Mobile Technology by neerajdalal126


After the widespread use of PCs in the 80s, the desktop computer was
transformed from a stand-alone static device to a portable networked device.
This is because of the emergence of laptops and the network evolution.
Portables have had a huge success, showing that people wanted their
information to be as portable as they were.
At the same time the rapid growth of networking was showing that we want our
information connected and not isolated.
Wireless communications is trying to provide us today with the ability to access
information on the move regardless of geographical location.
In order to deliver the rich content of the Internet on a mobile device higher
bandwidth channels must be used. The current second generation standards,
like GSM (limited to 9600Kbps), do not provide adequate bandwidth to support
high bandwidth services.
Third generation technology is focusing on ways to upgrade the existing cellular
network to be able to transmit in higher data rates. Data rates is said to be of the
scale 384Kbps to 2Mbps.
With these transmission speeds in mind rich content can be delivered to mobile
devices, like multimedia content.
At the moment these data rates are a bit optimistic and do not map very well to
Even if the underlying cellular network accomplishes such transmission speeds
the mobile devices have to be able to accommodate enhanced applications. With
major limiting factor the battery life and the size of the handheld devices,
pumping-up current mobile phones to become small PCs can be a bit tricky.
Cellular standards fall into three categories; first generation analog cellular
systems, and second and third generation digital cellular systems. An interim
technology, usually known as second generation-plus supports high speed data
communication over today’s digital cellular systems. Table 1 shows main feature
of these technologies. A brief discussion and of these technologies and a
comparison of data services follows:

 Main Features of Cellular Technologies

 1st                2nd Generation 2nd +                 3rd
 Generation                            Generation        Generation
 Analog trans.      Digital trans      Digital trans     Digital trans
 Mainly speech      Mainly speech      Mainly speech     Speech and video
 Voice band data    Digital data       Increasing        Mainly

                                       digital data      digital data
 Circuit switched   Circuit switched   Increasingly      Mainly

                                       packet switched   packet switched
 Local systems      Global roaming     Global roaming    Global roaming

First Generation Technologies

First-generation mobile communications systems, sometimes referred as 1G,
were basic analog radio systems that established the first cellular radio
infrastructure. The biggest problem with this system for cellular providers is the
lack of capacity to handle the sheer number of users that demand voice service.
The analog cellular networks use circuit switched connections for data transport;
however, the radio link performance for data is considered marginal due to the
limitations imposed by the analog nature of the technology. Radio channel
dynamics such as dropouts, signal fades, and multi-paths, which can be tolerated
during a voice connection, can be disastrous to a mobile data subscriber.
Subscriber data rates of 2400 bits/s or less can be sustained using standard
modems with some adaptation for connection to the cellular network.
In general, the analog cellular infrastructure systems are not an efficient means
of sending data due to limited available capacities, limitations of data recovery,
low security, and the high cost of use for many applications. Some of the widely
used standards include the following:
Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS):
The AMPS was the first standardized cellular service in the world and was
released for commercial use in 1983 in USA. The system uses 800 MHz to 900
MHz frequency band and the 30 KHz channel bandwidth. This is the most widely
used analog cellular standard.

Narrow-band Advanced Mobile System (N-AMPS):
This system operates in 800 MHz range and provides three times greater
capacity than AMPS by using 10 KHz channel bandwidths instead of the
standard 30 KHz channel bandwidths used in the AMPS system.

Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT):
This system was in use throughout the Nordic countries. The system has two
variants based on the frequency of allocation. NMT450 operates on 450 MHz,
while NMT900 operates on 900 MHz.

Total Access Communications Systems (TACS):
This system was based in the U.K and has several variants. The most popular
are J-TACS (similar to AMPS) and E-TACS (Expanded TACS).

Second Generation Technologies

Second-generation mobile communications systems, sometimes referred as 2G,
are currently predominant in the wireless communication industry. These use
digital technology to provide many advantages for both the voice- and data-
based mobile professional. These include increased system capacity, increased
security against casual eavesdropping, superior cell hand-off, and better
recovery of radio signal under different conditions. In addition to speech, these
support services such as fax, short messaging, and roaming of mobile end-
 Technical Summary of Second Generation Technologies

                               ---- EUROPE -   ------------ UNITED STATES ----
                               ----            --------

                               GSM             TDMA            CDMA
 Frequency band                890-960 MHz     824-894 MHz     824-894 MHz
 Allocated bandwidth           50              50              50
 Access scheme                 TDMA            TDMA            CDMA
 Duplex method                 FDD             FDD             TDD
 Channel bandwidth             200 KHz         30 KHz          1250 KHz
 No. of voice/freq. channels   8 / 16          3/6
 Total traffic channels        1000 / 2000     2496 / 4992
 Channel bit rate              270.833 Kbps    48.6 Kbps       Vendor dependent
 Voice coding                  22.8 Kbps       8 / 4.5 Kbps    8
 Data rate                     9.6 Kbps        9.6 Kbps        14.4 Kbps

The second-generation technologies use circuit switched connections for data
transport and provide data transmission rate of 9.6 to 14.4 Kbps. These
implement a high level of flow control and error correction and provide reliable
data transfer. With second-generation systems, multiple users can share a single
cellular channel, thus reducing congestion and providing access for more users.
These use the multiple access methods and provide extensive coverage with a
proven and reliable communications infrastructure. The existing standards in use
worldwide include the following:

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications):
This was the first European digital open standard and is in commercial use in
1992. It was developed to establish cellular compatibility throughout Europe. Its
success has spread to all parts of the world and by the year 2000, there were
over 250 million subscribers worldwide. It is based on a combination of TDMA
(Time Division Multiple Access) and FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
techniques and operates at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands in many
parts of the Europe and Asia, and uses 1900 MHz in North America. Today, it
provides an error-free Internet access at 9600 bps to the subscribers. Some
analysts suggest that due to a single dominant network standard, GSM, Europe
is 18 months ahead of the US wireless market.
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access):
TDMA refers to products developed using the IS-136 specification for advanced
digital wireless services. It was the first U.S. digital standard and was started in
1993. It is a natural evolution of analog AMPS networks and, therefore, was
previously known as D-AMPS (Digital AMPS). It is the most widely used wireless
technology in the USA, and as of year-end 2000, there were about 61 million
TDMA subscribers worldwide, with an estimated 31 million subscribers in the
North America.
TDMA technology provides a 3 to 1 gain in capacity over analog technology by
dividing a single radio frequency channel into a series of timeslots. Each user is
assigned a set of timeslots during which they are allowed to broadcast. This
technique is better at handling heavy traffic than others, since there is a hard
upper limit on the amount of bandwidth that a particular user will utilize, but this is
its weakness as well. Cells that do not have a large number of users will have
underutilized bandwidth. Similarly, there is a much harder limit on the total
number of users that can be supported within a cell.

