The Policy of Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority

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					                raCbNÐit sPakm<úCa
                     




eKalneya)ayrdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj
The Policy of Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority

             \riy abfGtifiCn
               Customer Behavior
                 ¬1996-20 0 2¦
                      1996-2002

                   sarNabBa©b;
              fñak;briBaØab½RtCan;x<s ;
                nis Sit ³ eFOn sut ßa
          sa®sþacarüdwk naM ³ bNÐit can; sav arI
            fñak;briBaØab½RtCan;x<s ; CMn an;T I 1
              muxCMn aj v iT üasaRsþesdæk ic©
              karBarenA Ex kkád a 20 0 2
                 raCbNÐit sPakm<úCa
                        




eKalneya)ayrdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj
The Policy of Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority

             \riy abfGtifiCn
               Customer Behavior
                 ¬1996-20 0 2¦
                      1996-2002

                     sarNabBa©b;
                fñak;briBaØab½RtCan;x<s ;
                  nis Sit ³ eFOn sut ßa
             fñak;briBaØab½RtCan;x<s; CMn an;T I 1
               muxCMn aj v iT üasaRsþesdæk ic©
                       KN³emRbeyaK
                bNÐit   RBMu eTv I
                bNÐit   eTB sUr:n
                bNÐit   can; sav arI
                bNÐit   h‘an sahIub
                bNÐit   eqg v NÑariT §
               karBarenA Ex kkád a 20 0 2

                                                     I
                            ]TÞis sñaéd
sUm]TÞissñaédenHCUncMeBaHsMlaj; bu‘t b¤T§I nigRBlwgbuBVbursExµrTaMgGs; .




                                                                           II
                               esckIþEføgGMN rKuN
     kñúgnamCanisiStfañk;briBaØabR½tCan;x<s; CMnan;TI 1 EpñkviTüasaRsþesdækic© énraCbNiÐt
sPakm<úCa sUmEføgGMNrKuNnwgdwgKuNya:gRCaleRCAcMeBaH ³
         -RBHkruNaRBH)aTsemþc RBHneratþm sIhnu RBHmhakSRt énRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa
EdlCanic©kalRBHGgÁEtgEtsBVRBHraCh¤T½ydl;karbNþúHbNþalFnFanmnusSRKb;RsTab;.
         -semþc h‘un Esn naykrdæm®nþIénraCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa nig CaRbFankitþiysénraCbNÐit
raCbNÐitsPakm<úCa Edl)anpþl;nnUvkarKaMRTdl;karbNþúHbNþalFnFanmnusSkMritx<s;enHGs;
BIkMlaMgkaycitþ.
         -Ék]tþm sux Gan eTsrdæm®nþI nig Cardæm®nþITTYlbnÞúkTIsþIkarKN³rdæm®nþI nig
CaTIRbwkSaCan;x<s;énraCbNÐitsPakm<úCa Edl)anbgálkçN³gayRsYldl;Epñkrdæ)al nig Epñk
hirBaØvtßúdl;raCbNÐitsPakm<úCasMrab;karbNþúHbNþalenH.
         -Ék]tþm bNÐit s‘n sMNag RbFanraCbNÐitsPakm<úCa EdlCanic©kalÉk]tþmEtgEt
enACitnwgnisSitCanic©kñúgkic©karRsavRCavfñak;briBaØabR½tCan;x<s;enH.
         -elakbNiÐt can; savarI EdlCasaRsþcarüdwknaM RBmTaMg bNiÐt eTB sUr:n bNiÐt RBuM
eTvI bNiÐit h‘an sahuIb bNÐit sM XgÞI nigbNiÐt eqg vNÑariT§ EdlCaKN³kmµkarEklMG
nigCYypþl;nUvKMnit eyabl;kñúgkarsikSaRsavRCav nigsresrsañédenH taMgBIeBlcab;epþImrhUt
)ansMercCarUbrag .
         -Ék]tþmGKÁnaykrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj Edl)anGnuBaØatieGay´)aT)aneFIVkar
RsavRCav elakRbFannaykdæanTaMg 5 Edl)anpþl;PaBgayRsYlkñúgkarCYbsMPasn_ k¾dUcCa
karesñIsuMÉksar . CaBiesselakRbFannaykdæanGaCIvkmµ Edl)ancMNayeBlevlad¾eRcIn
pþl;bTsMPasn_ nigCYypþl;CaÉksarsMxan;kñúgkarksagsñaédenH rYmCamYybuKÁlikTaMgGs; .
         -elak«Buk Gñkmþay Edl)anpþl;lT§PaBRKb;Ebby:agdl;kUnkñúgkarsikSataMgBIedIm
rhUtdl;sBVéf¶ nigbgb¥Ún mIg ma sac;jatiTaMgGs; Edl)anCYypþl;CasMPar³ nigkMlaMgcitþ .
CaBiess GñkCaTIRslaj;rbs;´ ¬Bin sMbUrN_¦ Edl)anpþl;CakMlaMgcitþdl;´RKb;eBlevla .
         -KN³kmµaFikarCatiedIm,IRbCaCn nigkarGPivDÆn_ Edl)anCYysMrYleGay´)aneRbI
R)as;kuMBüÚT½r nige)aHBum<Éksar .
         -GñkeRbIR)as;Twkrbs;rdæakrTwkTaMgGs;Edl)ancMNayeBlevlacUlrUmeqøIysMPasn_.
                                                                                      III
                                           Summary

                   The Policy of Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority
                                  Customer Behavior
                                      1996-2002

Introduction

CHAPTER 1: General Situation of Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority
I-General Nature of Public Enterprise -------------------------------------------------------6
    1-Economical Public Establishment -----------------------------------------------------7
    2-State Company---------------------------------------------------------------------------8
    3-Multi-Company --------------------------------------------------------------------------8
        3-1-Multi-Company Exist Much More Public Share ------------------------------8
        3-2-Multi-Company Exist Less Public Share --------------------------------------9
II-History of Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority ----------------------------------------9
    1-Water Company and France-Indochina Electricity (1895-1960) ------------------9
    2-Phnom Penh Water Supply (1960-1975) ------------------------------------------- 10
    3-Water Supply Authority in Kampuchea Democratic (1975-1979)--------------- 10
    4-Phnom Penh Water Supply (1979-1996) ------------------------------------------- 11
    5-Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority (1996-Present) ---------------------------- 11
III-Location of PPWSA --------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
IV-Administration Structure ---------------------------------------------------------------- 12
    1-Organization Chart -------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
    2-The Role and Duty ------------------------------------------------------------------- 13
        2-1-Department of Administration and Human Resources --------------------- 13
        2-2-Business Department ----------------------------------------------------------- 15
        2-3-Production Department -------------------------------------------------------- 17
        2-4-Accounting and Finance Department ---------------------------------------- 18
        2-5-Department of Technical and Project ---------------------------------------- 19
V-Finance Situation -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
    1-Investment Affair ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
        1-1-Expansion affair of Production Capacity ------------------------------------ 21
        1-2-Expansion of Distributive System -------------------------------------------- 22
    2-Finance -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23
VI-Technical Situation ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 23
    1-Work of Producing Water ------------------------------------------------------------ 23
    2-Control of Water Quality ------------------------------------------------------------- 24
        2-1-Control of Water Quality in Production System ---------------------------- 25
        2-2-Control of Water Quality in Distributive System --------------------------- 25
    3-Plumbing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26
VII-Training and Development ------------------------------------------------------------- 27
    1-In the Country Training --------------------------------------------------------------- 27
    2-Out the Country Training ------------------------------------------------------------- 28

CHAPTER 2: Management Strategy of PPWSA ----------------------------------------- 30
I-Strategy of Business Management ------------------------------------------------------- 30
    1-Staff Management --------------------------------------------------------------------- 31
        1-1-Working Hour------------------------------------------------------------------- 32
        1-2-Take Leave ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 33


                                                                                              IV
        1-3-Uniform and Material Maintenance ------------------------------------------ 33
        1-4-Working Manner --------------------------------------------------------------- 33
        1-5-New Staff Recruitment -------------------------------------------------------- 34
        1-6-Evaluating on Staff Work ----------------------------------------------------- 35
    2-Customer Management --------------------------------------------------------------- 35
II-Marketing Management ------------------------------------------------------------------ 39
    1-What is Marketing ?------------------------------------------------------------------- 39
        1-1-Advantage of Marketing ------------------------------------------------------- 40
        1-2-Marketing Function ------------------------------------------------------------ 41
    2-Marketing Strategy -------------------------------------------------------------------- 41
        2-1-Product Strategy ---------------------------------------------------------------- 42
        2-2-Price Strategy ------------------------------------------------------------------- 45
        2-3-Promotion Strategy ------------------------------------------------------------- 47
        2-4-Goods Distribution Strategy--------------------------------------------------- 50
    3-Customer Behavior -------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
        3-1-Difinition ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 53
        3-2-Kind of Customer--------------------------------------------------------------- 55
        3-3-Factor Affecting to Customer ------------------------------------------------- 55
    4-Process of Customer's Decision Buying -------------------------------------------- 66
        4-1-Problem Recognition ----------------------------------------------------------- 67
        4-2-Information Search ------------------------------------------------------------- 68
        4-3-Alternative Evaluation --------------------------------------------------------- 68
        4-4-Purchas Decision --------------------------------------------------------------- 69
        4-5-Postpurchase Behavior --------------------------------------------------------- 69
    5-Type of Decision ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 70
        5-1-Repeatedly Respondent Behavior -------------------------------------------- 70
        5-2-Limited Decision --------------------------------------------------------------- 70
        5-3-Extensive Decision ------------------------------------------------------------- 70
    6-Neccessity in Customer Satisfaction ------------------------------------------------ 71
III-Project and Destination of PPWSA ---------------------------------------------------- 71
    1-Institution and Human Resource Management ------------------------------------ 71
    2-Water Purification --------------------------------------------------------------------- 72
    3-Expansion of Distributive System --------------------------------------------------- 73
    4-Reduction of Losing Water----------------------------------------------------------- 73
    5-Business Activity ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 73
    6-Investment Work ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 74
    7-Finance and Logistic ------------------------------------------------------------------ 75

CHAPTER 3: PPWSA's Customer Behavior --------------------------------------------- 76
I-Research Method --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 76
    1-Questionnaire -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 76
    2-Interviewing ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 76
    3-Limitation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 77
II-Data Analysis ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 77
    1-Univariable ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 77
    2-Bivariable ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 77
    3-Multivariable --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78
    4-Program SPSS ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78
    5-Hypothesis ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78



                                                                                                V
III- Univariable Analysis -------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
     1-Demographics Data ------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
        1-1-Gender --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
        1-2-Numbers of Family Member -------------------------------------------------- 80
        1-3-Education ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 80
        1-4-Occupation ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 81
        1-5-Age ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 82
        1-6-Revenue ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 83
     2-Analysis on PPWSA' s Strategies --------------------------------------------------- 84
        2-1-Number of years Consuming the Direct Plumbing ------------------------- 84
        2-2-Water Volume Consumed by Customers ------------------------------------ 85
        2-3-Kind of Customers ------------------------------------------------------------- 86
        2-4-Problem's Encountered by Customers---------------------------------------- 87
        2-5-Information Obtained by Customers ----------------------------------------- 88
        2-6-Customer Requests ------------------------------------------------------------- 89
        2-7-Customer Understanding on Services ---------------------------------------- 90
        2-8-Customer Understanding on Quality ----------------------------------------- 91
        2-9-Customer Understanding on Water Price ------------------------------------ 91
        2-10-Customer Understanding on Connection Fee ------------------------------ 92
        2-11-Other Source Consumption -------------------------------------------------- 93
        2-12-Problem's Encounter at Counter --------------------------------------------- 94
        2-13-Advantage of Plumbing Expansion ----------------------------------------- 95
        2-14-Preriod of Payment ----------------------------------------------------------- 95
        2-15-Invoicing ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 96
        2-16-Problem During Plumbing Connection ------------------------------------- 97
     3-Customer Behavior Analysis --------------------------------------------------------- 95
        3-1-Leakage of Meter Counter Rear ---------------------------------------------- 98
        3-2-Retard Reason in Payment ---------------------------------------------------- 99
        3-3-Improving Consumption ------------------------------------------------------ 100
        3-4-Reason Improving Consumption -------------------------------------------- 100
IV-Bivariable Analysis --------------------------------------------------------------------- 101
     1-Amendment of Water Price --------------------------------------------------------- 101
     2-Revenue and Reason Consuming Direct Water Plumbing ---------------------- 102
     3-Occupation and Impact on Plumbing Expansion --------------------------------- 104
     4-Sex and Place of Payment ----------------------------------------------------------- 105
V-Multi Variable Analysis ----------------------------------------------------------------- 106
     1-Customer Behavior Analysis -------------------------------------------------------- 106
     2-Strategy Analysis --------------------------------------------------------------------- 107
     3-Relationship between Behavior and Strategy ------------------------------------- 109

Conclusion       ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 113
References
Annex




                                                                                                 VI
                                  matik a

]TÞis sñaéd ---------------------------------------------------------- II
karEføgGMN rKuN ----------------------------------------------------III
esckþIs egçb ------------------------------------------------------- IV
bBa¢IGtßbT --------------------------------------------------------VII
bBa¢IGkSrkat; ----------------------------------------------------- XIII
bBa¢It arag --------------------------------------------------------XIV
bBa¢Id üaRkam ------------------------------------------------------XVI
bBa¢I] bsm<½n § ----------------------------------------------------XVIII
lMn aMedIm ---------------------------------------------------------- 1
esckþIepþIm -------------------------------------------------------------2

                               CMBUk TI 1
                sßanPaBTUeTArbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj

