   nonferrous    natural    Others
                                                                                 materials   materials

                                                               Building usage


Figure 4: European buildings only: Number of buildings – separated into the different types of usage – per
                     major facade material, including all buildings from all regions.

2.3.4 Energy-related Building Data

Aim of the Cost-Effective project is to provide integrated solutions for the integration of
renewable energy sources into the facades of high-rise buildings. Accordingly, energy-related
statistical data should be used to base technical developments on.




Part of the data acquisition in the Cost-Effective Task 1.1 was not only the collection of
disaggregated data on single buildings, but also to include aggregated data, e.g. from other
studies into the database. As several – if not all – of the energy performance parameters of a
building are directly or indirectly related to the climatic situation of the location of the building,
some of the energy-related evaluations are given below, integrating climatic data as well.
Figure 5 displays the average heating energy demand and the average cooling energy demand
of single buildings in relation to the time of the last change to the building. It can be noted that
this evaluation does not indicate clear trends. Neither the heating energy demand reduces over
time – as one might expect – nor does the cooling energy demand show a significant increasing
or decreasing pattern.




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                                                     160


                                                     140


                                                     120
                     Energy consumption [kWh/m²*a]
                                                                                                                    Average heating
                                                     100                                                            energy
                                                                                                                    consumption

                                                     80                                                             Average cooling
                                                                                                                    energy
                                                                                                                    consumption
                                                     60


                                                     40


                                                     20


                                                       0
                                                           1960s   1970s           1980s            1990s   2000s
                                                                   Decade of last change to the buildings


Figure 5: Average heating energy consumption and average cooling energy consumption in relation to the
decade of the last change of the building. Note that the time range is greatly reduced due to unavailability
                                  of heating energy consumption data.

2.3.5 Economic Building-Data

Another important focus area for the COST-EFFECTIVE project is the development of
appropriate economic models for the to-be-developed integrated systems, as well as to assure
cost-efficiency for the technologies and concepts. Consequently, economic indicators are
evaluated here, along with other building-related parameters.
Of the single buildings, approx. 5 % of the datasets bear information on construction costs. Such
rather limited number of available datasets may yield non-representative average values for


construction costs. Accordingly, especially exceptionally high or low values should be dealt with
rather carefully.
Figure 6, which presents the average construction costs in € / m² GFA1, shows a clear trend of
increasing construction costs for the USA and no clear patterns for Europe and China,
presumably due to the limited number of data.




1 GFA = Gross Floor Area


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                                                                      4.500 €




                 Average construction costs per building [€/m² GFA]
                                                                      4.000 €


                                                                      3.500 €


                                                                      3.000 €


                                                                      2.500 €

                                                                                                                                                                          EU
                                                                      2.000 €
                                                                                                                                                                          USA
                                                                                                                                                                          CN
                                                                      1.500 €


                                                                      1.000 €


                                                                       500 €


                                                                          0€
                                                                                 19th     1900s   1910s   1920s   1930s   1950s   1960s   1970s   1980s   1990s   2000s
                                                                                century
                                                                                                             Decade of building construction


Figure 6: Average construction costs in € per m² gross floor area per decades of construction – separately
                                                                       2
                                 given for the EU, the USA and China .

2.3.6 Climate-related Building Data

Statistical analyses on high-rise buildings also have to include the analyses of climatic data, as a
building always performs specifically with regard to its location and setup. Accordingly, heating
degree days and cooling degree days, both in relation to the latitude of the location are
presented (Figure 7), before building-specific energy-performance data are given.
The values between 30°N (approx. latitude of e.g. Hangzhou in China or Houston, TX, in the
USA; as a reference: Cyprus lies around the 35°N) and 65°N (approx. latitude of e.g. Lulea in
Sweden or Fairbanks, AK in the USA) show distinct patterns, for heating degree days, a
constant increase when moving north and for cooling degree days a constant decrease when
moving north.