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access):
This system, known as IS-95, was adopted by the Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA) in 1993. It uses the same frequency bands as AMPS and
supports AMPS operation, employing spread-spectrum technology and a special
coding scheme. In this technique the call is spread over a series of frequencies
based on a sequence of jumps that are semi random in nature. The spread
spectrum approach minimizes signal loss within any particular frequency band,
as well as providing security for the communications. The handset and the base
station agree on the sequence ahead of time, which gives the base station the
capability to minimize collisions within a cell. It is characterized by high capacity
and small cell radius.
CDMA provides outstanding voice and call quality, fewer dropped calls, improved
security and privacy, greater capacity, reduced background noise and
interference, and possibility of simultaneous voice and data calls. Designed with
about 4.4 trillion codes, CDMA virtually eliminates cloning and other types of
fraud. Globally, commercial CDMA networks serve tens of millions of

Second –plus Generation Technologies

The second-generation technologies provide data transfer rates only up to 14.4
Kbps. The high data speeds that are needed for video and graphic image
transmission are not available on most of the today’s mobile phone systems.
Such capabilities require a highly complex and robust technology platform that
will not be available in most of the countries until few years from now. An interim
step to the next generation technologies is second-plus generation or 2.5G
technologies as shown in Figure 4. These technologies support data transfer
rates of 57.6 Kbps and higher and offer subscribers access to the Internet at
speeds that are comparable to a wire-line ISDN connection or even faster. These
include HSCSD, GPRS and EDGE. An overview of these technologies is given

              Figure 4: Evolution of 2G Networks to 2.5G and 3G
HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data):
HSCSD is a circuit-switched mobile data standard that gives a single user
simultaneous access to multiple channels, up to four, at the same time. In
comparison, GSM supports only one user per channel per time slot. Assuming a
standard data transmission rate of 14.4 Kbps, using four timeslots with HSCSD
allows theoretical speeds of up to 57.6 Kbps. This is broadly equivalent to
providing the same transmission rate as that available over one ISDN B-Channel.
HSCSD does not disrupt voice service availability.
 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service):
GPRS is a new packet-based bearer that is being introduced on many GSM and
TDMA mobile networks from the year 2001 onwards. It is a non-voice value
added service that allows a subscriber to send and receive data in an end-to-end
packet transfer mode, without using any network resources in circuit-switched
mode. It also permits the user to receive voice calls simultaneously when
sending or receiving data calls.
GPRS facilitates instant connections (no dial-up) whereby information can be
sent or received immediately as the need arises. This is why GPRS users are
sometimes referred to be as being “always connected”. A GPRS mobile device
displays a mobile portal service all the time, but it is only activated, and the user
is only charged, when information is being transmitted. The main feature of
GPRS is that it reserves radio resources only when there is data to send and that
these radio resources are shared by all Mobile Stations (MSs) in a cell. It handles
data transfer rates from 14.4 Kbps, using just one TDMA slot, up to 115.2 Kbps,
using all eight TDMA slots. This will allow it to handle all types of transmission
from slow-speed short messages, to the higher speeds needed for browsing
complex web pages with high graphics content.

GPRS fully enables a true “Mobile Internet” scenario by allowing integration
between the existing Internet and the GPRS network, via interfaces to TCP/IP. Its
network can be viewed as a sub-network of the Internet with GPRS capable
mobile phones being viewed as mobile hosts. This means that each GPRS
terminal can potentially have its own IP address and will be addressable as such.
Any service that is used over the fixed Internet today – web browsing, file
transfer, chat, email, telnet – will also be available over mobile network via
GPRS. In addition, higher data rates will allow users to take part in video
conferencing and interact with multimedia websites and similar applications as

Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (EDGE):

EDGE is a radio based high-speed mobile data standard that was first proposed
to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in 1997 as an
evolution of GSM. In fact, it was formerly called GSM384. It is the result of a joint
effort between TDMA industry association and the GSM Alliance to develop a
common set of third generation wireless standards which supports high-speed
modulation. EDGE allows mobile operators to offer 3G services without having to
purchase a 3G license. It allows data transmission speeds from 48 Kbps, using
just one timeslot, up to 384 Kbps, using all eight timeslots. It supports 800/900/
1800/1900 MHz frequency bands. Although it reuses the GSM carrier bandwidth
and timeslot structure, it is by no means restricted to use within GSM cellular
systems. In fact, by enhancing the capability of existing GSM or TDMA systems,
it facilitates an evolution of existing cellular systems towards third-generation

Third Generation Technologies
Two shortcomings of the second generation bearer networks are low bandwidth
and limited network capacity which negatively impact the user experience and
the reliability of the service. Third generation or 3G technology is a new
technological evolution that will offer far more bandwidth and greater data and
voice call capacity than today's digital mobile networks allow. It is a next giant
step in mobile technology development with its goal being full interoperability and
inter-working of mobile systems. The idea behind 3G is to unify the disparate
standards that today's second generation wireless networks use.

With 3G technology, portable bandwidth will rise to the level of wired broadband
connections and the data transfer rates of up to 2 Mbps will be possible (128
Kbps in a car, 384 Kbps when a device is stationery or moving at pedestrian
speed and 2 Mbps in fixed applications). When this speed is achieved, wireless
technology will find a new audience that is interested in Internet browsing,
wireless gaming, and listening to music. Current mobile networks are only
designed for voice and text messaging, whereas 3G networks will allow faster
and more complex data transmission such as streaming video and audio, video
conferencing, satellite navigation and interactive application sharing. These
networks will provide packet switched data access to the Internet with an end-to-
end IP connection. This means that when the mobile phone is activated it is
automatically connected to the Internet via a normal browser. Subscribers will
then enjoy capabilities similar to today’s fixed-line Internet services with
significant add-ons such as location-based and highly personalized services.
Third generation technology allows handsets to be left permanently connected to
the network and use capacity only when they receive or transmit packages.
Subscribers can thus pay for the volume of data transmitted, not how long they
Although the technology behind 3G may seem complicated, the ways in which
3G will affect all of our lives are easy to imagine. Just imagine having a combined
camera, computer, stereo, and radio included in your mobile phone. Rich-media
information and entertainment will be at your fingertips whenever and wherever
you want. Being able to do so much, the end user device is no longer just a
mobile phone, and will be referred to as a terminal.
Market Snapshot and Status of Deployment of Mobile Internet Technologies
                    HOME                         PAID FOR
          MOBILE                                                                  1ST 3G
                  INTERNET    2G         3G                    2.5G      MMS
 COUNTRY PENETRA-                                                                SERVICE
                  PENETRA- LICENSES   LICENSES              LAUNCHED? AVAILABLE?
           TION                                     3G                           LAUNCH
           64.8%    50%       4          6        US$ 580     Yes        Yes     Q1
Australia   (Jun    (Dec                          Million   (Q2 2000) (Aug 2002) 2003
           2002)    2001)
 Canada    36.1%    49%       4          5        US$ 919    Yes        Yes     Q1
            (Jun    (Dec                          Million (Apr 2001) (Oct 2002) 2002
           2002)    2001)
 France    61.9%   23.9%      3          4        US$ 2.23   Yes        Yes(May Q1
            (Jun     (Oct                         Billion  (Q4 2000)     2002)  2004
           2002)    2002)
           67.9%    31%       4          6       US$46.11    Yes        Yes     Q4
Germany     (Jun (Q3 2001)                       Billion  (Dec 2000) (Apr 2002) 2003
 Hong      86.8%    53%       6          4        US$ 524     Yes          Yes     Q1
 Kong       (Jun    (Dec                         Thousand   (Q4 2000)   (Jul 2002) 2003
           2002)    2001)
 Italy     91.5%    34%       4          5        US$10.04    Yes        Yes     Q4
            (Jun    (Dec                          B1illion (May 2001) (May 2002) 2002
           2002)    2001)
 Japan     55.6%    44%       5          3        N/A         Yes         Yes     Q4
            (Jun    (Dec                                    (Q1 1999)   (Q4 2000) 2001
           2002)    2001)
 Malaysia 32.6%       5%      5          2        US$26.33   Yes           No     2004
            (Jun   (2001)                         Million  (Q2 2002)    (Q2 2003)
           67.5%    56%       3          3        US$173.4   Yes        Yes     Q1
Singapore (Jun      (Mar                          Million  (Q4 2000) (Sep 2002) 2004
           2002)    2001)
 South    64.34%    58%       5          2        US$ 3.3      Yes        Yes     Oct
 Korea      (Jun    (Dec                          Billion                         2000
           2002)    2001)
 Taiwan    100%     50%       6          5        US$ 14      Yes        Yes     Q4
            (Jun    (Dec                          Million   (Q2 2001) (Oct 2002) 2003
           2002)    2001)
 U.K.      81.7%    38%       4          5        US$35.36    Yes        Yes     Q1
            (Jun    (Dec                          Billion  (May 2001) (Jun 2002) 2003
           2002)    2001)