I-lkçN ³TUeTArbs;s hRKassaFarN³--------------------------------- 6
    1-RKw³sßansaFarN³EdlmanlkçñN³esdækic© ------------------------------ 7
    2-Rkumh‘unrdæ ----------------------------------------------------- 8
    3-Rkumh‘uncMruH ---------------------------------------------------- 8
       3-1-Rkumh‘uncMruHmanPaKkmµsaFarN³PaKeRcIn ------------------------ 8
       3-2-Rkumh‘uncMruHmanPaKkmµsaFarN³PaKtic-------------------------- 9
II-Rbvtþirbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj --------------------------------- 9

    1-Rkumh‘unTwk nigGKÁisnI\NÐÚcin)araMg ¬1895-1960¦---------------------- 9
    2-rdæakrTwkPñMeBj ¬1960-1975¦ ------------------------------------ 9
    3-rdæakrTwkkñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü ¬1975-1979¦ -------------------10
                                                                          VII
    4-rdæakrTwkrdæFanIPñMeBj ¬1979-1996¦-------------------------------10
    5-rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ¬1996-bc©úb,nñ¦ ---------------------------11
III-TIt aMgPUm is aRsþ -------------------------------------------------11

IV-rcnasm<½n §rdæ) al -----------------------------------------------11

    1-GgÁkarelx----------------------------------------------------12
    2-tYnaTI nigParkic© ------------------------------------------------13
        2-1-naykdæanrdæ)al FnFanmnusS --------------------------------13
        2-2-naykdæanGaCIvkmµ -----------------------------------------15
        2-3-naykdæanplitkmµ nigpÁt;pÁg;Twk-------------------------------17
        2-4-naykdæanKNenyü nighirBaØvtßú -------------------------------18
        2-5-naykdæanbec©keTs nigKMerag---------------------------------19
V-sßanPaBEpñk hirBaØv tßú---------------------------------------------21

    1-kargarvinieyaK -------------------------------------------------21
        1-1-kargarBRgIksmtßPaBplitkmµ --------------------------------21
        1-2-kargarBRgIkRbB½n§Eckcay -----------------------------------22
    2-kargarhirBaØvtßú ------------------------------------------------23
VI-sßanPaBbec©k eTs ----------------------------------------------23

    1-kargarplitTwk -------------------------------------------------23
    2-karRtYtBinitüKuNPaBTwk ------------------------------------------24
        2-1-karRtYtBinitüKuNPaBTwkkñúgRbB½n§plitkmµ -----------------------25
        2-2-karRtYtBinitüKuNPaBTwkkñúgRbB½n§Eckcay -----------------------25
    3-kargarbNþaj -------------------------------------------------26
VII-kargarbNþúHbNþal nigGPiv DÆ ----------------------------------27

    1-bNþúHbNþalkñúgRbeTs-------------------------------------------27
    2-bNþúHbNþaleRkARbeTs ------------------------------------------28



                                                                         VIII
                                 CMBUk TI 2
           yuT §s aRsþénkarRKb;RKgrbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj

I-yuT §s aRsþénkarRKb;RKgGaCIv kmµ------------------------------------30
   1-karRKb;RKgbuKÁlik ----------------------------------------------30
       1-1-eBlevlaeFIVkar -------------------------------------------31
       1-2-karQb;sMrak ---------------------------------------------32
       1-3-ÉksNæan nigkarEfrkSa]bkrN_sMPar³ -------------------------32
       1-4-RkitRkmeFIVkargar----------------------------------------- 33
       1-5-kareRCIserIsbuKÁlikfµI -------------------------------------- 33
       1-6-karvaytMélelIkargarrbs;buKÁlik -----------------------------35
   2-karRKb;RKgGtifiCn----------------------------------------------35
II-karRKb;RKgkarEsVgyl;BIT Ip Sar ------------------------------------39

   1-etIGIVeTACakarEsVgyl;BITIpSar?-------------------------------------39
       1-1-plRbeyaCn_énkarEsVgyl;BITIpSar---------------------------- 40
       1-2-muxgarénkarEsVgyl;BITIpSar---------------------------------41
   2-yuT§saRsþénkarEsVgyl;BITIpSar------------------------------------41
       2-1-yuT§saRsþplitpl ----------------------------------------42
       2-2-yuT§saRsþéfø --------------------------------------------- 45
       2-3-yuT§saRsþpSBVpSay ----------------------------------------47
                §               i
       2-4-yuTsaRsþEbgEckTMnj-------------------------------------- 50
   3-\riyabfGtifiCn -----------------------------------------------53
       3-1-niymn½y------------------------------------------------53
       3-2-RbePTGtifiCn-------------------------------------------- 55
       3-3-ktþaEdlman\Ti§Bldl;GtifiCn ------------------------------- 55
   4-dMeNIrkarénkarsMerccitþTijrbs;GtifiCn ------------------------------66
       4-1-karTTYlsÁal;bBaða -----------------------------------------67
                                                                        IX
        4-2-karRsavRCavBt’man ----------------------------------------68
        4-3-karvaytMélCMerIs -----------------------------------------68
        4-4-karsMerccitþTij ------------------------------------------- 69
        4-5-\riyabfeRkayBIkarTij ------------------------------------- 69
    5-RbePTénkareFIVesckþIsMerccitþ --------------------------------------70
        5-1-\riyabfeqøIytbdEdl²-------------------------------------70
        5-2-kareFIVesckþIsMerccitþmanRBMEdn --------------------------------70
        5-3-karsMerccitþFMTUlay ---------------------------------------70
    6-PaBcaM)ac;kñúgkarbMeBjtMrUvcitþGtifiCn --------------------------------71
III-KMerag nigTis edArbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj ---------------------71

    1-kargarRKb;RKgsaßb½n nigFnFanmnusS --------------------------------71
    2-kargarplitTwks¥at ---------------------------------------------72
    3-karBRgIkRbB½n§EckcayTwk ----------------------------------------73
    4-karkat;bnßyTwk)at;bg; -------------------------------------------73
    5-kargarGaCIvkmµ -------------------------------------------------73
    6-kargarvinieyaK -------------------------------------------------74
    7-kargarhirBaØvtßú nigkarpÁt;pÁg;sMPar³ ----------------------------------75

                                CMBUk TI 3
                \riy afGtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj

I-viFIs aRsþRsavRCav -----------------------------------------------76
   1-kMrgsMNYr-----------------------------------------------------76
   2-karsMPasn_ ---------------------------------------------------76
   3-kMritkMNt; ----------------------------------------------------77
II-karviPaKTin ñn ½y -------------------------------------------------77

   1-karviPaKGefrmYy ----------------------------------------------77
                                                                              X
    2-karviPaKGefrBIr------------------------------------------------77
    3-karviPaKGefreRcIn ----------------------------------------------78
    4-kmµviFI SPSS ---------------------------------------------------78
    5-smµtikmµ ------------------------------------------------------78
III-karviPaKGefrmYy ----------------------------------------------- 79

    1-Tinñn½yRbCasaRsþ -----------------------------------------------79
       1-1-GMBIePT -------------------------------------------------79
       1-2-cMnYnsmaCikenAkñúgRKYsar------------------------------------ 80
       1-3-kMriténkarsikSa ------------------------------------------- 80
       1-4-sikSaGMBImuxrbr -------------------------------------------81
       1-5-karsikSaGMBIGayu ------------------------------------------82
       1-6-karsikSaGMBIR)ak;cMNUl -------------------------------------83
    2-karviPaKelIyuT§saRsþrbs;;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj --------------------- 84
       2-1-cMnYnqñaMEdl)aneRbITwkbNþajpÞal;------------------------------ 84
       2-2-brimaNTwkEdlGtifiCneRbI----------------------------------- 85
       2-3-RbePTGtifiCn--------------------------------------------86
       2-4-bBaðaEdlGtifiCn)anCYbRbTH ---------------------------------87
       2-5-Bt’manEdlGtifiCnTTYl)an----------------------------------88
       2-6-sMNUmBrrbs;GtifiCn--------------------------------------- 89
       2-7-karyl;eXIjrbs;GtifiCnelIesvakmµ --------------------------- 90
       2-8-karyl;eXIjrbs;GtifiCnelIKuNPaBTwk ------------------------91
       2-9-karyl;eXIjrbs;GtifiCnelItMélTwk ---------------------------91
       2-10-karyl;eXIjrbs;GtifiCnelIéføtbNþaj -----------------------92
       2-11-kareRbITwkBIRbPBepSg² -----------------------------------93
       2-12-bBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYbenAkEnøgbg;R)ak; ------------------------- 94
       2-13-KuNsm,tþiEdl)anBIkarBRgIkbNþaj-------------------------- 95
       2-14-ry³eBlEdlTukeGaybg; ---------------------------------- 95

                                                                             XI
      2-15-karecjvik½ybR½t ----------------------------------------- 96
      2-16-bBaðaeBltbNþaj----------------------------------------97
   3-karviPaKBI\riyabfGtifiCn ---------------------------------------- 98
      3-1-eBlmanTwkFøay b¤RCabeRkaynaLikasÞg;------------------------ 98
      3-2-mUlehtuEdlyWty:avkñúgkarbg;éføTwk --------------------------- 99
      3-3-karbegáInkareRbIR)as; --------------------------------------100
      3-4-mUlehtuEdlbegáInkareRbIR)as; -------------------------------100
IV-karviPaKGefrBIr -----------------------------------------------101

   1-karEkERbtMélTwk ----------------------------------------------101
   2-kMritR)ak;cMNUl nigmUlehtuénkarTij -------------------------------102
   3-muxrbr nigplb:HBal;eBleFIVkarBRgIkbNþaj -------------------------104
   4-ePT nigTIkEnøgcg;bg;R)ak; ----------------------------------------105
V-karviPaKGefreRcIn ----------------------------------------------106

   1-karviPaKBI\riyabfrbs;GtifiCn -----------------------------------106
   2-karviPaKBIyuT§saRsþ --------------------------------------------107
   3-karviPaKBITMnak;TMngrvag\riyabf nigyuT§saRsþ ------------------------109

esckþIs nñid æan --------------------------------------------------- 113
Knßn ieTÞs ------------------------------------------------------- 117
]bsm<½n § ------------------------------------------------------- 123
Bnül;Bakü -------------------------------------------------------191
kMENBaküxus ----------------------------------------------------192




                                                                         XII
                               bBa¢IGkSrkat;
PPWSA      : Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority
MPDF       : Mekong Project Development Facility
-d -       ³ dEdl
d> É> m>   ³ dUcÉksarmun.




                                                   XIII
                                   bBa¢It arag

eQµaHtarag                                              TMB½r
-taragTI 1 brimaNTwkEdlplit)antamqñaM                    24
-taragTI 2 muxviPaKTwkenAtameragcRk nigbNþajEckcay       25
-taragTI 3 lkçN³FøúHFøay mUlehtu nigPaKry                26
-taragTI 4 kMritCMnajrbs;mRnþInieyaCikEbgEcktamGayu      31
-taragTI 5 éføsiT§iCavTwkbNþaj ¬1994-1997¦               38
-taragTI 6 éføsiTi§CavTwkbNþaj ¬1997-bc©úb,nñ¦           38
-taragTI 7 vdþCIvitRKYsar nigplitpleRbIR)as;             61
-taragTI 8 bgðajGMBIePT                                  79
-taragTI 9 cMnYnsmaCikkñúgRKYsar                         80
-taragTI 10 kMriténkarsikSa                              81
-taragTI 11 bgðajBImuxrbr                                82
-taragTI 12 RkumGayurbs;GtifiCn                          83
-taragTI 13 R)ak;cMNUlRbcaMEx                            83
-taragTI 14 cMnYnqñaMEdleRbITwkbNþajpÞal;                85
-taragTI 15 brimaNTwkEdleRbIkñúg 1 vKÁ²                  85
-taragTI 16 RbePTGñkTUTat;Twkrbs;GgÁPaBrdæ)albuBVehtu    87
-taragTI 17 bBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYbRbTH                       87
-taragTI 18 Bt’manEdlGtifiCnTTYl)an                      88
-taragTI 19 karyl;eXIjelIesvakmµ                         90
-taragTI 20 karyl;eXIjelIKuNPaB                          91
-taragTI 21 karyl;eXIjelIéføTwk                          92
-taragTI 22 karyl;eXIjelIéføtbNþaj                       92
-taragTI 23 bBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYbeBlbg;R)ak;                94
-taragTI 24 KuNsm,tþikñúgkarBRgIkbNþaj                   95