2
    Note that the absence e.g. of the European bar for the 1970s may be due to a lack of data for gross floor
    area for those buildings with cost information, which have been erected in the 1970s in Europe.
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                                                              4.500


                                                              4.000


                                                              3.500


             Degree Days [K*d/a]                              3.000


                                                              2.500
                                                                                                                                                               Average heating
                                                                                                                                                               degree days
                                                              2.000
                                                                                                                                                               Average cooling
                                                                                                                                                               degree days
                                                              1.500


                                                              1.000


                                                               500


                                                                    0
                                                                        31-35 N   36-40 N     41-45 N       46-50 N        51-55 N    56-60 N      61-65 N
                                                                                                        Latitude in N



 Figure 7: Average heating degree days and average cooling degree days per classes of latitude north.



For heating energy consumption data, two sources are available: on the one hand, the single
buildings information hold data on the specific heating energy consumption and on the other
hand, the energy data table holds general or aggregated information on energy consumption,
e.g. from previous studies or projects. Figure 8 provides the average heating energy
consumption, based on single buildings data, in relation to heating degree days on the buildings’
locations. These data show a clear trend of increasing heating energy consumption with
increasing heating degree days.
                                                              250
              Average heating energy consumption [kWh/m²*a]




                                                              200




                                                              150




                                                              100




                                                               50




                                                                0
                                                                        < 500     500-1.000   1.000-1.500    1.500-2.000     2.000-2.500   2.500-3.000   3.000-3.500   3.500-4.000
                                                                                                            Heating degree days [K*d/a]



Figure 8: Average heating energy consumption per classes of average heating degree days. This graph is
                                    based on single buildings data.


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3. Problems and opportunities related to the installation of low energy
and renewable energy systems in high rise buildings

The main focus of the project is to convert façades of existing “high-rise buildings” into
multifunctional, energy-gaining components. The implementation of this goal requires the
determination and classification of the building characteristics in order to investigate the
application of innovative systems in existing high-rise buildings. The first step for the
development of new multifunctional components which combine conventional and innovative low
energy features is the identification of the problems and opportunities related to their installation.
This identification is the major objective of this work in combination with a well based analysis of
existing high-rise buildings.

3.1 The approach

Twenty two high-rise buildings with different architectural, constructive, systems and energy
characteristics from Greece, Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Switzerland, France and Spain were
selected for data acquisition.
Building analysis related to the installation of innovative energy systems require the
consideration of building characteristics and the occupant’s perception of the building conditions
and controls. For this reason data acquisition from high-rise buildings was performed by the
completion of two questionnaires, an extended one to be fill in by the building manager
concerning building information (General Information, Building Description -Envelope-Interior
Surroundings, Heating- Cooling- Ventilation System, Lighting System, Other Equipment, Building
Energy Management, Indoor Conditions, Environmental Performance) and a short questionnaire
for the occupants with information for indoor conditions and system controls.



3. 2 Low & renewable energy technologies in buildings

Figure 9 presents the façade area of the investigated buildings and the non-opaque share.




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                                60000
                                                                                                                       total
                                                                                                                       transparent
                                50000


                                40000
          Facade area (m2)




                                30000


                                20000


                                10000


                                        0



                                                                  a




                                                       Ho DF




                                                              RO
                                                       oc er
                                              De ini s te rs




                                                                 2
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                                                        olf ital
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                                                          Ro s
                                                         To k
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                                                     G
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                                   Fr Po Int
                             At




                                                                             Building
                                          of




                                            Figure 9: Façade area of the buildings and the non-opaque share


The classification of the case buildings is based on the installation of renewable and low energy
systems. The initial aim was the categorization according to the existing systems of this type,
however not all the buildings had these systems installed. For this reason the classification was
completed with the buildings that have the potential for installing low energy systems according
to the identified problems, as explained to their descriptions.
The categories concern systems of this type for the façade of the building, HVAC systems,
controls (eg. automatic controls, BMS), ventilation and lighting systems.
The classification is presented at Table 1. Indication “I” is for installed systems and “P” for
systems that have the potential to be installed according to the problems of each building.
Renovations of the building are also indicated in total