Standardization of third generation mobile communications began in the mid-
1990s under supervision of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).
The goal was full interoperability and inter-working of mobile systems capable of
providing value-added services. In 1998, the ITU called for Radio Transmission
Technology      (RTT)    proposals      for   IMT-2000    (International  Mobile
Telecommunications-2000), the formal name for the third generation standard.
Under the brand IMT-2000, it approved three standards to achieve this: W-
CDMA, CDMA2000 and TD-SCDMA. W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division
Multiple Access) was backed by the European Telecommunications Standards
Institute (ETSI) and the GSM operators in Europe and elsewhere; while the
CDMA2000 was backed by the North American CDMA community, led by the
CDMA Development Group (CDG). The third standard won the support in the
other parts of the world. Earlier, in January 1998, the W-CDMA standard was
also incorporated by ETSI in the specification of UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System) Terrestrial Radio Access; hence W-CDMA and
UMTS are often used synonymously.

IMT-2000 is to ensure that these technologies can work in different networks,
primarily in IP networks, but for the sake of backwards compatibility, in the GSM
and the American ANSI networks as well. Most major network operators in
Europe and Asia are committed to the W-CDMA standard for 3G mobile
communications. Nevertheless, other standards are being implemented in other
parts of the world. In North America and Asia Pacific, the next generation
wireless network is going to be mainly based on CDMA2000 and China, the
world's largest market for mobile communication, will be using TD-SCDMA
standard for 3G networks.

Comparison of Data Services
The demand for mobile data services is growing. Increased mobility has fueled
an expanding market for both consumers and the enterprises. A comparison of
various data services for cellular networks is shown in Table 4. For consumers,
second-plus and third generation networks will bring access to the Internet, with
near wire-line speed and quality. 2.5G services will mostly be text-based with still
images and short audio clips. Services will include web browsing, financial
transactions, image downloads, e-mail and instant messaging. As networks
migrate to 3G, these same services will be enriched with multimedia content
including full audio and video clips.
For enterprises, second-plus generation networks will allow access to corporate
intranet and e-mail, business applications and databases, and increasing mobile
sales and field employees’ productivity. In the future, 3G capabilities will enable
even greater benefits from wireless business applications through VoIP (Voice
over IP), rapid file transfer and video-conferencing.

 Comparison of Data Services for 2G, 2.5G and 3G Networks
                                 ND                      ND                           RD
 SERVICES                       2 GENERATION            2 + GENERATION               3 GENERATION
 Web browsing                   Short text screens      100KB web page takes         100KB web page takes
                                                        approx. 30 sec to download   approx. 2 sec to download
 File transfers                 No                      500 KB document takes        500 KB document takes
                                                        approx. 2mn to download      approx 10 sec to download
 e-mail                         Short Message Service   Text-based with small        Full attachments
                                (SMS)                   attachments
 Instant messaging              SMS                     Text-based                   With audio/video clips
 VoIP (Voice over IP)           No                      Limited                      Yes
 Streaming audio/video          No                      Short clips                  Yes
 Access to corporate intranet   Very limited            Text-based                   Yes
 Access to corporate apps       Very limited            Text-based                   Yes

When we refer to state of the art technologies we are referring to the
technologies that are currently operational and offer mobile services.
The most widely adopted technology for mobile communications today is GSM.
The first GSM standard was published in 1990 and commercial service started in
1991. The evolution of GSM will provide the future infrastructure for the third
generation mobile systems.

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
The Global System for Mobile Communication is an international standard
created in 1987. Thirteen European countries signed a Memorandum of
Understanding (MoU) and agreed upon the construction of a standardized
telecommunications system operating on a 900MHz frequency band. GSM, a
digital, multi-cellular mobile telephone network system, was developed from this
standard. This ISDN-like technology features a D channel for call set up and B
channel for transferring data. It converts the voice into a coded digital signal,
which is transmitted and then decoded in the receiving handset. This way,
atmospheric noise has less of an effect on voice quality and the encoded
messages provide security.
Originally, GSM was intended to be established as a Pan-European system, but
today has expanded into many other parts of the world. GSM is established in
nearly 100 countries worldwide, and growing. Although this technology has not
been widely adopted in North America, GSM phone systems are popular
throughout Europe, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa and the UAE.
New GSM networks are being created monthly, and it is predicted that by the end
of the decade, it will have a subscriber base of more than 100 million. This has
opened the opportunity of constructing a coherent telecommunications system
which would network the world--without the constraint of borders. Other GSM
networks operate at 1800MHz (DCS 1800) and use smaller cells designed for
high-density areas like cities, and have been implemented throughout, with
additional DCS-1800 networks planned. Future North American digital services
for PCS systems will use modified DCS-1800 equipment operating at 1900MHz
so as to be compatible with European systems.

The uniqueness of GSM technology lies in the fact that users must insert
Subscriber Identity Module Cards (SIM-Cards) in their handsets. SIM
Cards are small chips delivered by the GSM service provider. These SIM cards
contain crucial information such as a phone number and all billing coordinates
and can store telephone numbers. This enables users to switch GSM handsets
by simply pulling out their SIM Card and inserting it into another device. As a
result, users can keep the same number although they've switched handsets.
Users can also travel to certain areas of the U.S., or countries where the GSM
network uses a different frequency, hire a mobile phone, plug in their SIM Card
and receive all their phone calls and SMS messages using their own usual
The GSM phone system used with a notebook PC and PC Card provides a
comprehensive plug-and-play solution for communications on the go.
Data and fax capabilities at 9600bps, along with special features like inter-
national roaming and Short Message Service (SMS) enable mobile users to
connect easily and reliably when traveling from country to country. Keep in mind
that data capabilities are not automatic--GSM service providers must implement
this functionality for mobile users to take advantage of it.
Data services can be Mobile Originated or Mobile Terminated. Mobile
Originated (MO) implies that users can send data from a remote location using
the GSM network. Mobile Terminated (MT) means users can receive data, faxes
or SMS messages on their notebook using the GSM network.

        Figure: GSM data over the PSTN/ISDN network

The GSM system is being compromised by the following subsystems:
    Mobile station (MS)
    Base station subsystem (BSS)
    Base Transceiver (BTS)
    Base Station Controller (BSC)
    Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC)
    Home Location register (HLR)
    Visitors Location register (VLR)
    Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

The ITU is responsible for allocating the radio spectrum used by the MS and the
BTS. GSM is using TDMA (Fig2.2) where each signal uses the same frequency,
but is given a time slot in this frequency.
Features of GSM


When accessing foreign GSM networks, bilateral roaming agreements between
local service providers regulate reciprocal access to each others network. Mobile
users do not have to worry about the various foreign dialing tones, access codes,
country codes and incompatible plugs. Once users turn on their phones and log
onto the network, the system finds them. Users are able to make voice calls,
collect E-mail and receive database updates just as if they were at home. This
feature will be supported in all future developments of GSM technology.

Short Message Service.