                                                           XIV
-taragTI 25 ry³eBlEdlTukeGaybg;                                  96
-taragTI 26 ry³eBlénkarecjvik½yb½Rt                              96
-taragTI 27 bBaðaeBltbNþaj                                       97
-taragTI 28 skmµPaBGtifiCneBlmanTwkFøay                          98
-taragTI 29 mUlehtuyWty:avkñúgkarbg;éføTwk                       99
-taragTI 30 GtifiCnEdlmanbMNgbegáInkareRbI                      100
-taragTI 31 mUlehtubegáInkareRbI                                100
-taragTI 32 muxrbr nigplb:HBal;eBlEkERbéføTwk                   102
-taragTI 33 emKuNXI-dW EdlmansarsMxan;                          102
-taragTI 34 kMriténR)ak;cMNUl nigmUlehtuénkarTij                103
-taragTI 35 emKuNXI-dW EdlmansarsMxan;                          103
-taragTI 36 muxrbr nigplb:HBal;eBlBRgIkbNþaj                    104
-taragTI 37 emKuNXI-dW EdlmansarsMxan;                          105
-taragTI 38 ePT nigTIkEnøgcg;bg;R)ak;                           105
-taragTI 39 emKuNXI-dW EdlmansarsMxan;                          105
-taragTI 40 Gefr\riyabfrbs;GtifiCnkñúgkarTijTwk                 106
-taragTI 41 bgðajBItMél Eigenvalues                             107
-taragTI 42 Rotation Sums of Squared Loading                    107
-taragTI 43 Factor eRkayeBlbgVilehIy Rotated Factor Matrix      107
-taragTI 44 GefryuT§saRsþrbs;rdæakrTwkEdlnaMeGayGtifiCnTijTwk   108
-taragTI 45 bgðajBItMél Eigenvalues                             108
-taragTI 46 Rotation Sums of Squared Loading                    109
-taragTI 47 Factor eRkayeBlbgVilehIy Rotated Factor Matrix      109
-taragTI 48 Gefr\riyabfrbs;GtifiCnkñúgkarTijTwk                 110
-taragTI 49 GefryuT§saRsþrbs;rdæakrTwk                          110
-taragTI 50 bgðajBItMél Eigenvalues                             111
-taragTI 51 Rotation Sums of Squared Loading                    111
-taragTI 52 Factor eRkayeBlbgVilehIy Rotated Factor Matrix      112
                                                                  XV
                                  bBa¢Id üaRkam

eQµaHdüaRkam                                                       TMB½r
-düaRkamTI 1 bgðajBIRckEbgEckplitpleRbIR)as;                       51
-düaRkamTI 2 KMnUstagzananuRkméntMrUvkar Maslow                    64
-düaRkamTI 3 dMeNIrkarénkarsMerccitþTijrbs;GtifiCn                 67
-düaRkamTI 4 ePTrbs;GñktbsMPasn_                                   79
-düaRkamTI 5 cMnYnsmaCikenAkñúgRKYsar                              80
-düaRkamTI 6 kMriténkarsikSa                                       81
-düaRkamTI 7 muxrbr                                                82
-düaRkamTI 8 RkumGayu                                              83
-düaRkamTI 9 R)ak;cMNUlRbcaMExrbs;GtifiCn                          84
-düaRkamTI 10 PaKryBIcMnYnqñaMEdleRbITwkbNþajpÞal;                 85
-düaRkamTI 11 brimaNTwkEdlGtifiCneRbIkñúg 1 vKÁénkarecjvik½yb½Rt   86
-düaRkamTI 12 RbePTGtifiCn                                         86
-düaRkamTI 13 bBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYb                                   88
-düaRkamTI 14 Bt’manEdlGtifiCnTTYl)an                              89
-düaRkamTI 15 PaKryFøab; nigminFøab;eFIVsMNUmBr                    89
-düaRkamTI 16 PaKrybgðajBImUlehtuEdleRbITwkrdæakr                  90
-düaRkamTI 17 PaKrybgðajBIeyabl;elIesvakmµ                         90
-düaRkamTI 18 PaKryénkarvaytMélelIKuNPaB                           91
-düaRkamTI 19 PaKryénkarvaytMélelIéføTwk                           92
-düaRkamTI 20 PaKryénkarvaytMélelIéføtbNþaj                        93
-düaRkamTI 21 PaKryénkareRbITwkeRkABIbNþajrdæakTwk                 93
-düaRkamTI 22 PaKryénbBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYbeBlbg;R)ak;                 94
-düaRkamTI 23 bgðajBIKuNsm,tþieBlBRgIkbNþaj                        95
-düaRkamTI 24 ry³eBlEdlTukeGaybg;éføTwk                            96

                                                                   XVI
-düaRkamTI 25 ry³eBlénkarecjvik½ybR½t                97
-düaRkamTI 26 bBaðaeBltbNþaj                         97
-düaRkamTI 27 skmµPaBrbs;GtifiCneBlmanTwkFøay        98
-düaRkamTI 28 mUlehtuEdlyWty:avkñúgkarbg;éføTwk      99
-düaRkamTI 29 cMnYnGtifiCnEdlmanbMNgbegáInkareRbI   100
-düaRkamTI 30 mUlehtuEdlbegáInkareRbI               101
-düaRkamTI 31 plb:HBal;eBlEkERbéføTwk               102




                                                    XVII
                                 bBa¢I]bsm<½n §

eQµaH]bsm<½n§                                                               TMB½r
-]bsm<½n§TI 1 raCkic©qñaM 1960 ---------------------------------------- 123
-]bsm<½n§TI 2 GnuRkitsþIBIkarbegáItrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj -------------------125
-]bsm<½n§TI 3 kMrgsMNYr--------------------------------------------- 139
-]bsm<½n§TI 4 Tinñn½yEdlTTYl)anBIkareFIVsMPasn_ -------------------------- 143
-]bsm<½n§TI 5 elxkUdGefr Edltagkñúg SPSS ------------------------------154
-]bsm<½n§TI 6 Tinñn½y Chi-Square ykecjBIkmµviFI SPSS ---------------------160
-]bsm<½n§TI 7 Tinñn½ysMrab;karviPaKGefreRcIn ------------------------------168




                                                                            XVIII
                                        lMn aMedIm
          enAkñúgbNþaqñaMfµI² enHmankarrIkcMerInelIRKb;vis½yTaMgEpñkbec©kviTüa nigxagesdækic©
EdlCaehtunaMeGaymnusScUlcitþeRbInUv]bkrN_TMenIbedIm,IbMeBjnUvcMNg;rbs;xøÜn . enATIRkug
PñMeBjbNþajpÁt;pÁg;TwkmankarrIkcMerInCaxøaMgTaMgbrimaN nigKuNPaB . karrIkcMerInenH)aneFIV
eGayRkumh‘unmYycMnYnkøayeTACaGñkpÁt;pÁg;sMPar³y:agsMxan; dl;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj .
bc©úb,nñenHrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj)anxMBRgIklT§PaBrbs;xøÜnkñúgkarpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥at edaysar
fatMrUvkarénkareRbIR)as;mankarekIneLIgBImYyéf¶eTAmYyéf¶ .
          crnþénsaklPavUbnIykmµµesdækic©bc©úb,nñenH )aneFIVeGaymankarRbkYtRbECgKñay:ag
xøaMg eFIVeGaykarykcitþTukdak;eTAelIGtifiCnkøayCabBaðasMxan;mYysMrab;GgÁPaBGaCIvkmµenA
kñúgdMeNIrkarénkarEsVgrkR)ak;cMeNj . karykcitþTukdak;elIGtifiCn)anepþatCasMxan;eTA
elIkarbMeBjtMrUvcitþ nigtMrUvkarGtifiCntammeFüa)ayepSg² rbs;GgÁPaBnImYy². karpþl;CUn
GtifiCnnUvRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twk nigTwkEdlmanKuNPaB CaKuNsm,tþiénkarRbkYtRbECgmYyEdl
GgÁPaBrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjkMBugeFIVkarykcitþTukdak;y:agxøaMg . TnÞwmnwgenaH plitpl
EdlRbkbeTAedayKuNPaBenaHTamTarcaM)ac;nUvkarRKb;RKgmYyEdlRbkbeTAedaysmtßPaB
nigEdlGacbMeBjnUvsMNUmBrrbs;GtifiCn . CamYynigkMENTMrg;nana rdæakrTwksVy½tRkug
PñMeBjk¾)aneFIVkMENTMrg;rbs;xøÜnEdrkñúgkarpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥atCUnGtifiCnenAkñúgTIRkugPñMeBj .
karsikSaRsavRCavenH KWepþatCasMxan;eTAelI \riyabfGtifiCn rbs;rdæakrTwksVy½t
RkugPñMeBj . karsikSaRsavRCavcab;epþImedayeFIVkarsMPasn_CamYyGñkeRbIR)as;TwkpÞal;rbs;
rdæakrTwk edIm,IRbmUl)anBt’manCak;lak;BI\riyabfGtifiCn BIskmµPaBGaCIvkmµrbs;rdæakr
TwknwgkarEsVgyl;BItMrUvkarrbs;GñkeRbIR)as; EdlGacCaCMnYydl;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj
kñúgkareFIVesckþIsMerccitþ .
          eTaHCaxitxMcgRkgsarNaenHedayykcitþTukdak;y:agNak¾edayk¾Kg;enAmanxVHcenøaH
eCosminrYceT . ´)aTnwgrg;caMkarTietonkñúgn½ysßabnaBIsMNak;GñkGanedaykþIrIkray .




                                                                                          1
                                         esckþIepþIm
          RKb;sgÁmTaMgGs;RbQmmux nwgbBaðaCamUldæandUcKñaKWbMNgR)afñaKµanRBMEdn nig
FnFanmankMNt; EdlcaM)ac;Nas;RtUvmanynþkarxøHsMrab;;EckcayTMnij nigesvaEdlrk)an .
esdækic©TIpSar)anbgðajBIlkçN³edayesrIénkareFIVCMnYjedayxøÜnÉg mankmµsiT§iÉkCn nig
       ½
mansVysMercfaetIplitGIV ? plitdUcemþc ? nigplitsMrab;GñkNa ? TaMgGs;enHCa karkMNt;
nigCacriténesdækic©TIpSar ehIyxusBIesdækic©Epnkar Edlral;karplitRtUv)ankMNt;eday
rdæaPi)al . rdæaPi)alénRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa)aneFIVkarpøas;bþÚrkarRKb;RKgesdækic©BIRbB½n§
esdækic©EbbEpnkarmkCaesdækic©TIpSar Cak;Esþg)aneFIVsmahrNkmµesdækic©kñúgtMbn; nigkMBug
erobcMxøÜncUlCasmaCikGgÁkarBaNiC¢kmµBiPBelak CamYyKñaenH)aneFIVkarEkTMrg;CaeRcIn dUcCa ³
karEkTMrg;rdæ)al eyaFa hirBaØvtßú nigkarEkTMrg;RbB½n§yutþiFm’ . kareFIVÉkCnPavUbnIykmµ CaEpñk
mYyénkMENTMrg;hirBaØvtßúrbs;raCrdæaPi)alkññúgenaHshRKassaFarN³CaeKaledAsMxan;sMrab;kar
eFIVÉkCnPavUbnIykmµenH . edIm,IBRgwgGPi)alkic© nigkarelIkkMBs;kMritCIvPaBrbs;RbCaBlrdæ
CadMeNaHRsayraCrdæaPi)al)anelIkTwkcitþeGayEpñkÉkCncUlrYmpþl;esvakmµsaFarN³ nig
EsVgrkCMnYy]btßmÖsMrab;karsþar nigGPivDÆRbeTs . Twks¥atsMrab;RbCaCneRbIR)as;sMxan;
Nas; ehIyk¾CabBaðaEdlRtUv)anykcitþTukdak;BIraCrdæaPi)alEdr . dUcRbsasn_rbs;semþc
h‘un Esn kalBIéf¶TI 19 Exviciäka qñaM2001 fa Twk KWCaFnFanmYyd¾mansar³sMxan;sMrab;
CIvitrbs;mnusSRKb;rUb . dUecñHehIyeTIbmanBaküesøak {manTwk KWmanCIvit} {man Twk KWCa
RbPBénkarGPivDÆn_} 1. enAéf¶TI19 ExFñÚ qñaM1996 GnuRkitüelx 52 GnRk>bk rbs;
raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa)ankMNt;nUveKalneya)ayeGayrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjkøayCashRKas
saFarN³ EdlmanTMrg;CaRKwHsßansaFarN³manlkçN³esdækic© edIm,IeGayrdæakrTwksVy½t
RkugPñMeBjFana)annUvkarpÁt;pÁg;TwkCUnRbCaBlrdækñúgraCFanIPñMeBj . bnÞab;BI)anTTYl\NTan
BIFnaKarBiPBelak rdæaPi)al)anerobcMeKalneya)aymYyEdlrYmman ³ eKalneya)aypÁt;pÁg;
Twks¥at Gnam½y nigesckþIRBagc,ab;sþIBIkarbegáItbBaØtikrTwks¥at 2 edIm,IcUlrYmcMENkelIk
sÞÜykMritCIvPaBrbs;RbCaBlrdæ.
1
  sUmemIl sunÞrkfarbs;semþc h‘un Esn EføgkñúgBIFIebIkkardaænénKMeragsagsg;BRgIksmtßPaBerag
  cRkplitTwks¥atPUmiERBk EdlerobcMedayrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj éf¶TI 19 Exvicäika qñaM 2001.
2
  sUmemIl raCrdæaPi)al ³ karGPivDÆn_esdækic© nigsgÁmkic© tMrUvkar nigsMeNIr PñMeBj 2001 TMB½r96.
                                                                                              2
        karCMrujelIkTwkcitþdl;GñkvinieyaKk¾manplb:HBal;dl;kMeNInesdækic©Edr ebIsinCaeFIV
karRKb;RKgmin)anl¥ KµankarRbkYtRbECgtamcritTIpSar . rdæakrTwksßiteRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;
rdæ)albuBVehtutaMgBIeBlcab;epþImdMeNIrkareLIgvijkññúgqñaM 1979 b:uEnþenAqñaM 1996 RtUv)anrdæa
Pi)alsMerceGaykøayCashRKassaFarN³manlkçN³esdækic© EdlmankarTTYlxusRtUvpÞal;
TaMgkargarhirBaØvtßú nigrdæ)al .
        -etIrdæakrTwkmansßanPaBdUcemþcenAeBlEdlkøayCashRKassaFarNmanlkçN³
         esdækic©enaH ?
        -etIGtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as;Twkman\riyabfdUcemþc cMeBaHyuT§saRsþrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½t
         RkugPñMeBj?
         karRsavRCav)ancab;epþIm edIm,ICakareqøIytbeTAnwgbBaðaxagedIm ehIyCamYyKñaenH
kmµvtßúénkarRsavRCavcMnYn 3 RtUv)anelIkeLIg ³ TI1-yuT§saRsþrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkug
PñMeBj TI2-\riyabfrbs;GtifiCnEdleRbIR)as;Twks¥atkññúgRkugPñMeBj nigTI3 -plvi)akEdl
ekItmanBIÉkCnPavUbnIykmµ .
         karsikSaRsavRCavBIGgÁPaBrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjepþateTAelIeKalneya)ayrbs;
raCrdæaPi)al EdlCMrujeGaymankareFIVÉkCnPavUbnIykmµ . eKaledAénkarRsavRCavmandUc
xageRkam ³
         -dMeNIrkarTUeTA nigyuT§saRsþrbs;rdæakrTwkeRkayeBlkøayCashRKassaFarN³man
          lkçN³esdækic©
         -\riyabfrbs;GtifiCnEdleRbIR)as;TwkkñúgRkugPñMeBj
         -plb:HBal;dl;CIvPaBrbs;RbCaBlrdækñúgeBlEdleFIVÉkCnPavUbnIykmµshRKasrdæ.
         lkçxNÐCak;EsþgkñúgkarRsavRCavenHman ³ TI1-tMbn;TisedAsßitenAkñúgGgÁPaBrdæakr
TwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj nigGtifiCnEdleRbIR)as;TwkkñúgRkugPñMeBj . TI2-RkumTisedAEdlRtUveFIV
sMPasn_mancMnYnKMrU 330 kñúgenaHman ³ RbCaCnFmµta 300 RbePTGgÁPaBrdæ 10 nigman
shRKasÉkCncMnYn 20 .
         ]bkrN_sMrab;karRsavRCavelIRbFanbTenHman BIr KW ³ TI1-karbegáItnUvkMrgsMNYrsMrab;
sYrGtifiCnEdleRbIR)as;Twks¥atkñúgRkugPñMeBj ¬ tamEbbbrimaN ¦ nigsMNYrKnøwHsMrab;sYrGñk
mansmtßPaBenAkñúgrdæakrTwk nigbuKÁlikRksYgesdækic© nighirBaØvtßú ¬ tamEbbKuNPaB ¦.
                                                                                          3
cMeBaHTinñn½y)anBIkarsMPasn_GtifiCn EdleRbIR)as;]bkrN_TI1 RtUvbBa©ÚleTAkñúgtamkmµviFI
                                                           uc           uc
( SPSS ) EdlmanenAkñúgraCbNÐitsPa eFIVkarviPaKEsVgrkcMN xøaMg nigcMN exSayrYceFIVCa