Table 1: Building categorization


    No    Building                                                                Category
                                                            Façade     HVAC      Controls    Ventilation   Lighting     RENOVATION
      1   Athens Tower                                         P        P               P        P            P          HVAC 50%
                                                                                                                      HVAC 50%-Lighting
      2   Atrina                                               P                                              P             80%
      3   Avax                                                 I         I              I         I           I                  -
      4   Interamerican                                                                 P                                      TOTAL
      5   Police Headquarters                                  P        P               P                     P       ENVELOPE-HVAC
      6   Fraunhofer Administration                            I         I                                    I                  -
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     7   Deutsche Bank Head Office                       I          I         I            I            I            TOTAL
     8   Galaxy Tower                                    I          I         I                         I            TOTAL
     9   Mercator                                                             P                        P           HVAC 100%
                                                                                                                 ENVELOPE 85%-
    10   Telecom                                                              P                        P        HVAC,LIGHT 100%
    11   Emona                                           P          P         P                        P        HVAC,Lighting 30%
    12   TR2                                             P          P                                  P             TOTAL
    13   TR3                                             P          P                                  P           HVAC 100%
         Chamber of
    14   Commerce&Industry                               P          P         P                        P                -
    15   Tellihochhaus                                              P                                            FACADE 100%
    16   Rolex Siege Mondial                             I                                                              -
    17   Rathaus                                         I                                                       FACADE 100%
    18   Messeturm                                       I                                                              -
    19   Tour EDF                                                   I                                  P                -
    20   Hospital                                        I          I                                                   -
    21   Golf-park office building                       I          I                                                   -
         ZERO emissions Acciona
    22   Solar                                           I          I                      I            I               -




As presented in Figure 10, most of the case buildings have low energy systems installed on the
façade. Systems applied are mainly double skin facades consisting of double glazing and low-e
coatings and systems consisting of triple sun protective glazing. In 8 buildings low energy
systems installed concern HVAC technology and mainly the following: cold and thermal storage,
night ventilation, TABS on the roof and underground cooling.
Lighting system on the other hand is the sector that requires consideration by the majority of the
buildings investigated, for the improvement of their performance. Requirements also focus on
HVAC systems, façade and controls for a large part of the case buildings
                                           12
                                                                                                 P          I
                                           10


                                           8
                            No Buildings




                                           6


                                           4


                                           2


                                           0
                                                Façade       HVAC       Controls   Ventilation   Lighting
                                                                        category


                                                  Figure 10: Building categorization




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In nine buildings, no renovation has been performed since their construction. Four buildings
have been completely refurbished, while major renovations are related to façade and HVAC
systems.

A survey concerning the building user’s perception of indoor environmental conditions was
conducted in 8 building, 5 in Greece and 3 in Slovenia. The number of questionnaires answered
in each building is shown at Table 2.


                                                                           Table 2: Occupants survey


                                        No                                     Building                                    No Questionnaires
                                               1       ATHENS TOWER                                                                    46
                                               2       ATRINA                                                                          53
                                               3       AVAX                                                                            44
                                               4       INTERAMERICAN                                                                  198
                                               5       POLICE HEADQUARTERS                                                            122
                                               6       MERCATOR                                                                        18
                                               7       EMONA                                                                            9
                                               8       TR3                                                                             27



The thermal perception of the buildings occupants is presented in Figure 11.




                                                    ATHENS TOWER                                                                        ATRINA
                            14                                                                              25
                                                                                                                                                                      summer
                                                                                       summer
                            12                                                                                                                                        w inter
                                                                                       w inter              20
                            10
                                                                                                 No occupants
             No occupants




                                                                                                            15
                            8

                            6                                                                               10

                            4
                                                                                                                5
                            2

                            0                                                                                   0
                                 cold   cool       slightly neutral slightly   w arm      hot                       cold   cool   slightly neutral slightly   w arm      hot
                                                     cool            w arm                                                          cool            w arm
                                                          temperature                                                                   tem perature

                                                      (a)                                                                                    (b)




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                                                                       AVAX                                                                                     INTERAMERICAN
                                14
                                                                                                    summer             100
                                                                                                                                90                                                                   summer
                                12                                                                  w inter
                                                                                                                                80                                                                   w inter