The GSM SMS was previously used to indicate that voice mail was waiting, but it
can also be used to indicate E-mail and faxes. Short messages can contain 160
characters. With appropriate software, SMS messages can be viewed, logged,
sent and received on your portable computer like it is done today with E-mail.
This service functions similarly to two-way paging, but has quickly evolved into
an electronic messaging system.
Specialized communications software like "Wireless Office" from Trio, enables
full integration of SMS on the notebook so that messages may be typed directly
from the portable PC. Otherwise, messages must be typed on the user's
SMS can provide an applications gateway that facilitates message transfers
between corporate information platforms, or LANs, and the network operator's
SMS center.
GSM Modem Connection
GSM data transfers currently operate at maximum data rates of 9600bps.
Data communications can be performed in either transparent or non-trans-parent
modes depending on the application and needs of the user. Using a
9600bps link means that data is being converted from the PC's digital signal to
analog, then back to digital. Since a GSM mobile phone and a PC are both digital
equipment, a modem in the true sense of the word is not necessary. What is
needed is a Terminal Adapter Equipment (TAE) to translate between different
digital formats of the GSM phone and the PC, and to simulate an ordinary
modem to the PC by sending signals such as a dial tone and busy tone. By using
a data compression protocol like MNP 5 or V.42bis, large amounts of data can
be transferred in shorter times. The increase is in throughput, not in actual rate.
The extent of compression varies due to file type and can only be used in data
transmissions, not fax.

Transparent and Non-transparent Mode
GSM data transfers are performed in two ways--transparent and non-trans-
In transparent mode, error correction is not integrated in the GSM system and is
handled by the two communicating modems using standard protocols such as
MNP 2. This is fine as long as the radio connection is stable.
Should there be unstable conditions, like a weak signal, non-trans-parent mode
is preferred. Non-transparent mode means that the GSM system handles error
correction by using the Radio Link Protocol (RLP), which gives a more reliable
transmission. In non-transparent mode, data compression can also be added
which increases data transmission speeds to above 9600bps.


CDMA is a modulation and multiple access technique that is based on spread
spectrum technology. It is designed to combat the problem of capacity shortage
in mobile telecommunication world. With CDMA, multiple user can share the
same frequency band without interfering each other if the transmit power of
mobile station (MSs) is carefully controlled. The same frequency can be used in
all neighboring cells (almost 1/1 frequency reuse). On the other hand there is no
hard limit on the number of active users that can be serviced by a base station
(BS). When the number of active users exceeds the design value, more traffic
channels can be provided by degrading quality of service. This is usually referred
to as soft capacity. Therefore, the capacity of CDMA systems is potentially

With CDMA, unique digital codes, rather than separate RF frequencies or
channels, are used to differentiate subscribers. The codes are shared by both the
mobile station (cellular phone) and the base station, and are called "pseudo-
Random Code Sequences." All users share the same range of radio spectrum.

 THE GOAL OF SPREAD SPECTRUM is a substantial increase in bandwidth of
 an information-bearing signal, far beyond that needed for basic communication.
 The bandwidth increase, while not necessary for communication, can mitigate
 the harmful effects of interference, either deliberate, like a military jammer, or
 inadvertent, like co-channel users. The interference mitigation is a well-known
 property of all spread spectrum systems. However the cooperative use of these
 techniques in a commercial, non-military, environment, to optimize spectral
 efficiency was a major conceptual advance.

 SPREAD SPECTRUM systems generally fall into one of two categories:
 frequency hopping (FH) or direct sequence (DS). In both cases synchronization
 of transmitter and receiver is required. Both forms can be regarded as using a
 pseudo-random carrier, but they create that carrier in different ways.

 FREQUENCY HOPPING is typically accomplished by rapid switching of fast-
 settling frequency synthesizers in a pseudo-random pattern. The references
 can be consulted for further discussions of FH, which is not a part of
 commercial CDMA.

 CDMA uses a form of direct sequence. Direct sequence is, in essence,
 multiplication of a more conventional communication waveform by a
 pseudonoise (PN) ±1 binary sequence in the transmitter.

We are taking some liberties with the details. In reality spreading takes place
prior to any modulation, entirely in the binary domain, and the transmitted signals
are carefully band limited.
A second multiplication by a replica of the same ±1 sequence in the receiver
recovers the original signal.
The noise and interference, being uncorrelated with the PN sequence, become
noise-like and increase in bandwidth when they reach the detector. The signal
to-noise ratio can be enhanced by narrowband filtering that rejects most of the
interference power. It is often said, with some poetic license, that the SNR is
enhanced by the so-called processing gain W/R, where W is the spread
bandwidth and R is the data rate. This is a partial truth. A careful analysis is
needed to accurately determine the performance. In IS-95A CDMA W/R = 10
log(1.2288 MHz/9600Hz) = 21 dB for the 9600 bps rate set.

Features of CDMA

     Noise suppression- Based on spectrum spreading , the CDMA receiver
      can operate in very low SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) environment (say
      less than 0db), due to its high processing gain (21db).
     Soft capacity - This means high capacity gain i.e. the capacity of the
      cdma channel is much more than analog and digital channel. We can say
      that much data can be transmitted at a high speed.

     Soft hand off - When a subscriber moves from one cell to another a
      connection is established between the subscriber and the new BTS
      automatically this technique is called make before break         and so it is
      called soft handoff. When there is a break, when a subscriber moves from
      one cell to another and then a connection is established it is called break
      before make.
      High capacity- CDMA system provides an increase in capacity in order of
       4 to 6 fold over digital TDMA (e.g., GSM, IS-54) and 10 fold over analog
       FM/FDMA (AMPS). A number of CDMA features contribute to the
       increased capacity. High capacity is due to the single frequency channel,
       with one to one frequency reuse. The total bandwidth in which the CDMA
       signal propagates is 800MHz-1900MHz which is of very high bandwidth
       so the capacity is also high. as many as 95 million subscribers worldwide
       can use this technology at the same time.

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
As the name implies GPRS is based on packet switching technology making this
technology a better candidate for Internet related applications that can run on
mobile phones. Again GPRS implementation requires little changes on the
existing GSM networks.
As shown in Figure, the only addition to the GSM network is a packet radio
network, and a couple of software upgrades to some existing node
      Figure: IEEE Spectrum October 10

Network Features Of GPRS

     Packet Switching
GPRS involves overlaying a packet based air interface on the existing circuit
switched GSM network. This gives the user an option to use a packet-based data
service. To supplement a circuit switched network architecture with packet
switching is quite a major upgrade. However, as we shall see later, the GPRS
standard is delivered in a very elegant manner- with network operators needing
only to add a couple of new infrastructure nodes and making a software upgrade
to some existing network elements.

With GPRS, the information is split into separate but related "packets" before
being transmitted and reassembled at the receiving end. Packet switching is
similar to a jigsaw puzzle- the image that the puzzle represents is divided into
pieces at the manufacturing factory and put into a plastic bag. During
transportation of the now boxed jigsaw from the factory to the end user, the
pieces get jumbled up. When the recipient empties the bag with all the pieces,
they are reassembled to form the original image. All the pieces are all related and
fit together, but the way they are transported and assembled varies. The Internet
itself is another example of a packet data network, the most famous of many
such network types.

      Spectrum Efficiency

Packet switching means that GPRS radio resources are used only when users
are actually sending or receiving data. Rather than dedicating a radio channel to
a mobile data user for a fixed period of time, the available radio resource can be
concurrently shared between several users. This efficient use of scarce radio
resources means that large numbers of GPRS users can potentially share the
same bandwidth and be served from a single cell. The actual number of users
supported depends on the application being used and how much data is being
transferred. Because of the spectrum efficiency of GPRS, there is less need to
build in idle capacity that is only used in peak hours. GPRS therefore lets
network operators maximize the use of their network resources in a dynamic and
flexible way, along with user access to resources and revenues.

GPRS should improve the peak time capacity of a GSM network since it
simultaneously: allocates scarce radio resources more efficiently by supporting
virtual connectivity imigrates traffic that was previously sent using Circuit
Switched Data to GPRS instead, and reduces SMS Center and signalling
channel loading by migrating some traffic that previously was sent using SMS to
GPRS instead using the GPRS/ SMS interconnect that is supported by the
GPRS standards.