karsnñidæan nigpþl;Caeyabl; . karsikSaenHRtUv)anerobcM nigEbgEckCa bI CMBUkFM² ³
        CMBUkTI 1 sikSaBIsßanPaBTUeTArbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ehIyEdlmanEbgEck
CaeRcIncMNuceTotdUcCa ³ TI1-lkçN³TUeTArbs;shRKassaFarN³ shRKassaFarN³man
lkçN³esdækic© Rkumh‘unrdæ nigRkumh‘uncMruH . TI2-Rbvtþirbs;rdæakrTwk EdlmanEbgEcktam
sm½ykaltaMgBIeBlbegáItdMbUgenAqñaM 1895 rhUtdl;qñaM 2002 enH . TI3 -BITItaMgrbs;
rdæakrTwk EdlsBVéf¶TIsñak;karkNþalenHsßitenACab;sklviTüal½yviTüasaRsþsuxaPi)al.
TI4-rcnasm<½n§rdæ)al manbgðajBIGgÁkarelx nigtYnaTIrbs;naykdæannImYy² rbs;rdæakrTwk.
TI5-bgðajBIsßanPaBhirBaØvtßúrbs;shRKas nigkarvinieyaKbEnßmelIplitkmµ nigRbB½n§Eck
cayTwks¥at . TI6-sikSaBIsßanPaBbec©keTsenAkñúgkarplitTwk karRtYtBinitüKuNPaB nig
bec©keTskñúgkargarbNþaj nigTI7-kargarbNþúHbNþal EdlrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj)an
ykmkGnuvtþsBVéf¶TaMgkñúg nigeRkARbeTs .
        CMBUkTI 2 sikSaBIyuT§saRsþénkarRKb;RKgrbs;rdæakrTwk EdlEbgEckCa bI EpñkFM² ³
EpñkTI1-yuT§saRsþénkarRKb;RKgGaCIvkmµ cMNucenHsikSaEtBIkarRKb;RKgbuKÁlik nigkarRKb;
RKgGtifiCnb:ueNÑaH . EpñkTI2-sikSaBIRTwsþIEdlTak;Tg ³ 1-muxgar nigsar³sMxan;énkarEsVg
yl;BITIpSar. 2-yuT§saRsþénkarEsVgyl;BITIpSar EdlrYmman yuT§saRsþplitpl yuT§saRsþ
éfø yuT§saRsþpSBVpSay nigyuT§saRsþkñúgkarEbgEckplitpl . 3-\riyabfGtifiCn tamkar
eGayniymn½yrbs;GñkesdæviTUl,I² EdlEckGtifiCnCa BIr RbePT KWGtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as; nig
GtifiCnCashRKasBaNiC¢kmµ bnÞab;mkeFIVkarsikSaBIktþaepSg² Edlman\T§iBlelIGtifiCn
kñúgkarTijTMnij . 4-sikSaBIdMeNIrkarénkarsMerccitþrbs;GtifiCn cab;taMgBIkarTTYlsÁal;
bBaðarhUtdl;\riyabfeRkayBIkarTij. 5- sikSaBIRbePTénkareFIVesckþIsMerccitþ nigPaBcaM
)ac;énkarbMeBjtMrUvkarGtifiCn. EpñkTI3 -bgðajBIKMerag nigTisedArbs;rdæakrTwk.
        CMBUkTI 3 sikSaBI\riyabfGtifiCntamry³karsMPasn_ kñúgenHbgðajBITidæPaB BIr KW ³
TI1-viFIsaRsþénkarRsavRCav nigTI2-karviPaKTinñn½y EdlTTYl)anBIkarRsavRCav .


                                                                                    4
        cMNuccugeRkayCakarsnñidæan EdltamkarRsavRCaveXIjfa rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj
)anxitxMRbwgERbgeRcIn edaymankarvinieyaKbEnßmelIkargarplitkmµ nigkarBRgIkbNþajTwk
s¥atsMrab;bMerIeGaytMrUvkarrbs;RbCaBlrdæenAkñúgRkugPñMeBj . TnÞwmnwgenaH k¾manRbtikmµrbs;
GtifiCnelIbBaðaEkERbtMélTwk Gakb,kiriyarbs;buKÁlikEpñktbNþaj nigEpñkTTYlR)ak;rbs;
rdæakrTwkpgEdr.




                                                                                       5
                                  CMBUk TI 1
                   sßanPaBTUeTArbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj

I   -lkçN ³TUeTArbs;s hRKassaFarN³
         kñúgdMeNIrkarGPivDÆn_esdækic© RbeTskm<úCa)aneFIVkMENTMrg;CaeRcInelIRKb;vis½y . kñúg
enaHkareFIVÉkCnPavUbnIykmµshRKasrdæCaeKalbMNgsMxan; ehIyedIm,IeGaysmRsbCamYy
nigdMeNIrkarÉkCnPavUbnIykmµenH rdæaPi)alkm<úCa)anerobcMc,ab; nigGnuRkitümYycMnYnsMrab;
RKb;RKg nigerobcMrcnasm<½n§EpñksaFarN³CafµI. shRKassaFarN³RtUv)ankMNt;Gtßn½yeTA
vis½yskmµPaB nigeKaledACakMNt; edIm,IkMNt;EbbEpnRKb;RKgshRKas 3. maRtaTI 2 én
c,ab;sþIBIlkçnþik³TUeTAénshRKassaFarN³)anEcgfa ³
        shRKassaFarN³ KWCashRKasEdlmanedImTunTaMgGs; b¤PaKeRcInCarbs;rdæ.
shRKassaFarN³manebskkmµbgálkçN³dl;karGPivDÆn_esdækic© nigsgÁmkic© CaGaT×kñúg
karbegáIntémøFnFanFmµCati nigkarbegáItGaCIB .
          skmµPaBnanarYmTaMgskmµPaBesdækic©rbs;shRKassaFarN³Rbhak;RbEhlKña nwg
shRKasÉkCnEdr KWsßiteRkambriyakasénkarRbkYtRbECg nigeRkam\T§iBlénTIpSar RBm
TaMgmaneKaledABRgIk nigTajykplcMeNjBIskmµPaBrbs;;xøÜneTotpg. kargarKNenyü
RtUveFIVeTAtamTMrg;bøg;KNenyüCati nigGnuelamtameKalkarN_KNenyüTUeTAsMrab;Rkumh‘un
BaNiC¢kmµ. shRKassaFarN³man 4 ³
          1-namkrN_ nigTIsñak;karrbs;Rkumh‘un
          2-kmµvtßúc,as;las;
          3-RkumRbwkSaPi)al
          4-RTBüsm,tþi nigmanfvikapÞal;ÉkraCüsMrab;eFIVskmµPaBGaCIvkmµ.
          5-smtßPaBcuHkic©snüa nigbþwg b¤karBarenAtulakar
3
    sUmemIl raCrdæaPi)al ³ c,ab;sþIBIshRKassaFarN³ nigPaKkmµsaFarN³ PñMeBj 1999 TMB½r 51.
4
    - d - TMB½rTI 21.
                                                                                          6
        6-PaBTTYlxusRtUvEpñkRBhµTNÐ nigrdæb,evNIeTAelITegVIrbs;GñktMNagRsbc,ab; b¤
          nieyaCitrbs;xøÜnkñúgeBlbMeBjkargarCUnshRKas.
        7-karcuHbBa¢IBaNiC¢kmµ.
        shRKassaFarN³k¾sßiteRkamrbbrYmsþIBIsareBIBn§ ehIyRtUvCab;Bn§ nigGakr dUcCa
shRKasÉkCnEdr. buKÁlikshRKassaFarN³ CanieyaCiténnItibuKÁl elIkElgEtPñak;gar
Rkbx½NÐmuxgarsaFarN³Edldak;eGayenAeRkAtMENgsMrab;bMeBjmuxgardwknaM. GgÁkardwknaM
Can;x<s;bMputrbs;shRKas KWRkumRbwkSaPi)al EdlmanGMNacTUlMTUlay Rbtibtþikarkñúgnam
shRKas nigRsbtameKaledArbs;shRKas. smaCikrbs;RkumRbwkSaPi)aly:agtic 3 nak;
nigy:ageRcIn 7 nak; EbgEckCaBIrRbePT KW TI1 smaCiksV½yRbvtþi ¬smaCiktMNagbuKÁlik¦
EdlRtUv)aneRCIserIstamry³kare)aHeqñatkñúgcMeNamnieyaCikrbs;shRKas nigTI2 smaCik
EdlCatMNagrbs;sßab½nBak;B½n§ b¤CatMNagrbs;m©as;PaKh‘unÉkCn. CaFmµta GNtþirbs;
RkumRbwkSaPi)alminelIsBI 3 qñaMeLIy. cMENkrdækñúgnamCam©as;kmµsiT§iEdlmanPaKkmµ
saFarN³CacMnYnPaKeRcInbg;xatRtwmEtcMnYnPaKh‘unrbs;xøÜnb:ueNÑaH Etk¾manBak;B½n§CamYykar
x©IbulEdl)ancuHkic©snüaedayRkumh‘un b¤shRKas luHNaEtkic©snüaenaHRtUvFanaBIrdæCamun
sin. shRKassaFarN³manTMrg; bI RbePT 5³
        1-RKwHsßansaFarN³EdlmanlkçN ³esdæk ic©
         RKwHsßansaFarN³manlkçN³esdækic©CaRbePTmYyrbs;shRKassaFarN³ EdldMeNIr
karGaCIvkmµ nigRKb;RKgedayGgÁPaBGaNaBüa)alpÞal;. ebItamc,ab;sþIBIshRKassaFarN³
nigPaKkmµsaFarN³)aneGayniymn½yfaCanItibuKÁlEdlmansV½yPaBEpñkhirBaØvtßú 6 Edl
RtUv)anbegáIteLIgedayGnuRkwtü tamkaresñIrYmKñarbs;RksYgesdækic© nighirBaØvtßú nigRksYg
GaNaBüa)al b¤GaCJaFrGaNaBüa)al. shRKasRbePTenHmantYnaTIplitTMnij nigesvakmµ
sMrab;bMerIeGayTIpSarEdlRtUv)ankMNt;edayGnuRkwtü. Cak;Esþg rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjCa

5
  TI1 -RKwHsßansaFarN³EdlmanlkçN³esdækic© TI2-Rkumh‘unrdæ nigTI3 -Rkumh‘un cMruHrdæ. bTsMPasn_
  CamYymRnþInaykdæanRTBürdæ énRksYgesdækic© nighirBaØvtßú éf¶TI 02 ExFñÚ qñaM2001.
6
  raCrdæaPi)al ³ c,ab;sþIBIshRKassaFarN³ nigPaKkmµsaFarN³ d> É> m> TMB½r 14.
                                                                                            7
shRKassaFarN³manlkçN³esdækic©mankmµvtßúcMbgkñúgkarpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥atdl;RbCaBlrdæenA
TUTaMgraCFanIPñMeBj.
         2-Rkumh‘un rdæ
        Rkumh‘unrdæ dUcKñaeTAnwgshRKasEdlmanlkçN³esdækic©Edr RtUv)anbegáIteLIgeday
GnuRkwtütamkaresñIrbs;RksYgesdækic©-hirBaØvtßú nigRksYgGaNaBüa)al7 ehIyRksYgTaMgenH
CaGñkTTYlxusRtUvkñúgkarbMeBjTMrg;EbbbTsMrab;karbegáItRkumh‘un. kargarenHrYmman ³
        1-erobcMlkçnþik³rbs;Rkumh‘un
        2-cat;EcgcuHeQµaHkñúgbBa¢IBaNiC¢kmµ
        3-bMeBjTMrg;EbbbTTaMgGs;tameKalkarN_ énnItiRkumh‘unBaNiC¢kmµ. sBVéf¶enH
GKiÁsnIkm<úCaRtUv)ancat;cUlCaRkumh‘unrdæ EdlmantYnaTIpÁt;pÁg;crnþGKÁisnIenATUTaMgRkugPñMeBj
nigbNþaextþnana.
         3-Rkumh‘un cMruH
      Rkumh‘uncMruHCakarcUlrYmkargarrvagrdæaPi)al nigEpñkÉkCn. tamc,ab;sþIBIshRKas
saFarN³ nigPaKkmµsaFarN³)anEcgfa ³
         Rkumh‘uncMruHCaRkumh‘unEdl)anbegáIttam eKalkarN_ nigeTAtamEbbEpnTaMgLayén
nItibuKÁl b¤rUbvnþbuKÁlÉkCn nignItibuKÁlrdæ .
                 3-1-Rkumh‘un cMruHedaymanPaKkmµs aFarN³PaKeRcIn
        Rkumh‘uncMruHRbePTenHCaRkumh‘unEdlmanPaKkmµsaFarN³ ¬PaKh‘un¦ b¤edImTunPaK
eRcInCarbs;rdæ . rdæaPi)al)anerobcMeGayEpñkTUrKmnaKmn_dMeNIrkarGaCIvkmµrbs;xøÜncMruHCa
mYyRkumh‘unÉkCn EdlkñúgenaHedImTuncMnYn 51° Carbs;rdæ nig 49° eTotCarbs;Rkumh‘un
ÉkCn.

7
    maRtaTI 30 Ecgfa ³ Rkumh‘unrdæ KWCaRkumh‘unEdlmanedImTunTaMgGs;Carbs;rdæ. raCrdæaPi)al ³
    c,ab; sþIBIshRKassaFarN³ nigPaKkmµsaFarN³ d> É> m> TMB½rTI 15.
                                                                                               8
                  3-2-Rkumh‘un cMruHedaymanPaKkmµs aFarN³PaKtic
         Rkumh‘uncMruHedaymanPaKkmµsaFarN³PaKtic sMedAelIRkumh‘unEdlmanmUlFnkan;
kab;rYmedaynitibuKÁl b¤rUbvnþbuKÁlÉkCnEdlmanPaKh‘unelIsBI 51° nigrdæEdlmanPaKh‘un
ticCag. Cak;Esþg shRKas»sfkm<úCa KWCaRkumh‘uncMruHrvagEpñkÉkCnEdlmanPaKh‘uneRcIn
nigrdæaPi)alEdlmanPaKh‘unticCag.
II  -Rbvtþirbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj
       rdæakrTwkRtUv)anbegáIteLIgdMbUgbg¥s;qñaM 1895 eRkaymkmankarEkERb nigkarBRgIk
CabnþbnÞab;Edl)anEbgEcktamqñaMdUcxageRkam 8³
          1-Rkumh‘un Twk nigGKÁis nI\ NÐÚcin )araMg 1895-1960
        Rkumh‘unTwk nigGKÁisnI\NÐÚcinrbs;)araMg)anerobcMRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;TwkdMbUgkñúgqñaM 1895.
dMbUgbg¥s;maneragcRksMrab;plitTwkEtmYyKt; KWeragcRkeRCaycgVar EdlmansmtßPaBplit
15 000 m3¼éf¶. bNþajEckcaymanEtenAkñúgx½NÐdUneBj EdlmanRbEvgsrub 40 K>m
bu:eNÑaH. eRkaymkmankarBRgIkCabnþbnÞab;dUcCa³
        -enAqñaM 1957 bNþajEckcayTwkRtUv)anBRgIkbEnßmRbEvg 36 K>m eTot.
        -1958 eragcRkcMkarmnRtUv)anksag EdlmansmtßPaBplitTwks¥at)anrhUtdl;
          10 000 m3¼éf¶.
        -1959 eragcRkeRCaycgVarRtUv)anCYsCul nigbegáInsmtßPaBplitbEnßmrhUtdl;
           45 000m3¼éf¶. TnÞwmenaHbNþajEckcayTwkRtUv)anBRgIkbEnßmRbEvg 32K>m.
          2-rdæakrTwk PñMeBj 1960-1975
          éf¶TI 24 mina 1960 rdæakrTwkPñMeBj)ancab;bdisn§ieLIgeRkamRBHraCRkwtüelx 164

8
    Rbvtþirbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjenH PaKeRcInyktamkarsMPasn_CamYyelakRbFannaykdæan
    GaCIvkmµ ÉksarCapøÚvkarrbs;rdæakrTwk nigkarRsavRCavenAkñúgbNÑsardææanCati. karEbgEcktam
    qñaMRKan;EtsMrYlkñúgkarEsVgyl;b:ueNÑaH.
                                                                                              9
 n>s CaGgÁPaBplitkmµ nigGaCIvkmµrbs;rdæsßiteRkamcMNuHpÞal;salaRkugPñMeBj ¬sUmemIl
]bsm<½n§TI 1¦.
       -enAkñúgqñaM 1960 bNþajEckcayRbEvg 165 K>m eTotRtUv)anBRgIkbEnßm
       - qñaM 1966 eragcRkPUmiERBkRtUv)ansagsg;eLIg mansmtßPaBplit 10000 m3¼éf¶.
       -kñúgTsvtSTI 70 rdæaPi)aleRKagdak;rdæakrTwkPñMeBjCashRKasCatimansV½yPaB
         EtKMeragenHBuM)ansMercedaymUlehtuGsßirPaBsgÁm.
       3-rbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü 1975-1979
        kñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü skmµPaBplitTwk nigpÁt;pÁg;TwkkúñúgTIRkugPñMeBjRtUv)an
kat;bnßymkenARtwmEtpÁt;pÁg;sMrab; kmµaPi)al nigBlTahanb:ueNÑaH eRBaHRbCaCnTaMgGs;
RtUv)anbeNþjecjBITIRkug. kñúgcMeNameragcRkTaMgbI maneragcRkPUmiERBkmYyeTdMeNIrkar.
       4-rdæakrTwk rdæFanIPñMeBj 1979-1996
          bnÞab;BIRbeTsCatirMedaHputBIrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyüéf¶TI 25 mkra 1979 skmµPaB
pÁt;pÁg;TwksMrab;TIRkugPñMeBjTaMgmUlRtUv)anerobcMeGaydMeNIrkareLIgvij. kñúgsßanPaBxVHxat
mRnþI nieyaCikCMnaj GvtþmanénÉksarbec©keTs nig]bkrN_sMPar³bec©keTsnanaeFVIeGay
karcab;epþImeLIgvijénkarpÁt;pÁg;TwkCUnRbCaBlrdækñúgraCFanIPñMeBjCYbRbTHnUvkarlM)akxøaMg.
kñúgcMeNameragcRkTaMgbI manEteragcRkPUmiERBkmYyKt;EdlGacdMeNIrkar)anRbesIr. Cabnþ
bnÞab;mkeToteyIgeXIjfa ³
          -enAqñaM1983 eRkamkarxitxMCYsCulkñúglT§PaBd¾sþÜcesþIgrbs;GgÁPaBeragcRkeRCay
cgVar)andMeNIrkareLIgvijkñúgsmtßPaBplit 40 000m3¼éf¶. bu:uEnþCakarGkusldMeNIrkar
)anEtmYyqñaMeragcRkenH)anbBa©b;dMeNIkarCasßaBr edaysarsßanPaBd¾RTuDeRTaméneRKÓgcRk
BiessRbB½n§GKÁisnIrt;eRkam)atTenøsabEdlKµanlT§PaB nigCYsCul)an.
          -qñaM 1989 eRkamkarxitxMrbs;GgÁPaB nigmanCMnYyBIGtItshPaBsUevoteragcRk
cMkarmn)andMeNIrkareLIgvijkñúgsmtßPaBplit 10 000 m3¼éf¶.
          edaybrimaNTwkBuMeqøIytbeTAnwgtMrUvkar karxVHlT§PaB nigsmtßPaBEfTaMbNþajEck
cayeGayRtwmRtUveFIVeGaysMBaFTwkkñúgraCFanIPñMeBjTaMgmUl)anFøak;cuH .
                                                                                    10
          5-rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj 1996-bc©úb,n ñ
       GnuRkwtüelx 52 GnRk>bk cuHéf¶TI 19 Ex FñÚ qñaM 1996 )andak;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkug
PñMeBjeGaykøayCaRKwHsßansaFarN³manlkçN³esdækic© ehIymantYnaTIpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥atCUn
RbCaBlrdæenAkñúgRkugPñMeBj ¬sUmemIl]bsm<½n§TI 2¦.
III-   TIt aMgPUmis aRsþþ
        TIsñak;karkNþalrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjsßitenAxaglicsaklviTüal½yviTüasaRsþ
suxaPi)al nigCab;xageCIg raCaysµ½yankm<úCakñúgsgáat;RsHck x½NÐdUneBj raCFanIPñMeBj.
IV -rcnasm<½n §rdæ)al
        rdæaTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjRKb;RKgedayRkumRbwkSaPi)al EdlsmaCikmñak;² CatMNagmk
BIsßab½ndUcxageRkam ³
        -tMNagsalaRkug                                     1 rUb
        -tMNagRksYgesdækic© nighiirBaØvtßú                 1rUb
        -tMNagRksYgmhaépÞ                                  1rUb
        -tMNagRksYg]sSahkmµEr: nigzamBl                    1rUb
        -tMNagRksYgsaFarN³kar nigdwkCBa¢Ún                 1rUb
        -tMNagnieyaCikrbs;rdæakrTwk                        1rUb
        -GKÁnaykrdæakrTwk                                  1rUb
       kñúgenaH GKÁnayk CaGñkRKb;RKgpÞal; GmedayGKÁnaykrg 3 rUb nigmRnþICaeRcIneTot
enAtamnaykdæan.




                                                                                   11
              1-GgÁk arelx

                                                                                    RkumRbwkSaPi)al

                                                                                       GKÁnayk
                                                                    elxaFikardæan                 GFikarkic©nigedaHRsayvivaT

                                                    GKÁnaykrg                         GKÁnaykrg                           GKÁnaykrg

naykdæanbec©keTsnigKMerag                naykdæanplitkmµnigpÁt;pÁg;Twk              naykdæanGaCIvkmµ               naykdæanrdæ)alnigFnFanmnusS          naykdæanKNenyü-hirBaØvtßú

       kariyal½yRKb;RKgKMerag                        eragcRkPUmiERBk                  kariyal½ybNþajcUlpÞH                       kariyal½yrdæ)al                 kariyal½yKNenyü
                                                     eragcRkcMkarmn
         EpñkvinieyaKnigCMnYybeeTs                                                              Epñkrdæ)al                          EpñkkarBarsnþisux                EpñkKNenyüTUeTA
                                                    eragcRkeRCaycgVar
         EpñklT§kmµnigKMeraghitBaØvtßú                                                         Epñkbec©keTs                          Epñkrdæ)alsrub                      EpñkebLa
                                                   kariyal½ybNþajem
        kariyal½ysikSaKMerag                                                              kariyal½ycMNUl                       kariyal½yFnFanmnusS               kariyal½yhirBaØvtßú
                                                       EpñkerobcMbNþajem
             EpñkerobcMKMeragbøg;                                                          EpñkcMNUlx½NÐ7mkra                      EpñkebovtS-Blkmµ                    EpñkKMeragfvika
                                                          EpñkynþsaRsþ
                 Epñkplitkmµ                                                               EpñkcMNUlx½NÐdUneBj                     mNÐlbNþúHbNþal                       EpñkhirBaØvtßú
            EpñkeragCagnigGKiÁsnI                                                         EpñkcMNUl x½NÐcMkarmn                  kariyal½yBiFIkar              kariyal½ypÁt;pÁg;sMPar³
   kariyal½yRKb;RKgRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twk                                                      EpñkcMNUlx½NÐTYleKak
                                                                                                                                                                       GgÁPaBlT§kmµ
                                                                                     kariyal½yTMnak;TMngGtifiCn
          EpñkRsavRCavkar)at;bg;Twk                                                                                                                                   EpñkXøaMgsMPar³
             EpñkCYsCulTwkFøay                                                               EpñkGegátGtifiCn
                                                                                          EpñkKNnIGtifiCnnigsrub
                                                                                               EpñknaLikaTwk
                                                                                            mNÐlkuMBüÚT½r

                                                                                               Epñkbec©keTs
                                                                                                Epñkrdæ)al


RbPB ³ rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ³ r)aykarN_lT§plqñaM 2001 ¬Cak;Esþg 8Ex ¦ TMB½rTI 12.