              No occupants
                                10
                                                                                                                                70




                                                                                                              No occupants
                                       8                                                                                        60
                                                                                                                                50
                                       6
                                                                                                                                40
                                       4                                                                                        30
                                                                                                                                20
                                       2
                                                                                                                                10
                                       0                                                                                              0
                                               cold    cool    slightly neutral slightly    w arm      hot                                    cold     cool    slightly neutral slightly    w arm       hot
                                                                 cool            w arm                                                                           cool            w arm
                                                                      temperature                                                                                    tem perature

                                                                     ( c)                                                                                           (d)
                                                                  MERCATOR                                                                                           POLICE HQ
                                       16                                                                                       50
                                                                                                    summer                                                                                         summer
                                       14                                                                                       45
                                                                                                    w inter                                                                                        w inter
                                                                                                                                40
                                       12
                                                                                                                                35




                                                                                                                 No occupants
                      No occupants




                                       10
                                                                                                                                30
                                           8                                                                                    25

                                           6
                                                                                                                                20
                                                                                                                                15
                                           4
                                                                                                                                10
                                           2                                                                                          5
                                           0                                                                                          0
                                                cold    cool    slightly neutral slightly   w arm       hot                                   cold     cool    slightly neutral slightly   w arm      hot
                                                                  cool            w arm                                                                          cool            w arm
                                                                     tem perature                                                                                     temperature

                                                                   (e )                                                                                                  ( f)
                                                                     EMONA                                                                                            TR3
                                           6                                                                                          14
                                                                                                    summer                                                                                         summer
                                           5                                                        w inter                           12
                                                                                                                                                                                                   w inter

                                                                                                                                      10
                                           4
                                                                                                                       No occupants
                        No occupants




                                                                                                                                          8
                                           3
                                                                                                                                          6
                                           2
                                                                                                                                          4

                                           1                                                                                              2

                                           0                                                                                              0
                                                cold   cool    slightly neutral slightly    w arm      hot                                      cold    cool    slightly neutral slightly w arm       hot
                                                                 cool            w arm                                                                           cool             w arm
                                                                     tem perature                                                                                   tem perature


                                                                  ( g)                                                                                                  ( h)

   Figure 11: Temperature: : Athens Tower (a ), Atrina (b), Avax (c) , Interamerican (d), Police HQ (e),
                                   Mercator (f), Emona (g), TR3 (h)




This data could be used from the different partners of the COST-EFFECTIVE Project to support
their respective actions of dealing with specific tasks and questions within this project. These
actions range from a model development to a system development and installation.




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4. Performance evaluation and documentation of the state-of-the-art
technologies

Buildings are responsible for at least 40% of energy use in most countries. The absolute figure is
rising fast, as construction booms, especially in countries such as China and India (Figure 12).




     Figure 12: Primary energy in 2003 (International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook 2006.)


Commercial building encompasses a diverse mix of structures and purposes – from small retail
establishments to high-rise office buildings, from neighbourhood schools to universities. Despite
their differences, commercial buildings share a large and growing appetite for energy. They
account for 30% of the total European primary energy consumption.


A large number of energy-efficient technologies exist that could curtail this increase. In recent
years, improvements have contributed to reducing energy use. Hundreds of other technology
improvements have and will continue to improve the energy use in buildings. While many
technologies are well understood and are gradually penetrating the market, more advanced
technologies will be introduced in the future.


A state-of-the-art on advanced energy-efficient technologies has been performed. Twelve
partners contributed to the documentation of thirty-three promising technologies selected for that
purpose. They address the major areas of energy use in buildings: space conditioning, water
heating, lighting and ventilation. Besides describing energy-using technologies, this state-of-the-
art also presents building envelope technologies and building integrated solar components.
Adaptation to high-rise buildings has been permanently considered. A specific focus on
technologies for which R&D had the potential to advance commercialization was given.
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Furthermore, a simplified methodology for evaluating the-state-of-the-art technologies with
respect to the building energy performance was developed. The methodology is adapted to suit
all the various technologies. Each participant has evaluated technologies in his/her own area of
expertise on the basis of available data