      Internet Aware
For the first time, GPRS fully enables Mobile Internet functionality by allowing
interworking between the existing Internet and the new GPRS network. Any
service that is used over the fixed Internet today- File Transfer Protocol (FTP),
web browsing, chat, email, telnet- will be as available over the mobile network
because of GPRS. In fact, many network operators are considering the
opportunity to use GPRS to help become wireless Internet Service Providers in
their own right.

The World Wide Web is becoming the primary communications interface- people
access the Internet for entertainment and information collection, the intranet for
accessing company information and connecting with colleagues and the extranet
for accessing customers and suppliers. These are all derivatives of the World
Wide Web aimed at connecting different communities of interest. There is a trend
away from storing information locally in specific software packages on PCs to
remotely on the Internet. When you want to check your schedule or contacts,
instead of using something like "Act!", you go onto the Internet site such as a
portal. Hence, web browsing is a very important application for GPRS.

Because it uses the same protocols, the GPRS network can be viewed as a sub-
network of the Internet with GPRS capable mobile phones being viewed as
mobile hosts. This means that each GPRS terminal can potentially have its own
IP address and will be addressable as such.

      Supports TDMA And GSM

It should be noted right that the General Packet Radio Service is not only a
service designed to be deployed on mobile networks that are based on the GSM
digital mobile phone standard. The IS-136 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
standard, popular in North and South America, will also support GPRS. This
follows an agreement to follow the same evolution path towards third generation
mobile phone networks concluded in early 1999 by the industry associations that
support these two network types.

Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (EDGE)
EDGE is a radio based high-speed mobile data standard. EDGE was first
proposed to ETSI in the beginning of 1997, as a means of evolving GSM. EDGE
reuses the GSM carrier band- width and time-slot structure and provides an
efficient way of increasing bit rates, there- by facilitating the evolution of existing
cellular systems toward third-generation capabilities.
The future of the current GPRS technology is EDGE, which was initially
trumpeted as being three times faster than GPRS, giving a theoretical top speed
of 384 Kbit/s. But GPRS only manages 50 Kbit/s, so realistically Edge will
probably be closer to 150 Kbit/s. GPRS is based on a modulation technique
known as Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK). EDGE is based on a new
modulation scheme that allows a much higher bit rate across the air interface-
this is called eight-phase-shift keying (8 PSK) modulation. Since 8 PSK will also
be used for UMTS, network operators will need to incorporate it at some stage to
make the transition to third generation mobile phone systems.
EDGE can be thought as the next upgrade step to GSM operators that are using
GPRS. One of the great strengths of Ericsson´s EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for
Global Evolution) solution is that it leverages the fusion of all the best aspects of
the two leading standards: TDMA and GSM. For the first time, it will converge
TDMA and GSM standards to evolve a common third generation network. A
network that ultimately will provide seamless roaming for voice and data between
TDMA and GSM via the same terminal.

Implementation of EDGE by network operators has been designed to be simple.
Only one EDGE transceiver unit will need to be added to each cell. The new
EDGE capable transceiver can also handle standard GSM traffic and will
automatically switch to EDGE mode when needed. EDGE capable terminals will
also be needed since the existing mobile phone or terminals do not support the
new modulation techniques and will need to be upgraded to use EDGE network
functionality. EDGE provides the most cost-effective means to provide IP-based
multimedia services and applications within existing spectrum. The advantages
of EDGE include rapid availability, the reuse of existing GSM and TDMA
infrastructure, and support for gradual introduction. In addition, it allows the full
advantages of GPRS to be explored, with fast connection set-up, higher
bandwidth, and data rates as high as 384 Kbps.


It looks like the road to third generation mobile systems has already begun. For
some time there was a great confusion on the standards that are going to
support enhanced GSM services. It is not clear yet as to what will be the final
solution but there are some indications of the most powerful candidates.
The ITU has put together a project that will bring 3G technologies together and
create a set of de facto standards. This project is the IMT-2000.
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) are third generation
mobile systems which are scheduled to start service around the year 2000
subject to market considerations.
The picture shows the how IMT-2000 will accomplish such a goal.


cdma2000 is a 3G Radio Transmission Technology (RTT) proposal submitted by
TIA[1]. TR45.5 subcommittee of TIA developed the cdma2000 proposal. 2G
CDMA standards i.e. IS-95 family of standards is also developed and maintained
by the same group. The latest version of IS-95 is IS-95B. IS-95 based systems
have been developed and deployed in the USA and around the world except for
the European countries. cdma2000 is designed to be backward compatible with
IS-95B. This ensures reuse of most of IS-95 and related standards, graceful
evolution to third generation systems from 2G systems and protection of
investments of 2G systems operators. cdma2000 builds on top of the IS-95
channel structure. cdma2000 provides two deployment options. One of them is
Multi-Carrier configuration where available bandwidth is divided into N 1.2288
MHz carriers. The user data is demultiplexed and spread on to N separate
channels. This allows IS-95 and cdma2000 systems to co-exist in
overlay/underlay configuration. Multi-Carrier option is supported only in the
forward direction. The other deployment configuration is Direct Spreading (DS)
option where the user data is spread over the entire bandwidth.
There are several new features in cdma2000 compared to IS-95B. cdma2000
enhances supplemental channel to support high data rate requirements (up to 2
Mbps) of IMT-2000. It introduces dedicated and common control channels to
provide efficient packet data service.
Variable length walsh codes (from 4 bits to 1024 bits in length) are used for
spreading on supplemental channel to support various information rates. In
addition to fast reverse link closed loop power control, cdma2000 provides fast
forward link closed loop power control.
Dedicated and common auxiliary pilot channels are introduced to take advantage
of smart antennas. Smart antennas have the ability to provide coverage directed
at specific geographical areas or mobile stations.


W-CDMA is an RTT proposal submitted by ETSI[2]. It is developed by SMG2
working group of ETSI. It is a radio interface of choice for Universal Mobile
Telecommunication System (UMTS). UMTS is a forum under which ETSI, and
European companies are developing specifications for 3G systems. UMTS is the
successor to the 2G GSM systems. SMG2 is also responsible for development of
Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) radio interface for 2G systems.
GSM systems are deployed in Europe and around the world with a small
presence in the USA.
The 2G GSM radio interface is based on TDMA technology. W-CDMA represents
a significant change in 3G systems. W-CDMA is not designed to be backward
compatible with GSM air interface. However, handoffs between UMTS and GSM
systems are supported.
There are several new features in W-CDMA. W-CDMA supports high data rate
requirements of IMT-2000. Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes
are supported to provide variable data rates. W-CDMA supports asynchronous
mode of operation where reception and transmission timings of different cell sites
are not synchronized. It supports fast cell acquisition when a mobile initially
powers up. It also supports forward and reverse fast closed loop power
control operation.