                                                                                                                                                                               12
         2-tYn aTI nigParkic©
         tYnaTI nigParkic©kñúgnaykdæan nigkariyal½yTaMgGs;rbs;rdæakrTwkKW 9 ³
                 2-1-naykdæanrdæ)al-FnFanmnus S
        naykdæanrdæ)al-FnFanmnusS CaesnaFikarCMnYy GKÁnayk nigGKÁnaykrg kñúgkar
dwknaMkargarrdæ)alTUeTA snþisux FnFanmnusS nigBiFIkar. Parkic©sMxan;² rbs;naykdæanman ³
        -eFIVkarTMnak;TMngépÞkñúgrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½t RkugPñMeBj nigrvagsßab½nxageRkA.
        -cat;Ecg nigFananUvkargaryamkam snþisux sNþab;Fñab; nig TMnak;TMngCamYysßab½n
          mansmtßkic©kñúgkarFanasuvtßiPaB.
        -erobcMksagkmµviFI nigdMeNIrkargar bNþúHbNþalFnFanmnusS FanaKuNPaBnieyaCit
          rbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj.
        -Parkic©EdlsMxan;mYyeTotKWkargarBiFIkar erobcM nigcat;EcgTTYlePJóv BiFIbuNüTan
          kargarsMGat Gnam½y nigkarEfTaMsYnCaedIm.
        naykdæanrdæ)al nigFnFanmnusSEckecjCa 3 kariyal½y ³
                         2-1-1-kariy al½y rdæ)al

       kariyal½yrdæ)al CaesnaFikarrbs;RbFannaykdæanrdæ)al-FnFanmnusS elIkargar
rdæ)alTUeTA lixitsñam rkSasnþisux sNþab;Fñab; nigr)aykarN_srublT§plkargarrbs;rdæakr
TwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj . kariyal½yenHmanParkic© ³
       -FanaEbbbT nigcracrlixitsñamkñúgGgÁPaBeGay)anRtwmRtUv nigTan;eBl
       -ENnaMdl;GgÁPaBépÞkñúgGMBITMrg;EbbbT lixitsñamTaMgLay
       -erobcMcgRkg Tukdak; nigEfrkSaral;ÉksarBak;B½n§nwgkargarrdæ)al
       -eFIVkMNt;ehtural;karRbCuMrYmnanarbs;GgÁPaB
       -eFIVr)aykarN_bUksrublT§plplitkmµ-GaCIvkmµ
9
    naykdæanTaMgGs;rbs;rdæakrTwkman 5 KW TI1-naykdæanrdæ)al FnFanmnusS TI2-naykdæanGaCIvkmµ
    TI3 -naykdæanplitkmµ nigpÁt;pÁg;Twk TI4-naykdæanKNenyü nighirBaØvtßú nigTI5-naykdæan
    bec©keTs nigKMerag. bTsMPasn_ RbFankariyal½yrdæ)al FnFanmnusS éf¶TI 17 mkra 2002.
                                                                                       13
       -Tak;TgCamYybNþaGgÁPaBBak;B½n§ edIm,IpSBVpSaynUvbNþaeKalkarN_ c,ab; bTbBa¢a
        lkçnþik³ nigesckþIkMNt;nana.
       -bMeBjEbbT lixitGnuBaØat ecjviBaØabnbR½trdæ)al dl;nieyaCit.
       -shkarCamYykariyal½yBak;B½n§elIkargarCYsCul EfTaMbNþasMPar³kñúgrdæakrTwk.
       -pÁt;pÁg;sMPar³kariyal½ydl;naykdæan kariyal½ynana tamkarBinitüCak;Esþg.
       -cat;Ecg nigRtYtBinitükaryamkam edIm,IFanarkSasnþisux sNþab;Fñab; nigkarBar
        ral;RTBüsm,tiþrbs;GgÁPaB.
                      2-1-2-kariy al½y FnFanmnus S

       kariyal½yFnFanmnusSCaesnaFikarrbs;RbFannaykdæanelIkargarbNþúHbNþal nig
RKb;RKgnieyaCitEp¥ktamlkçnþik³buKÁlikrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ehIymanParkic© ³
       -CaGñkksag nigcat;EcgGnuvtþnUvkmµviFIbNþúHbNþalry³eBlxøI Evg TaMgkñúgRbeTs
        nig eRkARbeTsbegáInkMrityl;dwgdl;nieyaCitTaMgGs;enAkñúgGgÁPaB.
       -RKb;RKgmNÐlbNþúHbNþal nigbNÑal½y edayxitxMRbmUlÉksarbec©keTsCYy
        dl;karyl;dwgrbs;buKÁlik.
       -RKb;RKgsMNuMÉksar CIvRbvtþimRnþI nieyaCittameKalkarN_kMNt; ksagÉksarTak;
        TgnwgkrNIelµIs.
       -eFIVkarvaytMélelIsñaédkargarRbcaMqñaMrbs;nieyaCitedIm,ImanviFankarN_sresIrelIk
        TwkcitþcMeBaHbuKÁlikskmµ nigdak;Bin½ydl;buKÁlikGskmµ.
                      2-1-3-kariy al½y BiFIk ar

        kariyal½yBiFIkarCaesnaFikarrbs;RbFannaykdæanrdæ)al nigFnFanmnusS elIkargar
BiFIkar nigkarsMGatGnam½yrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj manParkic©dUcteTA ³
        -ksagkmµviFIedIm,IerobcMbNþabuNüCati nigGnþrCati.
        -erobcMkmµviFITTYlePJóvCati nigGnþrCati
        -EfTaMsMGat tamkariyal½y nigTIFøaenAkñúgrdæakrTwk.


                                                                                  14
                 2-2-naykdæanGaCIv kmµ
       naykdæanGaCIvkmµ)anRKb;RKgEpñkCaeRcInEdlrYmman mankariyal½ybNþajcUlpÞH
kariyal½ycMNUl kariyal½yTMnak;TMngGtifiCn nigmNÐlkuMBüÚT½r 10. naykdæanGaCIvkmµ
KWCaesnaFikarCMnYyGKÁnaykkñúgkargareFIVGaCIvkmµlk;TwkTUTaMgraCFanIPñMeBj nigmanParkic© ³
       -BinitükartbNþajcUlpÞHGtifiCneGayTan;eBlevla nigFana)anbTdæanbec©keTs.
       -RbmUléføTwkTUTaMgraCFanIPñMeBjeGay)anRtwmRtUvtamGnuRkwtü nigRkwtüc,ab;.
       -RsavRCav nigerobcMÉksarGtifiCn.
       -shkarGnuvtþkmµviFIkat;bnßyTwk)at;bg; nigksagEpnkarRbcaMEx RtImas qmas nig
        RbcaMqñaM elIkargarcMNUléføTwk tbNþajcUlpÞH nigtMeLIgnaLika.
                         2-2-1-kariy al½y bNþajcUlpÞH

      kariyal½ybNþajcUlpÞH CaesnaFikarCMnYykarnaykdæanGaCIvkmµkñúgkargarbec©keTs
tbNþajcUlpÞHCUnGtifiCn nigmanParkic©EdlRtUvGnuvtþdUcteTA³
      -vas; KUsbøg;bgðajTItaMgbNþajGtifiCn nigeFVIkMNt;bgðajsuMeKalkarN_tbNþajBI
       GKÁnayktamry³naykdæan.
      -KNnaéføc,ab;CavTwk R)ak;kk;CUnGtifiCn nigelIkKMeragsMPar³sMrab;tbNþaj.
      -cugeRkayRKb;RKgÉksarGtifiCnTaMgGs; nigcMlgCUnkariyal½ysikSaKMerag edIm,I
       erobcMÉksarRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;TwkTaMgmUl.
                         2-2-2-kariy al½y cMN Ul

       kariyal½ycMNUl KWCaesnaFikarCMnYykardl;naykdæan kñúgkarRbmUlR)ak;éføTwkBI
GtifiCn11. kariyal½yenHmanParkic© ³
10
     bTsMPasn_CamYyelakRbFannaykdæanGaCIvkmµkalBIéf¶TI 25 ExkumÖ³ qñaM 2002 .
11
     karRbmUlcMNUlRtUv)anEcktamx½NÐEtedayx½NÐBIr ¬x½NÐmanC½y nigx½NÐb¤sSIEkv¦mancMnYnGtifiCn
     ticeBkRtUvKitbBa©ÚlCamYyx½NÐdéTeToteFIVeGayEpñkcMNUlmanEt 4 x½NÐ. cMENkx½NÐdegáaminman
     kñúgenHeT eRBaHKµanbNþajTwk. bTsMPasn_CamYyRbFannaykdæanGaCIvkmµéf¶TI 25 kumÖ³ 2002 .
                                                                                        15
       -GanelxnaLikaTwkeGay)anRtwmRtUv nigTan;eBlevlatambBa¢I
       -Eckvik½ybR½t nigRbmUlR)ak;éføTwkBIGtifiCnykmkbg;cUlebLaral;éf¶.
       -CUndMNwg nigcat;viFankarN_Bin½y b¤p¥akkarpÁt;pÁg;Twk cMeBaHGtifiCnNaEdlmin
        TUTat;éføTwk b¤yWty:avkñúgkarTUTat;éføTwk.
       -CUnBt’mandl;bNþakariyal½yBak;B½n§BIbBaðaminFmµtakñúgkareRbIR)as;Twkrbs;GtifiCn
dUcCanaLikaxUc b¤)at; karsgS½ymankarlYceRbITwkeRkAnaLika karlYcedaHbgVilelxnaLika
karsegáteXIjmancMNucTwkFøay nigGtifiCnEdlminTan;)ankt;RtaCaedIm. bnÞab;mkbMeBj
EbbbTeTAkariyal½yKNenyü nigmNÐlkuMBüÚT½r edIm,IsuMlubvik½ybR½t b¤ karEktMrUvepSg².
                      2-2-3-kariy al½y TMn ak;T Mn gGtifiCn

       kariyal½yTMnak;TMngGtifiCn KWCaesnaFikarCMnYydl;naykdæan kñúgkargarGegát nig
RsavRCavGtifiCnEdleRbIR)as;Twkrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj manParkic© ³
       -bMeBjEbbbTcuHkic©snüapÁt;pÁg;Twk nigeRbIR)as;TwkCamYyGtifiCn.
       -RKb;RKgÉksarKNnIGtifiCn nigbBa¢ÚnBt’maneTAmNÐlkuMBüÚTan;eBlevla.
       -vas;sÞg; RtYtBinitüdMeNIrkarénnaLika edaHdUr nigCYsCultamsMNUmBrrbs;GtifiCn
        edaymankmµviFIc,as;las;.
       -kþab;Bt’man rMlwk nigBin½ycMeBaHGtifiCnEdlGnuvtþelµIsnwgRkwtüc,ab;tamkarkMNt;
        rbs;GKÁnayk.
                      2-2-4-mNÐlkuMBüÚT ½r

        mNÐlkuMBüÚT½rCaesnaFikarCMnYydl;naykdæankñúgkarRKb;RKgKNnIGtifiCn nige)aHBum<
vik½ybR½t. mNÐlkuMBüÚT½rmanParkic©dUcteTA ³
        -RKb;RKgKNnIGtifiCn edaycuHeQµaHGtifiCnkñúgbBa¢I nigpþl;elxsMKal; nigeFIVkar
         EktMrUvTinñn½y tamdankarTUTat;éføTwk nigtulüPaBKNnIGtifiCn.
        -e)aHBum<esovePAGanelxnaLikaTwkRbcaMvKÁ bBa¢IelxGanminRbRktI vik½ybR½tTwk
         RbcaMvKÁ bBa¢IGtifiCn nigr)aykarN_sßitiepSg² eTot.

                                                                                  16
         -pþl;nUvTinñn½ysMxan;² Tan;eBlevladl;kariyal½yBak;B½n§sMrab;eFIVkarRtYtBinitü nig
          sMrab;eFIVkarviPaK
         -eFIVkarviPaKnUvTinñn½ysMxan;² CUnfñak;dwknaM.
                 2-3-naykdæanplit kmµ nigpÁt ;pÁg;T wk
        naykdæanplitkmµ nigpÁt;pÁg;Twkmankariyal½ycMnYn 1 KWkariyal½ybNþajem nig
eragcRkplitTwkcMnYn 3 eTotEdlsßitenAeRkamcMNuHman³ eragcRkPUmiERBk eragcRkcMkarmn
eragcRkeRCaycgVar12. naykdæanxagelImanParkic©dwknaM nigRtYtBinitüral;skmµPaBEdl
RtuvGnuvtþ karEfrkSaRbB½n§plitkmµ nigRbBn§pÁt;pÁg;TwkTaMgGs;eTAtamEpnkar nigbTdæan
bec©keTs. shkarCamYynaykdæanbec©keTs nigKMeragelIkarEfTaM nigGPivDÆRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;
Twkrbs;rdæakr.
                         2-3-1-eragcRkplit Twk

         eragcRkplitTwkmantYnaTI FanakarplitTwktamEpnkarkMNt;. kñúgenaHmanParkic©
GnuvtþdMeNIrkarplitkmµtamEpnkarkMNt; nigxitxMbegáInTinñplplit minEtb:ueNÑaHRtUvFana
KuNPaBTwks¥attambTdæanbec©keTstamkarkMNt;edayshkarCamYykariyal½ybec©keTs
Gnuvtþ nigkariyal½ysikSaKMeragkñúgkarCYsCulnana.
                         2-3-2-kariy al½y bNþajem

          kariyal½ybNþajem CaGgÁPaBRKb;RKgGnuvtþkargardak;fµI CYsCul nigEfTaMRbB½n§
pÁt;pÁg;Twk EdlTTYlParkic© ³
          -eFIVkarEfrkSa CYsCul nigdak;fµInUvbNþajpÁt;pÁg;TwktamKMeragEpnkarqñaM edayGnuvtþ
           tambTdæanbec©keTskMNt;
          -cat;EcgCYsCulPøam² ral;cMNucTwkFøaytambMBg;emnaMTwksaFarN³k¾dUcCabNþaj
           rbs;GtifiCnral;eBlEdlTTYl)anBt’man b¤RsavRCaveXIj