4.1 Classification of advanced technologies

The advanced energy-focused technologies listed by the partners have been classified following
several thematic domains:



   Thematic or Cluster                       Advanced technologies
High Performance             Vacuum Insulation Panels
Insulation Systems           Transparent thermal insulation
                             Low-e glazing
Advanced glazing             Electrochromic and thermochromic glazing
                             Transparent aerogel
                             Vacuum glazing
Façade                       Double Skin Facade
Building integrated solar Solar air collector
component                 Facade integrated solar thermal water collectors
                          Façade integrated photovoltaic
                          Radiative cooling, incl. Cool paints
Cooling                   Ground cooling
                          Evaporative Cooling
                          Desiccant Cooling
                          Solar absorption Cooling
                          Activated building mass cooling systems
                          Review on heat pump
Heating and DHW           Reversible ground water heat pump
                          Activated building mass heating systems
                          PCM thermal storage in building
Heat/Cool storage         Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (BTES)
Heat Recovery                Waste heat recovery systems
Ventilation                  Demand controlled ventilation
                             Hybrid ventilation
Lighting                     Light Emitting Diode (LED)
                             Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFL)




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                               Building Management System
Control and                    Automatic control for lighting
management systems             Review on solar control systems
                               Energy minimizing control systems
                               Room climate control systems
Electricity production         Photovoltaic modules
systems                        PV-Th collectors
                               Combined Heat and Power generation (CHP)

Five promising clusters of technology have been selected for description to give an idea of the
wide range of possibilities.



4.1.1 High performance insulation systems


Solar walls with transparent insulation (TI) need massive storage walls – and do not work with
light weight walls like porous concrete or insulated walls. For this reason they will be not suitable
to existing high-rise building in most cases.

Daylighting with TI provides high thermal performance to glazing (less than 0.5 W/m2K), allows
a wide range of total solar energy transmittance g (from 15 to 45%) and provides diffuse daylight
to rooms without hard shades. They are suitable to existing high-rise building.




        Figure 13: Vacuum insulation panel with glass fiber textile as cover on top of blank panel

4.1.2 Advanced glazing

Low-e and solar control glazing, electrochromic and thermochromic glazing, transparent aerogel
and vacuum glazing are energy-efficient technologies suitable to high-rise buildings, which have
often large glazed area.
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In vacuum glazing for instance (Figure 14), the space between the panes is evacuated down to
below 10-3 mbar, which almost completely eliminates thermal conductivity. The panes, each
coated with a highly infrared reflecting layer to minimize thermal radiation, are supported by a
matrix of spacers to prevent collapse. In such an assembly four distinct heat transfer
mechanisms contribute to the total heat transmission coefficient. Using double-glazed
assemblies with evacuated gaps, vacuum glass systems can achieve heat transfer coefficients
of 0.8 W/m²K for the entire window and 0.5 W/m²K for the glazed area. Important factors when
selecting suitable spacers are that they have low thermal conductivity and are nearly invisible.




                                     Figure 14: Vacuum glazing




4.1.3 Double skin Façade

A double skin façade can be defined as a traditional single façade doubled inside or outside by a
second, essentially glazed façade (see figure 15). A ventilated cavity - having a width which can
range from several centimetres to several metres - is located between these two skins.
Automated equipment, such as shading devices, motorized openings or fans, are most often
integrated into the façade.




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               Active Wall®             Interactive Wall®            Closed Cavity
                                                                       Façade®




                  Figure 15: Examples of double skin façade (Permasteelisa Group)

Double Skin Façades for office buildings aim at increased transparency combining acceptable
indoor environment with reduced energy use. The system seems more suitable in northern
Europe than in countries with high solar gains where overheating problems or higher energy
consumption for cooling may occur.