In this section, we will analyze the similarities and differences between the two
RTT proposals. Our analysis is presented based on the following categories:

Categories for analysis of details
         CATEGORY                               DETAILS
Bandwidth and Data Rates               Channel bandwidths, Data rates,
                                       Spread rates
Deployment configuration               Deployment configuration in reverse
                                       and forward direction
Pilot channel and system acquisition   Code based and Time multiplexed
                                       Pilot channel,
                                       continuous vs. discontinuous pilots,
                                       common, dedicated and auxiliary pilots,
                                       system acquisition differences
Synchronous/Asynchrounous mode of      Inter-cell synchrounization
operations                             requirements, impact on handoffs,
                                       timing issues
Channel and frame structures           Logical and physical channels, frame
                                       sizes and content structures
Cell and users identifications codes   PN, walsh, OVSF, cell specific
                                       scrambling, preamble and gold codes
Power control and handoffs             Open loop, closed loop power control
                                       schemes, hard, soft and softer handoff
                                       comparison, inter-technology and inter-
                                       generation(2G and 3G)handoffs
Data services support                  Packet and circuit data, multimedia
                                       support, MAC control states, LAC layer
                                       support, Qos mechanism
Smart antenna applications             Beam forming, adaptive steering
                                       application, dedicated and auxiliary
Other areas                            Diversity mechanisms-Orthogonal
                                       tansmit and multi-carrier transmit
     Bandwidth and Data rates
The bandwidths and spreading rates for cdma2000 are given in table 2. The
supported bandwidths are 1.25 MHz, 3.75 MHz, 7.5 MHz, 11.25 MHz and 15
MHz. cdma2000 uses a base spreading rate of of 1.2288 MHz. The spreading
rates are 1.2288 * N Mcps. The value on N can be 1, 3, 7, 9 and 11. The
spreading rates are defined as multiple of 1.2288 Mcps to ensure backward
compatibility with IS-95B.

         Bandwidth                            Spreading Rates
           (Mhz)                                 (Mcps)
             1.25                                  1.2288
             3.75                                  3.6864
             7.5                                    7.3278
             11.5                                   11.0952
             15                                      14.0456

The bandwidths and spreading rates for W-CDMA are given in table. The
supported bandwidths are 5, 10 and 20 MHz. W-CDMA uses a base spreading
rate of 4.096 MHz. The spreading rates are in multiples of 4.096 Mcps. Unlike
cdma2000, W-CDMA is not burdened by requirements of backward compatibility
with a 2G CDMA technology.

          Bandwidth                             Spreading Rates
            (Mhz)                                   (Mcps)
              5                                    4.096
                10                                      8.192
                15                                     16.384

      Deployment Configurations

Cdma2000 RTT supports two different deployment configurations; one
configuration is a Multi-Carrier (MC) based approach and the other one is the
Direct Spread (DS) approach. In the forward link, i.e. in the direction of
transmission from the base station to mobile stations, both the MC and DS
configurations are defined and supported by cdma2000. However, in the reverse
direction i.e. transmission from the mobile stations to the base station only DS is
defined and supported. In Multi-Carrier (MC) configurations, the available
bandwidth is divided into multiple carriers of 1.25 MHz each to carry data over
the air. Each carrier supports a chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps to transport data over
the air. MC configuration has been designed in the cdma2000 to provide a
graceful evolution from IS-95B 2G systems to cdma2000 3G systems. In that
case, backward compatibility with IS-95B systems is required. For example,
Multi-carrier systems may be used to deploy as an overlay configuration. In this
configuration, we can set up systems to provide IS-95B and cdma2000 services
simultaneously to mobile stations. This means that we can deploy cdma2000
services without needing a clear spectrum for deployment. Both IS-95B and
cdma2000 subscribers are supported over the same frequency channel.
Moreover, an overlay configuration allows IS-95B system may share its pilot
channel with a cdma2000 system. It is also possible to share paging channels
and provide service in a cooperative manner between the IS-95B and cdma2000
cdma2000 supports Direct Spread (DS) configuration in both the forward and
reverse links. The chip rates supported are at 1.2288N where N = 1,3,6,9,12. In
DS configuration, transmission is done using a single carrier with appropriate
bandwidth to carry the spread signal at the rate of 1.2288N Mcps. Note that for
both the MC and DS configurations, a guard band of 1.25/2MHz (0.625MHz) is
provided on both sides. In the forward link, cdma2000 DS configuration may be
used in environments where there are no constraints of backward compatibility
and clear spectrum for the bandwidth desired is available.
W-CDMA supports only Direct Spread (DS) configuration in both the forward and
reverse links. Again, this is because W-CDMA does not have any
backward compatibility constraints.

      Pilot channels
Pilot channels, in general, are used to provide a reference signal to receivers.
Receivers derive timing and phase information from pilot signal, which helps in
coherent demodulation of user signals. cdma2000 employs a common pilot
channel in forward direction that is shared by all mobiles as shown in the figure
below. . This cdma2000 pilot channel is a code-multiplexed channel using Walsh
codes for orthogonal spreading. Common pilot channel provides all the mobiles
with a reference signal for channel estimation and a timing reference. The pilot
channel is also used for system acquisition. In the reverse direction cdma2000,
uses time multiplexed pilot signals which are dedicated to each user.

In WCDMA, pilots are time multiplexed signals that are part of traffic and
overhead channels in both directions. Therefore, W-CDMA pilots are dedicated
channels. As shown in the figure below, each traffic frame contains certain
number of pilot bits. Unlike cdma2000, Pilots are discontinuous waveform signals
in WCDMA. W-CDMA uses pilot channel for channel estimation and coherent
demodulation in both directions. Since, pilots are dedicated, they cannot be used
for system acquisition. The system acquisition in W-CDMA is performed using
synchronization channel.
      System acquisition
System acquisition in cdma2000 is performed using pilot and sync channel.
All cdma2000 base stations transmit the pilot contents over the air using QPSK
modulation. First, QPSK modulation is applied to the pilot sequence of 0’s. The
QPSK components, the In-phase and Quadrature components, are separately
spread using Walsh code 0. The resulting sequence (which is again a sequence
of 0’s) is then complex PN spread using two PN sequences. The two PN
sequences are the same ones used in IS-95B and have a period of 26.66 msec
i.e. 32768 or 2 15 chips.
Mobile stations acquire a base station by searching for forward common pilot
channels. One way to search is to locally guess or generate the short PN
sequence and correlate it with received signal. Mobile chooses the signal with
the highest correlation value, i.e. the base station with the strongest signal. When
a match is found, mobile continues the PN sequence generation and continually
verifies it. When mobile concludes that it has acquired a base station, it only
means that the mobile station has found a pilot of a base station. No other
information could be deduced at this point.
Sync channel demodulation follows system acquisition. Sync channel uses
Walsh code 32 for orthogonal spreading. Sync channel parameters message
contains information about system time, PN offset used and the long code state
value to be used. Mobile station sets the long code state to the received long
code state value. Mobile station then aligns its time with the base station. Mobile
is now ready to demodulate the paging channel. System acquisition in WCDMA
is performed using synchronization channel and primary common control
physical channel which carries Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). The BCCH
carries system and base station related configuration information.
WCDMA mobile stations acquire the system using the following procedure:
1. Mobile station searches for the base station to which it has the least path loss.
This is done by looking for the primary SCH code which is the same for all base
stations. Mobile station has now acquired slot synchronization
2. Next the mobile station looks for the secondary synchronization channel
sequence used by monitoring the secondary SCH and matching it to the 32
possible sequences. This identifies which of 32 scrambling code groups are used
3. Mobile station does symbol-by-symbol correlation to determine the exact
scrambling code used by the cell. Now the mobile station has acquired the
system and is ready to receive system information on the primary
common control channel.

     Synchronous vs. Asynchronous cells
cdma2000 employs synchronous mode of operation . The synchronous operation
means the transmission and reception timings of cell sites are synchronized. All
cdma2000 cell sites use single common timing source such as Global Positioning
System (GPS). All cell sites transmit a Pseudo Random (PN) sequence of length
2 15 -1 chips with a period of 26.67 milliseconds. The transmission of this
sequence in different cell sites is offset in multiples of 64 chips. These timing
offsets, known as pilot PN offsets, distinguish one cell site from another. Tight
synchronization between different cell sites assists in soft handoff. The mobile
can measure the timing and signal strength differences between its current
reference cell and candidate cells in terms of 64 chips. This measurement is
reported to the network to assist in making decisions on whether to add cells into
soft handoff.
However, dependence on common source for synchronization can result in a
single point of failure. The loss of that source may make entire system
unavailable for service.