12
     bTsMPasn_CamYyRbFannaykdæanplitkmµ nigpÁt;pÁg;Twk éf¶TI 04 Exemsa qñaM 2002
                                                                                       17
        -RKb;RKg nigEbgEcksMBaFTwkeTAtamtMbn; CaBiessRKb;RKgnUvdgv:anbiT ebIkbBa¢a
Twk nigeFIVkarEfrkSaCaRbcaMnUveRKOgcRksMrab;dMeNIrkarRbcaMéf¶.
                  2-4-naykdæanKNenyü nighirBaØv tßú
           naykdæanKNenyü nighirBaØvtßúCaesnaFikarCMnYydl;GKÁnaykkñúgkargarKNenyü
hirBaØvtßú nigpÁt;pÁg;sMPar³. kariyal½yEdlsßitenAeRkam»vaTmancMnYn 3 eTotKW³ kariyal½y
KNenyü kariyal½yhirBaØvtßú nigkariyal½ypÁt;pÁg;sMPar³ 13 . TTYlParkic©mYycMnYndUcCa ³
        -ksagEpnkarhirBaØvtßúRbcaMRtImas
        -TTYlxusRtUvkñúgkardwknaMkic©karhirBaØvtßú nigbBa¢IkaKNenyürbs;GgÁPaB
        -begáIt nigRtYtBinitüKNnIrbs;GgÁPaB smRsbtamKNenyüTUeTArbs;Cati
        -kt;Rtaral;)atuPUthirBaØvtßúTaMgGs;EdlekIteLIgeTAtamEbbbTKNenyü
        -RtYtBinitü nigeFIVr)aykarN_hirBaØvtßúerogral;;Ex
        -shkarCamYymRnþIRtYtBinitünana edIm,IGnuvtþeKalkarN_bBa¢IkarKNenyü
        -shkarCamYynaykdæannanakñúgkarbegáIt nigGnuvtþEpnkarfvika.
                                  2-4-1-kariy al½y KNenyü

     kariyal½yKNenyüCaesnaFikarCMnYyRbFannaykdæanKNenyühirBaØvtßú kñúgkargar
KNenyü nigebLaTaMgGs;kñúgGgÁPaB EdlTTYlParkic©sMxan;² dUcCa ³
     -eFIVKNenyüviPaK nigRtYtBinitükarcuHbBa¢IkarKNenyüeTAtamRbB½n§Edl)anGnum½t
      edayRkumRbwkSaPi)alRsbtambøg;KNenyüTUeTArbs;Cati nigtamviFanénKNenyü
      EdlTTYl sÁal;CaTUeTA.
     -KNnaéføedImTwk nigéføedImsMPar³ eTAtamviFanKNenyü RBmTaMgeFIVkarRKb;RKg
      XøaMgsMMPar³ nigRKb;RKgral; Gcln³RTBüEdl)ankt;RtaCaTunrbs;GgÁPaB.
     -TTYlxusRtUvelIR)ak;kk;rbs;GtifiCn nigRKb;RKgsac;R)ak;EdlmanenAkñúgFnaKar.
     -erobcMÉksarbg;Bn§ nigeFIVr)aykarN_cMNUlcMNayerogral;Ex.
13
     tamesckþIkMNt;sþIGMBItYnaTI Parkic© rbs;rdæakrTwk nigkarsMPasn_CamYyelakRbFannaykdæan
     KNenyü nighirBaØvtßú.
                                                                                             18
                         2-4-2-kariy al½y hirBaØv tßú

        kariyal½yhirBaØvtßú KWCaesnaFikarrbs;RbFannaykdæanelIkargarKMeragfvika nigEpñk
hirBaØvtßúTaMgGs;kñúgrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj. kariyal½yenHmanParkic©³
        -shkarCamYybNþakariyal½yepSgeTotkñúgkarerobcMEpnkarfvikacMNUl nigcMNay
           RbcaMqñaMnwgdak;CUnRkumRbwkSaPi)alGnum½teGay)anTan;kalkMNt;
        -eFIVkareRbobeFobEpnkarfvikaCamYykargarCak;Esþgral;Ex RtImas qmas nigqñaM
        -epÞógpÞat; nigRtYtBinitübBa¢IviPaKFnaKarCamYynwgTinñanub,vtþerogral;Ex
        -TTYlxusRtUvelIkarTijsMPar³.
                         2-4-3-kariy al½y pÁt ;pÁg;s MPar³

        kariyal½ypÁt;pÁg;sMPar³ CaesnaFikarrbs;naykdæanKNenyü nighirBaØvtßú elIkar
garpÁt;pÁg;sMPar³ EdlmanParkic© ³
        -eFIVEpnkartMrUvkarsMPar³ ]bkrN_ eRKOgm:asIun eRKOgbnøas; .
        -erobcMEbbbTedjéføpÁt;pÁg;sMPar³ edayGnuelamtameKalkarN_lT§kmµrbs;RksYg
          esdækic© nighirBaØvtßú .
        -RtYtBinitüsMPar³ nigkt;bBa¢ÚleGay)anRtwmRtUvTaMgbrimaN nigKuNPaB RBmTaMg
          shkarCamYykariyal½yKNenyüRKb;RKgEfrkSa nigepÞogpÞat;nUvbNþasMPar³sþúk.
                 2-5-naykdæanbec©k eTs nigKMerag
        naykdæanbec©keTs nigKMerag )anedIrtYnaTIy:agsMxan;kñúgdMeNIrkarGaCIvkmµEdlman
kariyal½y 3 enAeRkam»vaT ³ TI1-kariyal½yRKb;RKgKMerag TI2-kariyal½ysikSaKMerag nig
TI3 -kariyal½yRKb;RKgRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twk14. naykdæanenHmanParkic© ³
        -karshkarCamYysßab½nBak;;B½n§ nigRbeTspþl;CMnYyerobcMEpnkarry³eBlxøI mFüm
         nigEvg.
        -kMNt;bTdæanbec©keTs RBmTaMgRKb;RKgKMeragEdlCaCMnYy b¤£\NTanBIxageRkA
        -tamdan nigRtYtBinitüCaRbcaMelIkarGnuvtþKMeragEdl)andak;cuH.
14
     bTsMPasn_CamYyRbFannaykdæanbec©keTs nigKMerag éf¶TI 04 Ex emsa qñaM2002
                                                                                  19
                        2-5-1-kariy al½y RKb;RKgKMerag

        kariyal½yRKb;RKgKMerag erobcM nigRKb;RKgKMeragvinieyaKEdlCaCMnYy b¤Ca\NTan
BIxageRkA15 manParkic© ³
        -eFIVKMeragedIm,IesñIsuMCMnYy \NTan b¤Tak;TajkarvinieyaKBIeRkA.
        -shkarCamYyTIRbwkSabec©keTs nigGñkem:AkarKMerag erobcMkmµviFIGnuvtþKMerag ehIy
eFIVesckþIraykarN_CUndl;bNþakariyal½yBak;B½n§ BIlT§pl nigkarvivtþn_énKMerag.
                        2-5-2-kariy al½y sik SaKMerag

        kariyal½ysikSaKMerageFIVEpnkarrYm ry³eBlxøI mFüm nigEvg nigkarksagbTdæan
bec©keTs RBmTaMgRtYtBinitükarGnuvtþn_KMeragEdlCafvikarbs;rdæakrTwk. EpñkenHTTYlxus
RtUvelIkargardUcCa³
        -shkarCamYynaykdæanKNenyü nighirBaØvtßúksagesovePAbnÞúk nigkic©snüa
         edIm,IeFIVkaredjéføbNþaKMeragEdlCafvikarbs;GgÁPaB
        -eFIVEpnkarKMeragry³eBlxøI mFüm nigEvg
        -RtYtBinitü nigpþl;eyabl;sMrbsMrYldl;karGnuvtþn_KMeragTaMgGs;EdlTak;Tgkargar
         bec©keTs.
                        2-5-3-kariy al½y RKb;RKgRbB½n §pÁt ;pÁg;T wk

         kariyal½yRKb;RKgRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twk mantYnaTIEfrkSaRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg; nigRKb;RKgTwkmin
eGaymankar)at;bg; eBalKWkat;bnßyGRta)at;bg;TwkeGaymkenARtwmkMritTabbMput. Cak;Esþg
kalBImunqñaM 1993 Twk)at;bg;mancMnYn 70° Et\LÚvenHRtUv )ankat;bnßymkenARtwm 20°
b:ueNÑaH 16.

15
     xageRkA mann½yfaKMeragvinieyaKEdlTTYlCMnYyBIbreTs .
16
     GRtaénkar)at;bg;TwkEdlfycuHmkenARtwm 20° enHKW edaysarEtkarRKb;RKg)anl¥ Biess
     karRKb;RKgEpñkbec©keTs. bTsMPasn_CamYyelakRbFannaykdæanbec©keTs nigKMerag éf¶TI 04
     Exemsa qñaM2002 .
                                                                                     20
        eRkABIbNþanaykdæanTaMg 5 Edl)anbgðajxagelIenHenAmanbNþaGgÁPaBcMNuHpÞal;
GKÁnaykcMnYn 2 eTotKW ³
        -elxaFikardæan ³ CaGñksMrbsMrYlkmµviFICak;EsþgRbcaMéf¶ nigral;sMeNIrsMuCYbBiPakSa
rbs;ePJóvRKb;RbePTCUnGKÁnayk nigerobcMral;sMNuMlixit nigÉksardak;CUnGKÁnaykBinitü
sMerc b¤cuHhtßelxa .
        -GFikarkic© nigedaHRsayvivaT ³ mantYnaTIRsavRCavRtYtBinitüral;GMeBIelµIsc,ab; nig
esckþIkMNt;TaMgLaysþIBIkareRbIR)as;Twks¥at nigedaHRsayral;bNþwgtv:arbs;GtifiCnCuMvij
kareRbIR)as;Twk .
V-sßanPaBEpñk hirBaØv tßú
       enAqñaM 2001 sßanPaBhirBaØvtßúrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj)anTTYllT§plx<s; ebI
eRbobeFobCamYyEpnkarEdl)andak;cuH edaysarEtbrimaNTwk)at;bg;fycuH cMNUlkarR)ak;
EdldMkl;TukenAFnaKarmankarekInx<s; nigkarTarR)ak;bMNulBI GgÁPaBrdæ)ancMnYn 24/77°
énTwkR)ak;bMNulsrub ¬KitRtwmvKÁ 5 nig 6 qñaM 2002¦17. karcMNay)anfycuH edaysarEt
manviFankart,itet,ótkarcMNay nigkarcMNayelIkarR)ak; FnaKarmankMritTab .
          1-kargarvin ieyaK
          kargarvinieyaKCaerOgsMxan;Nas;sMrab;GgÁPaBGaCIvkmµnana edIm,IbMerIeGay)antam
sMNUmBrrbs;GtifiCn . tamKMeragEpnkarGPivDÆn_ 3 qñaM 2000-2002 nigEpnkarvinieyaK
RbcaMqñaM 2001 rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjmankarvinieyaKbEnßmeTotCaeRcIn BiesskarBRgIk
smtßPaBplitkmµ nigRbB½n§bNþajTwks¥at kñúgeKalbMNgeFIVeGayRbCaCnenATUTaMgraCFanI
PñMeBjmanTwks¥ateRbIR)as; .
                  1-1-kargarBRgIk smtßPaBplit kmµ
        karsagsg;eragcRkeRCaycgVarEdl)ancuHhtßelxakalBIéf¶TI 10 Exmina qñaM1999
)andak;eGaydMeNIrkartameBlevlaEdl)aneRKagTuk. cMENkkarsagsg;BRgIkeragcRk
17
     rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ³ r)aykarN_lT§plqñaM 2001 ¬8 Ex edImqñaM¦ PñMeBj 2001 TMB½rTI 7.
                                                                                          21
plitTwkPUmiERBkEdlCaKMeragCMnYydMNak;kalTI 3 rbs;rdæaPi)alCb:un edIm,IBRgIksmtßPaB
plitTwks¥atbEnßm 50 000 m3 kñúgmYyéf¶EfmeTotk¾RtUv)anGnuvtþEdr.
         -kalBIéf¶TI 5 Ex]sPa qñaM 2001 tamry³raCrdæaPi)alénRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa
fvikacMnYn 2 580 000 000 ey:n RtUv)anrdæaPi)alCb:un)anGnum½tpþl;eGayrdæakrTwksVy½t
RkugPñMeBjsMrab;cMNayeTAelIkarsagsg; nigRtYtBinitükarsagsg;eragcRk.
         - enAéf¶TI 8 Ex mifuna qñaM 2001 TwkR)ak; 136 932 000 ey:n RtUv)ancuHhtßelxa
ÉkPaBBIrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj edIm,IeGayTIRbwkSabec©keTsCb:un TEC bnþkarRtYtBinitü
karsagsg; nigerobcMÉksaredjéfø
          -éf¶TI 23 ExsIha qñaM 2001 rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj)ancUlrYmkñúgkarebIkÉksar
edjéføeRCIserIsRkumh‘unsagsg;eragcRkPUmiERBkenATIRkugtUküÚ RbeTsCb:un. kic©snüaRtUv
)anRbKl;eGayRkumh‘un KuybUta kñúgTwkR)ak;srubcMnYn 2 437 850 000 ey:n EdlKMerag
enHRtUvbBa©b;enAcugqñaM 2003.
         TIPñak;garGPivDÆn_RbeTsCb:un)anpþl;Gñkbec©keTs 1 rUb tamkaresñIsuMrbs;rdæakrTwk
sVy½tRkugPñMeBj edIm,IshkarsikSaBIlT§PaBelIkartMelIgRbB½n§RtYtBinitü Telemeter sMrab;
tamdankarplitTwkeRbobeFobeTAnwgRbB½n§EckcayTwk.
               1-2-kargarBRgIk RbB½n §EckcayTwk
        kñúgkarBRgIkRbB½n§EckcayTwkenHmanCMnYy nigKMerag\NTanCaeRcIn)ancUlrYmdUcCa ³
        -kardak;bMBg;emnaMTwkEdlCaRkbx½NÐKMerag\NTanrbs;FnaKarGPivDÆn_GasIu RtUv)an
Rkumh‘un sad énRbeTs)araMgTTYlGnuvtþKMerag rhUtmkdl;eBlenHkardak;bMBg;emnaMTwkEdl
manRbEvg 15/4 KILÚEm:Rt sMerc)an 15 151/74 Em:RtehIy.
        -kargardak;bMBg;emEckcayTwkenAtMbn;cak;GERgeRkam c,arGMeBA nigERBkR)a )an
dMeNIrkareRkam\NTanrbs;FnaKarGPivDÆn_GasuI EdlerobcMRbkasedjéføCalkçN³GnþrCati
kalBIéf¶TI 15 Exmina qñaM2001 knøgmkenH.
        -TIRbwkSabec©keTsrrbs;FnaKarBiPBelak saEhV Edl)aneFIVkarsikSaelIkarpÁt;pÁg;
TwkeTAtMbn;CayRkug)anbBa©b;CasßaBr nig)aneFIVkarEbgEckGnuvtþKMeragedayfvikarsl;BIkar
edjéføeragcRkeRCaycgVar. kardak;bMBg;emnaMTwkcMnYn 3 ExS cab;BITMhM 400 dl; 600 mm
                                                                                    22
manRbEvg 19 956 m sMrab;naMTwkpÁt;pÁg;eTAtMbn;CayRkugEb:kxaglickMBugEtGnuvtþ.
       eRkABICMnYyxagelIrdæakrTwk)andMeNIrkarsagsg;XøaMgsMPar³ XøaMgÉksar nigkEnøg
BiesaFn_naLikaTwkEdlcMNayfvikapÞal;rbs;GgÁPaB.
          2-kargarhirBaØv tßú
        tamKMeragEpnkarfvikadMeNIrshRKas nigEpnkarvinieyaKRbcaMqñaM 2001 rdæakrTwk
sVy½tRkugPñMeBj )anBRgwgkargarRKb;RKghirBaØvtßú eday)anbegáInkarkt;Rta tamEbbbTEdl
kMNt;kñúgc,ab;. karcMNay nigR)ak;cMNUlenAkñúgqñaM2001 rbs;GgÁPaBman18 ³
        -R)ak;cMNUlkñúgqñaM 2001 srub)an 35 762 794 435 erol ebIRbobeFobCamYy
         nwgqñaM 2000 knøgmkmankarekIneLIgcMnYn 10 883 387 246 erol.
        -R)ak;cMNaykñúgqñaM 2001 srubman 28 649 369 538 erol.
VI   -sßanPaBbec©k eTs
        kñúgqñaM 2001 enHsßanPaBbec©keTskñúgkargarplitkmµmankarrIkcMerInCaxøaMg eday
sardMeNIrkarGaCIvkmµrbs;rdæakrTwkmankarrIkcMerIn eBalKWcMnYnGtifiCn)anekIneLIgCalMdab;
nigkarCYyeRCamERCgBIRbeTspþl;CMnYydUcCaCb:un EdlkarCYyenaHmanTaMgEpñkbec©keTs nig
CMnYyhirBaØvtßú. buKÁlikEdlBImunminmanCMnajc,as;las; \LÚvenH)anTTYlkarbNþúHbNþal
bec©keTs nigmanCMnajc,as;las;kñúgkargar.
          1-kargarplit Twk
          kñúgdMeNIrkarGaCIvkmµsBVéf¶enHrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjmaneragcRkplitTwk 3 KW³
          1-eragcRkcMkarmnEdlmansmtßPaBplitTwk)an 30 000m3¼kñúg 1 éf¶ EdldMeNIr
               kareRkamCMnYymnusSFm’rbs;rdæaPi)al)araMg nigCb:un.
          2-eragcRkPUmiERBkEdlmansmtßPaBplitTwk)an 150 000m3¼kñúg 1 éf¶ EdlTTYl
               )anCMnYyhirBaØvtßú nigbec©keTsBIRbCaCn nigrdæaPi)alCb:un.