4.1.4 Building integrated solar component


In a high-rise building, façade areas are much larger than roof area. Various types of solar
components can be integrated into a building façade:

      Solar air collectors

      Solar water collectors

      Photovoltaic cells

Photovoltaic cells can be installed on facades in various way :

              Photovoltaic cells fully integrated into the façade system (Figure 16)

              Photovoltaic cells used as rear ventilated façade system

              Photovoltaic used as secondary shading device

              Photovoltaic cells used as flexible membranes (facade and roof)
              Thin layer photovoltaic cells used as shading device within insulated glazing units




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                       Figure 16: Photovoltaic cells fully integrated into the façade


Performances of an integrated solar components are on one hand the solar energy recovered
and on the other hand its performance as a building element (shading effect if the solar collector
is used as shading device, …).

4.1.5 Passive and active Cooling systems


Passive systems are devices that can be integrated into the building to perform the function of
heat transfer and storage with little or no assistance from electrical or other non-renewable
energy sources. Passive cooling techniques can be classified in three main categories:

a) Solar and Heat Protection Techniques that may involve: Landscaping, and the use of outdoor
and semi-outdoor spaces, building form, layout and external finishing, solar control and shading
of building surfaces, thermal insulation, control of internal gains, etc.

b) Heat Modulation Techniques that deals with the thermal storage capacity of the building
structure. This strategy provides attenuation of peaks in cooling load and modulation of internal
temperature with heat discharge at a later time.

c) Heat dissipation techniques which deal with the potential for disposal of excess heat of the
building to an environmental sink of lower temperature. The main processes of heat dissipation
techniques are: ground cooling based on the use of the soil, and convective and evaporative
cooling using the air as the sink, as well as water and radiative cooling using the sky as the heat
sink.




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When the above systems use various device to enhance the cooling mechanism they become
active systems. However the main active cooling systems are the heat pumps, including
absorption systems.
The radiative cooling systems are not the best choice for high-rise buildings since there
efficiency depends mainly on the roof area.
In the dry locations, evaporative cooling offers remarkable saving potentials (see figure 6). In
high humidity climates such as the Mediterranean, solar hybrid desiccant cooling could be a
promising alternative to standard HVAC installations but the high-rise buildings offer little
possibilities of implementing solar collectors with a low tilt angle (on the roof) and the use of
solar thermal façade collectors for solar cooling is challenging because of the large angles of
incidence for the solar direct irradiation.




                      Figure 17: Direct (left) and indirect (right) evaporative coolers
                       [http://www.mge.com/business/saving/madison/PA_42.html]


The energy performances of ground cooling systems are usually expressed by unit of ground
area. So those systems are not recommended when the available ground area is limited (high-
rise buildings in urban environment).
Solar absorption cooling systems require solar collectors preferably with a low tilt angle therefore
it is challenging to use them in high-rise buildings.
Thermally activated building mass cooling systems are good systems in terms of investment and
exploitation costs. Ceiling cooling systems offer fast response times without an air based system.

4. 2 Evaluation of advanced technology energy performance




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A simplified methodology for evaluating advanced technology energy performance has been
proposed. The methodology and the evaluation results are described in the following paragraphs.



4.2.1 Methodology for the evaluation

The methodology that was developed considers the most important energy related parameters
and splits energy conservation technologies in three clusters:
a)Envelope Technologies
b)HVAC and Systems delivering Energy
c)Lighting Technologies
For each cluster, a qualitative evaluation is proposed that permits to identify the energy
conservation potential for a specific climate.


A. Envelope Technologies
The specific evaluation of the energy potential of a considered envelope technology is proposed
to be performed in comparison to a reference technology. The Heating and Cooling Contribution
of the system (HCS and CCS respectively) per m2 of the building is calculated for all considered
systems and for a given climate.
The obtained results may be represented in a graphical way as in the following Figure18.
                                HCS(i)




                                                    CCS(i)

 Figure 18: Graphical representation of the heating and cooling contributions of the considered envelope
                                    technologies in a specific climate

Two dimensional fuzzy clustering techniques may be applied thus, various major clusters may
be defined as in Figure 19:




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                                            B




                                HCS(i)
                                                                 D



                                            A                          C


                                                          CCS(i)

 Figure 19: Clustering of the heating and cooling contributions of the envelope technologies for a specific
                                                  climate

The specific meaning of each cluster is the following:

 Cluster A : Systems with low Heating and Cooling Contribution

 Cluster B : Systems with High Heating and Low Cooling Contribution

 Cluster C : Systems with Low Heating and Medium to High Cooling Contribution

 Cluster D : Systems with Medium Heating and Cooling Contribution


At the end the following evaluation Table 3 is prepared:

Table 3: Qualitative classification of the energy potential of the considered envelope technologies


Envelope             Southern               Continental          Mid           European   North         European
Technology           Mediterranean                               Coastal                  Coastal

    Technology 1                A                    B                     C                        D

Technology 2                    B                    A                     C                        C

Technology 3                    D                    C                     B                        A

…………….                          C                    B                     C                        B

Technology i                    D                    A                     D                        B

Technology n                    C                    D                     A                        C



B. HVAC and Systems delivering Energy
The methodology proposes to evaluate the mean annual COP of the system (i) in heating and
cooling mode. For systems providing both heating and cooling, we may have a COPH(i) and
COPC(i) for the heating and cooling mode respectively. Thus, for a specific climate a graphical
representation like in the following Figure 20 may be obtained.


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                           COPH(i)                         COPC(i)


 Figure 20: Graphical representation of the COP during the heating and cooling modes for the HVAC and
                           energy delivering technologies in a specific climate

By applying fuzzy clustering techniques, the following classification (Fig.4) may be obtained for a
specific climate



                                               B
                                     COPH(i)




                                                              D



                                               A                   C


                                                         COPC(i)


 Figure 21: Clustering of the COP under heating and cooling modes for the HVAC and energy delivering
                                   technologies for a specific climate

The specific meaning of each cluster is:

 Cluster A : Systems with low COPH and COPC

 Cluster B : Systems with High COPH and Low COPC

 Cluster C : Systems with Low COPH and Medium to High COPC

 Cluster D : Systems with Medium COPH and COPC


Any other clustering may be obtained as well as a function of the characteristics of the data. At
the end an evaluation similar to the one given in Table 2 will be prepared.

For Systems offering only heating or cooling, the specific COPH or COPC will be calculated for a
given climate. Then by applying one dimensional fuzzy classification, the following classification
may be obtained for COPH or COPC,:




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             E             D                     C                   B            A
                     Low to Medium
                     COP                                      Medium To
       Low COP                           Medium COP                          High COP
                                                              high COP




C. Lighting Technologies
Classification of the performance of artificial lighting systems according to the following three
criteria :
   1. Lumens/watt delivered
   2. Color of Light
   3. Color Rendering index

4.2.2 Classification of advanced technologies

A. Cooling technologies
Classification of the cooling technologies has been performed using the above mentioned
methodology for HVAC systems. The conventional cooling technologies given below in Table 4
and the corresponding COP values have been considered together with the four hybrid
technologies, buried pipes, radiative cooling and evaporative cooling and solar cooling systems.


Table 4 Classification of COP performance of various cooling systems according to EUROVENT

             COP Class           Air Cooled            Air Cooled Ducted   Air Cooled Floor   Water Cooled

                 A                           >= 3.1         >= 2.7              >=3.8            >=5.05
                 B                   2.9-3.1                2.5-2.7           3.65-3.8          4.65-5.05
                 C                   2.7-2.9                2.3-2.5           3.5-3.65          4.25-4.65
                 D                   2.5-2.7                2.1-2.3           3.35-3.5          3.85-4.25
                 E                   2.3-2.5                1.9-2.1           3.2-3.35          3.45-3.85
                 F                   2.1-2.3                1.7-1.9           3.05-3.2          3.05-3.45
                 G                    <2.1                   <1.7               <3.05            <3.05


It has been calculated that the COP of cooling systems under the Mediterranean climates are:

Ground Coupled Heat Pump : 10.5

Direct Evaporative Cooling : 5.6

Radiative Cooling : 2.4

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Earth to Air Heat Exchangers : 6.6

Dessicant Cooling : 4

Solar Absorption Cooling : 1.47 in primary energy

PV Hybrid cooling, based on Si unglazed hybrid components : 2.63

Using conversion factors, COP values are as follows in terms of primary energy3:

Ground Coupled Heat Pump : 4

Direct Evaporative Cooling : 2.1

Radiative Cooling : 0.9

Earth to Air Heat Exchangers : 2.4

Dessicant Cooling : 1.8

Solar Absorption Cooling : 1.47

PV Hybrid cooling, based on Si unglazed hybrid components : 1.1




 3
     Worldwide Trends in Energy Use and Efficiency- International Energy Agency 2008

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                 Figure 22: Classification of cooling technologies for the Mediterranean zone



B. Classification of artificial lighting technology
Based on the existing knowledge, the different artificial lighting technologies have been
classified according to the three selected criteria. In parallel, information on the average life of
the sources as well as some qualitative characteristics is given.


Lamp Type        Watteges   System     Color        Col    Average    Life      Start to    Restrike   Lumen
                            Efficacy   Temperat     or     Rated      Cycle     full        Time       Maintenance
                            (lm/W)     ure (K)      Ren    Life (h)   Cost      Brightnes
                                                    deri                        s
                                                    ng
                                                    Inde
                                                    x
Incandencent     3-1500     4-24       2800         98+    750-       High      Immediate   Immedia    Good/e
                                                           2000                             te         xcellent
Halogen          5-2000     10-22      3000         80-    2000-      High      Immediate   Immedia    Good/e
                                                    90     4000                             te         xcellent
High Voltage     60-2000    14-22
Tungsten         40-250     14-17
                                                           2000
Low Voltage
Tungsten         5-150      10-21
                                                           2000
Low Voltage      10-250
with reflector                                             2000-
                                                           4000
Compact          5-55       28-79      2700,        80-    5000-      Low       1-2         Immedia    Fair
Fluorescent                            3000,        90     10000                minutes     te
                                       3500,
                                       4100,5000
                                       , 6500
With built in    9-25       41-48
ballast          7-32       58-63                          5000                 2 min
                                                           8000                 1 min
With external    5-11       28-60
ballast          5-26       42-50                          8000                 1 min
                 16-28      50-57                          8000                 1 min
                 18-55      40-79                          8000                 1 min
                                                           8000-                1 min
                                                           10000
Full size        4-215      40-89      Warm         49-    7500-      Low       0-5         Immedia    Fair/Exc
Fluorescent                            white=300    85     24000                seconds     te         ellent
                                       0
                                       White=300
                                       0
                                       Cool white
                                       = 4100
                                       Also, 5000
                                       and 6500
Mercury Vapor    40-1250    19-43      Coated=4     15-    24000+     Moderat   3-9         10-20      Poor/Fa
                                       000          50                e         minutes     minutes    ir
                                       Clear=570
                                       0
Metal Halide     32-2000    38-110     3100,4100    65-    6000-      Moderat   3-5         4-20       Good
                                       ,5000        70     20000      e         minutes     minutes
Ellipsoid        250-1000   62-96
scattering                                                 6000

Tube clear       250-3500   69-110
Tubular clear    70-150     67-82                          1000-
R7S                                                        3000
                                                           6000

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Tubular clear    250-1000    73-86
Fc2
                                                           6000
Ellipsoid Down   70-100      66-85
scattering
                                                           5000
Tubular clear    2000-3500   85-86
E40
                                                           1000-
Tubular not      1000-2000   96-100                        6000
outer bulb

                                                           4000-
                                                           6000

High Pressure    35-1000     22-115    Standard=     22-   16000-    Low      3-4         1 minute   Good/E
Sodium                                 2100          85    24000              minutes                xcellent
                                       White
                                       HPS =
                                       2700
Low Pressure                 100-200   1740          40-   16000     Low      Point       10         3 minutes
Sodium                                               60                                   minutes
LED’s                        10-100    2700-         80-   50000     Low      Point       Immedia    Immediate
                                       10000         90                                   te
White LED                    10-100

Red / Orange                 50
LED


A global classification of the artificial lighting sources can be performed based on the life cycle
cost of the different technologies. Such a classification is given below in Figure 23.




                 Figure 23: Classification of Artificial Lighting based on their Life Cycle cost




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