W-CDMA employs asynchronous mode of operation as. In other words,
transmission and reception timings of different cell sites need not be
synchronized. Each cell site transmits cell-specific scrambling code sequence.
This is different from cdma2000 where same scrambling code is transmitted in all
cells with different time offsets. Scrambling code uniquely identifies a cell site.
The scrambling codes are 40,960 chips in length. They are transmitted with a
period of 10msec. The asynchronous mode of operation
avoids having a single point of failure.
     Channel Structure
The cdma2000 channel structure is derived from IS-95B. Additional channels are
provided to support high rate data and multimedia services.. cdma2000 channels
can be divided into common and dedicated channels. Common channels are
point to multipoint channels between base station and multiple mobile stations
used in shared access mode. The pilot, sync, paging and access channels are
common channels derived from IS-95B. The functionality of pilot and sync
channels is described in system acquisition section. The paging channel is used
in forward direction (from base station to mobile station) to carry system wide and
mobile specific information when mobile is not in a call. For example, system
wide information such as number of paging channels is sent on paging channel.
Mobile specific messages such as the paging message required to initiate a
mobile terminated call is also sent on paging channel. Access channels
correspond to paging channels in the reverse direction. Access channels are
uncoordinated, shared channels used by the mobile stations to communicate
with the base station while not on a call. Access channels are typically used to
originate call requests or respond to page messages received from base
stations. In addition to these channels, cdma2000 defines common control
channel. Common control channel has been introduced for data services. It
carries short user bursts, MAC signaling for packet and other data services.

Dedicated channels are point to point channels between base station and a
single mobile station carry innformation dedicated to single user. cdma2000
defines fundamental and supplemental channels to carry information related to
user services. The fundamental and supplemental channels are derived from IS-
95B. However, different coding and modulation techniques are used in
cdma2000. The fundamental channel is transmitted at variable rate as in
IS-95B and requires blind detection at the receiver. Therefore it suited for voice
services. It is also used for low rate data services. The data rates on fundamental
channel is limited to 14.4 kbps. Fundamental channel supports rate set 1 (9.6,
4.8, 2.4 and 1.2 kbps) and rate set 2 (14.4, 7.2, 3.6 and 1.8 kbps). Different rates
are used based on voice activity. Fundamental channel supports 5 and 20 msec
frame sizes. The fundamental channels use fixed walsh code length.
Supplemental channels in both directions are similar to IS-95B supplemental
channels. Supplemental channels support data rates from 1.2kbps to more than
2Mbps. cdma2000 specifies supplemental channel as a way of meeting IMT-
2000 high rate data rate services requirements. Supplemental channel can be
operated in two modes. In the first mode, supplemental channel supports Rate
Set 1 and Rate Set 2. in variable rate mode. It can carry voice and low rate data
in this mode. In the second mode, supplemental channel supports data rates
higher than 14.4 kbps. The data rates can go upto 2 Mbps. However, in the
second mode, supplemental channel does not operate in variable rate mode and
does not require blind detection at the receiver. The data rate must be explicitly
negotiated between base station and mobile station and any change must be
renegotiated. In both modes, supplemental channels support only 20msec
frames. The supplemental channel supports different walsh code lengths. This is
required to support various rates as specified in IMT-2000.
In addition to these channels, cdma2000 defines dedicated control channel. It
carries upper layer signaling, MAC signaling and short user bursts. Dedicated
control channel has several purposes. It can carry short user bursts for data
services. It can be used in association with fundamental channel carrying
signaling and power control information. Thus fundamental channel carries only
voice information providing high quality voice services. Dedicated control channel
can also be used in association with supplemental channel carrying power
control and link continuity information. This is useful for high rate data services
configuration and eliminates the need for fundamental channel.
W-CDMA channel structure is very simple one. As with cdma2000, channels can
be classified as common and dedicated channels. There are four common
channels in W-CDMA. They are Broadcast control channel (BCCH), Paging
Channel (PCH), Forward Access Channel (FACH) and reverse Random Access
Channel (RACH). The BCCH is defined in forward direction. It carries system
wide and cell specific information. After mobile powers up and synchronizes with
the system, it tunes to BCCH to obtain system configuration. The paging channel
is used to carry control information to a mobile station when the base station
does not know the location of mobile in the cell. The forward access channel is
used in forward direction. It carries control information and short user packets
when base station knows the location of the mobile in the cell. It may be used for
directed coverage by smart antenna beam-forming applications. The reverse
random access channel is similar to access channel in cdma2000. As in
cdma2000, it is accessed by multiple mobile stations in un-coordinated shared
access mode. It is typically used to carry control information. All the common
channels in W-CDMA use frame size of 10 msec.
W-CDMA defines only one dedicated channel It is known as Dedicated Channel
(DCH). W-CDMA specifies DCH as a way of meeting IMT-2000 high rate data
rate requirements It supports data rate of upto 2 Mb/s. Unlike fundamental
channel or supplemental channel, the DCH does not operate in variable rate
mode and does not require any blind detection at the receiver. The data rates
must be explicitly negotiated and any changes must be renegotiated. The DCH
supports variable rate OVSF codes which are described in next section. This is
required to support different data rates required by IMT-2000.

Frame Sizes
Layer 3 signaling and user traffic is carried in 20 msec frames in cdma2000 In
addition, cdma2000 employs 5 msec frames to carry MAC signaling. Longer
frame sizes improve time diversity as interleaving and sequence repetition is
done over the entire frame span. This improves the error performance. Thus,
longer 20 msec frames are used for voice and data services. Shorter frame
length reduces the total delay which is required for voice and MAC signaling.
One of the applications of MAC signaling is faster reassignment of traffic
channels. This is typically used in packet data services. Packet data services are
characterized by discontinuous traffic with short bursts of high activity interleaved
with periods of idle time. Since idle times are usually high compared to burst
times, radio channel usage can be inefficient. Traffic channels are
deallocated during idle periods. When user has traffic to send, fast assignment of
traffic channel is done using MAC signaling.
. On the other hand, W-CDMA uses a frame size of 10 msec for Layer 3
signaling, user traffic and MAC signaling. The choice of one frame size allows for
simplicity and ease of implementation. It is a compromise between better error
performance requirements of voice and data services and low delay
requirements of voice and MAC signaling.
Channelization codes
Channelization codes are required to distinguish channels ( discussed in
previous section ) in both directions. cdma2000 uses Walsh codes to differentiate
between channels in the forward link. Walsh codes are orthogonal codes.
Channels are spread using appropriate length codes based on the data rate
supported on the channel. All the forward link channels within a cell/sector are
separated using Walsh codes.
Walsh codes are unique not just within channels of same user, but across
different users in the same cell.
The network controls Walsh code allocation for forward link channels. On reverse
link also, cdma2000 uses walsh codes to differentiate between channels.
However, unlike in forward link, walsh codes only distinguish channels from
same user. In other words, channels from different users may use the same
walsh code. User separation on reverse link is achived by user specific PN codes
discussed in the next section.
W-CDMA uses Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes for channel
separation in the forward link. OVSF codes are similar to Walsh codes and the
length of code used for a channel is dependent upon the channel’s data rate. The
network controls OVSF allocation for forward link channels. On reverse link also,
WCDMA uses OVSF codes to differentiate between channels. Similar to
cdma2000, OVSF codes only distinguish channels from same user. User
separation on reverse link is achieved by user specific scrambling codes as
discussed in the next section.

Cell and User separation codes
Cell separation codes are required to identify transmission from different cells in
forward direction. In cdma2000, cell separation is performed by two PN
sequences of length 2 15 –1 chips, one for I channel and another for Q channel.
These sequences have a duration of 26.67 msec. Same sequences are used in
all cells. However, transmission of these sequences in different cells is offset in
multiples of 64 chips. These offsets are called PN offsets. Each cell uses a
unique PN offset to distinguish its transmission from its neighboring cells.
In W-CDMA, cell separation is achieved by gold sequences (called as scrambling
codes) . Unlike cdma2000, each cell uses a different gold sequence to identify its
transmission uniquely. These sequences have a length of 40,960 chips and a
duration of 10 msec. User separation codes are required to identify transmission
from different users in the reverse link.
In cdma2000 long PN code of length 2 42 -1 are used to distinguish different
users in the reverse direction.
Again, the same long code is used by all the users in all cells. However, the
transmission from different users is offset by different number of bits. This offset
is achieved by using Electronic Serial Number (ESN)
which is unique to each user.

In WCDMA, either short or long scrambling codes are used to distinguish users
in reverse direction. Short codes are very large kasami codes of length 256 while
long codes are gold sequences of length 2 42 .

Power Control
Both cdma2000 and W-CDMA use reverse open loop power control and bi-
directional closed loop power control. In open loop power control, the mobile
estimates transmit power based on received power in forward direction. This is
based on the assumption that the path loss is equal in both forward and reverse
direction. Open loop power control is used when mobile is initially accessing the
The closed loop power control is based on feed back scheme. The receiver
instructs to the sender either to increase or decrease transmit power based on
received power. The sender then adjusts the transmit power. The instructions are
one bit up/down commands. These are called power control commands. Both,
cdma2000 and W-CDMA employs closed loop power control in forward and
reverse direction. However, the difference is in the rate of power control
commands. In cdma2000, power control commands are sent at the rate of 800
bits/second whereas in W-CDMA power control
commands are sent at the rate of 1,600 bits/second.

cdma2000 supports both soft and softer handoffs. In soft handoff, mobile
measures the pilot strength from
candidate base stations. The measurements are reported to network through
current source base station. Please note the cdma2000 uses synchronous cells
in which case the transmissions from different base stations is time offset in
multiples of 64 chips. Therefore, mobile can measure signal strength once every
64 chip time period or multiple of 64 chip time period. Thus, the measurement
becomes simpler. The measurements are associated with timing offsets in
multiples of 64 chips from the current source base station. The network can infer
base station identity from the timing offsets. It uses measurements to add or
delete base stations to soft handoff. Once base stations are added to soft
handoff, they begin to transmit towards mobile. The transmissions from different
base stations arrive at mobile stations at different time offsets which is again in
multiple of 64 chips. The mobile coherently combines signals from different base
stations. In the reverse direction the transmission from the mobile is received by
all base stations involved in soft handoff. After demodulation, the base stations
send frames to a centralized location in the network. Among these frames, the
best frame is selected and used.
W-CDMA also supports soft and softer handoff. The soft handoff mechanism has
many similarities to soft handoff mechanisms in cdma2000. However, there are
many differences. As in cdma2000, the mobile measures signal strength from
different base stations. But W-CDMA uses asynchronous cells where
transmissions from different base stations are not coordinated. The mobile must
estimate the timing offset between current base station and the target base
station. It reports the estimated timing offset for candidate base stations to
network through the current base station. The network adds the target base
station to the soft handoff and informs it off the timing offset. The target base
station uses the timing offset to adjust the
transmission on downlink. The adjustment is done in steps of 256 chips to
maintain orthogonality. Thus,
mobile receives transmissions from different base stations at approximately
same time instant. This is different from cdma2000 where the transmissions from
different base stations are time offset in multiples of 64 chips. The mobile uses
maximal ratio combining to combine signals from different base stations. In
reverse direction, the transmission from mobile station is received.
In addition, both cdma2000 and W-CDMA support inter-frequency handoffs.
cdma2000 also supports handoffs from cdma2000 system to IS-95B system and
vice versa. The W-CDMA supports handoffs from W-CDMA system to GSM
system and vice versa.
Smart antenna applications
Smart antenna applications provide for beam forming covering portions of
cells/sectors or adaptive beams directed at a single mobile station. Such
applications provide for enhanced coverage in hot spots such as sports arenas
and high propagation loss areas or increase the data rate for high speed
As discussed earlier, cdma2000 uses common pilot channel applied to entire
cell. However, beam forming
is applied to cover a smaller portion of a cell. Therefore, the receivers would
require an additional dedicated pilot for reliable channel estimation for beam
forming application. Channel estimations will not be accurate if the reference pilot
traverses a different path compared to the data signal. Thus, cdma2000 supports
additional auxiliary pilots dedicated to one or group of mobiles in an area.
Auxiliary pilots use a different Walsh code for spreading to differentiate it from
common pilot. In order to conserve number of walsh codes, cdma2000 uses
expanded walsh codes on auxiliary pilot channels.
In W-CDMA, pilots are time multiplexed and dedicated to each mobile station.
Therefore, in order to support adaptive beam steering applications, no additional
pilots are necessary. However, W-CDMA does not have a way to support
common pilot for hot spot areas like cdma2000

Wireless vs. Fixed
In recent years a wide variety of wireless equipment has become available
commercially. At first big antennas and stations were needed to transmit and
receive data signals. The wireless technology has advanced dramatically making
small devices capable of transmitting data at high data rates with little power
consumption. The size and the cost of the devices and stations have been
reduced dramatically as well. Making the use of wireless products more
widespread. Wireless communications can be used to provide broadband
services between a communications provider equipment to the end user without
having to install new cabling. Speeds up to 10Mbps can be accomplished in short
range (up to 90ft) and up to 860 Kbps (max. distance 800ft).
Cellular technology, which was originally developed to carry voice, has been
adapted to carry data as well.
For short-range connectivity and in-house applications the new gadget is called
Bluetooth. Bluetooth is a very small chip that can be fitted in almost every
handheld device providing with the ability to communicate with other devices with
speeds up o 2 Mbps.
The Ericcson R520 WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) phone will support both
GPRS and HSCSD and it will have a Bluetooth chip as well.
But others question why the world needs five different 3G standards. With 2.5G --
a necessary evil in the move to 3G -- there are going to be a huge number of
standards that need to be supported.
"Handsets are going to need to support multiple standards, so an average
handset will have to support GSM, GPRS, Edge [a 2.5G standard] and HSCSD
[the 2.5G standard endorsed by Orange]," says Russell Inman, 3G system
design manager for infrastructure provider Crown Castle. "This plethora of
standards places quite a demand on manufacturers," he says.
However rocky the journey to 3G there is one thing all the experts agree on -- it is
going to be huge.


The future mobile network seems to be worth waiting. The functionality that
provides is amazing, bringing rich multimedia content into our hands and at the
same time giving the flexibility to the user to go anywhere and have access to
any information needed.
There are however some potential problems. Providers in Europe have already
invested millions just to buy 3G licenses and are expected to spend more than
$300 billion to bring together the mobile phone and the Internet. There is a
certain risk involved in such a move. The problem is not so great in Asia, Japan
and South Korea where they have been given their licenses for free.
Many of the expectations might not fulfill.
The operators hope that 3G mobile phones will attract a large number of
customers willing to pay for the extra capacity of 3G. Still there are a lot of details
to be refined and a strong collaboration must exist among the various players of
the mobile industry.
It seems likely that third-generation phones be available sometime in 2002 to
coincide with the completion of the UMTS networks.
The wireless road ahead won't be an instant bonanza for just anyone, however.
"There will be some spectacular failures, and some spectacular successes,"

To top