18
     - d - TMB½r 33.
                                                                                  23
            3-eragcRkeRCaycgVarEdlmansmtßPaBplitTwk)an 65 000m3¼kñúg 1 éf¶ eRkam
               KMerag\NTanrbs;FnaKarBiPBelak.
        edIm,IeGaykargarpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥at)anRKb;RKan;tamtMrUvkareRbIR)as;rbs;GtifiCnenATUTaMg
raCFanIPñMeBjRbkbedayKuNPaB nigRbsiTi§PaBRsbtameKalneya)ayrbs;GgÁPaB rdæakrTwk
sVy½tRkugPñMeBj)anGnuvtþKMeragEpnkarsþar nigBRgIkbEnßmnUvRbB½n§plitkmµ nigRbB½n§Eckcay
tambNþaEpnkarqñaMdUcxageRkam ³
            taragTI 1 brimaNTwkEdlplit)antamqñaM

                       brimaNTwkplitkñúgqñaM        GRtaTwk)at;bg; brimaNTwkeRbIR)as;
     qñaM
                             ¬m3¦                       ¬°¦         ¬lIRt¼nak;¼éf¶¦
  1997                  31 944 000                      53               150
  1998                  34 848 000                      45               150
  1999                  34 848 000                      40               160
  2000                  47 190 000                      35               180
  2001                  71 148 000                      30               200
RbPB ³ EpnkarGPivDÆn_ 5 qñaMrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj TMB½rTI 10.
            2-karRtYt Bin it üKuN PaBTwk
         rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjFanaKuNPaBTwks¥at bMerIsMNUmBrxagEpñksuxPaBCUnGtifiCn
enAkñúgraCFanIPñMeBj edaycat;EcgeGaymankarRtYtBinitüCaRbcaMTaMgTwks¥atEdl)anplitrYc
enAkñúgGagsþúkTwkrbs;eragcRk nigTwkEdl)anbeBa©jBIeragcRkbBa¢Úntamry³bNþajEckcay
edIm,IeGaymanlkçN³smRsbtambTdæanmYy EdlmanlkçN³Rbhak;RbEhl nigbTdæanrbs;
GgÁkarsuxPaBBiPBelak.
         cMeBaHdMeNIrkarplitTwkRbcaMéf¶¶ Gñkbec©keTsxagBiesaFn_)anykTwks¥atBIkñúgRbB½n§
plitkmµ nigRbB½n§EckcaymkeFIVkarviPaKCaeTogTat; edIm,IeFIVkarRtYtBinitütamdanKuNPaB .


                                                                                       24
                   2-1-karRtYt Bin it üKuN PaBTwk kñúgRbB½n §plit kmµ
        karviPaKkñúgRbB½n§plitkmµeFIVeLIgCaRbcaMéf¶ 3 dgkñúg 1 éf¶ nig2 dgkñúg 1éf¶cMeBaH
éf¶Qb;sMrak ¬éf¶esAr_ GaTitü nigéf¶buNü¦. karRtYtBinitütambeNþayExSsgVak;rbs;
plitkmµcMnYn 6 cMNucRtUvykmkviPaKelIsmassFatu 8 mux KW sItuNðPaB PaBl¥k; tMél pH
cMlgcrnþGKÁisnI kkrwgGENþt kkrlaysrub kø½rsl;esrI nigkø½rsl;srub19. minEtb:ueNÑaH
mankartamdanvtþmanrbs;emeraKenAerogral;s)þah_ nigeFIV Jar Test edIm,IkMNt;vtßúFatuedIm
sMrab;eFIVeGayTwkføaCaerogral;s)aþh_Edr.
                   2-2-karRtYt Bin it üKuN PaBTwk kñúgRbB½n §Eckcay
       kareFIVviPaKRtYtBinitüKuNPaBTwkenAkñúgRbB½n§EckcayRtUv)aneFIVCaeTogTat; 1 dgkñúg
1 s)aþh_enA 8 kEnøgepSg² Kña edayeFIVkarviPaKelIsItuNðPaB PaBl¥k; tMélpH cMlgcrnþ
kkrwgGENþt kkrlaysrub kø½rsl;esrI nigkø½rsl;srub. kñúgkrNI brimaNkø½rsl; mankMrit
TabenaH karviPaKemeraKRtUv)aneFIVPøam.
          taragTI 2 muxviPaKTwkenAtameragcRk nigbNþajEckcay

        muxviPaK            Ékta      kMritkMNt;rbs; eragcRk eragcRk tambNþaj
                                           WHO          cMkarmn PUmiERBk EckcayTwk
PaBl¥k;                  NTU              <5             2/60        1/38 1/89
tMél pH                                 6/5 - 8/5 7/09               6/68             6/93
brimaNkø½rsl;esrI mg/l                    0/1 - 1        0/33 0/49                    0/14
brimaNkø½rsl;srub mg/l                    0/5 - 2        0/46        0/62 0/27
emeraKkUlIPaMsrub cfu./100ml 0                           0           0                0
emeraKGuIkUéL         cfu./100ml          1              0           0                0
RbPB ³ rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ³ r)aykarN_lT§plqñaM 2001 ¬ 8 ExedImqñaM ¦ TMB½rTI1 8.


19
     sUmemIl - d - TMB½r 17.
                                                                                     25
          2-kargarbNþaj
         RbEvgbNþajEckcay Edl)anmanTaMgGs; 517 621/31 m CamYyKñanwgkarerob
cMRbB½n§EckcayenH k¾mankarkat;bNþajcas;ecalQb;eGayeRbImanTMhMcab;BI 50 mm dl;
700 mm manRbEvgsrub 51 445 m. kargarEpñkdak; nigpøas;bþÚrbMBg;EckcayTwkyWt eday
sarkaryWty:avCuMvijTMrg;EbbbT karnaMcUlsMPar³ niglkçN³PUmisaRsþ minGMeNaypl 20.
         karCYsCulbNþajFøúHFøay21 EdleFIVeGayTwkhUrecj edaykrNIepSg² dUcCa karEbk
bMBg;cas;RTuDeRTam sMPar³tP¢ab;KµanKuNPaB karCIk b¤QUsb:H nigedayktþabec©keTsRtUv)an
cat;TukCaParkic©bnÞan;rbs;rdæakrTwk. kñúgkaredaHRsaybBaðacMeBaHmux rdæakrTwk)anbEnßmnUvRkum
CMnajxagEpñkenH edIm,Irg;caMTTYlBt’man nigFanakarCYsCulbNþajFøúHFøayRKb;RbePTkñúgry³
eBly:agxøIbMput. CalT§plenAkñúgqñaM 2001 )anCYsCulbNþajFøúHFøaycMnYn 1 152 kEnøg.
          taragTI 3 xageRkambgðajBIbNþajFøúHFøay mUlehtu nigPaKry
                            FøayelIbMBg;fµI
                                  kartMelIgBuMRtwmRtUv FøayelIbMBg;cas;          srub
RbePTbNþaj eKeFIVeGayFøay
                                     tambec©keTs
                 cMnYn °          cMnYn °              cMnYn °             cMnYn °
bNþajem 87 7/55 36 3/13 31 2/69 154 13/37
bNþajcUlpÞH 666 57/81 60 5/21 272 23/61 998 86/63
srub            753 65/36 96                8/33 303 26/30 1152
RbPB ³ rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPMeBj ³ r)aykarlTÁ§plqñaM 2001 ¬ 8 ExedImqñaM ¦ TMB½r23.


20
     - d - TMB½r 4.
21
      bNþajeBlenHsMedAelIbNþajRKb;RbePT tamFmµtabNþajbMBg;Twkrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj
     EckecjCabIRbePTKW bMBg;sMrab;naMTwk bNþajEckcay nigbNþajcUlpÞH. bTsMPasn_CamYy
     RbFannaykdæan GaCIvkmµéf¶TI 25 ExkumÖ³ qññaM2002.

                                                                                       26
VII-  kargarbNþúHbNþal nigGPiv DÆ
        kargarbNþúHbNþal nigGPivDÆFnFanmnusS CakargarcaM)ac;EdlRtUvmanKMeragEpnkar
c,as;las;GMBIRbPBfvikasMrab;GnuvtþelIRbePTviC¢aCIv³ muxCMnajbec©keTs nigcMnYnbuKÁlikEdl
RtUvTTYlkarbNþúHbNþal. RbPBfvikasMxan;² sMrab;karbNþúHbNþalbuKÁlikmanBIr³
        -fvikakñúgRsuk b¤fvikarbs;GgÁPaBrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj
        -fvikaCMnYyBIbreTs GgÁkareRkArdæaPi)alnana.
        rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjmankmµviFIbNþúHbNþalTaMgbuKÁlik nig sisSnisSitEdleFIVkmµ
sikSaRsavRCav. karbNþþúHbNþalbuKÁlikeFIVeLIgtameRcInrUbPaBdUcCa 22³
        -buKÁlikEdlmancMeNHviC¢aehIy EtrdæakrTwkemIleTAGnaKtfa GñkenaHGacmansmtßPaB
r:ab;rgTTYlxusRtUvkargarFMduM)anebIsinCa)anTTYlkarbNþúHbNþalbEnßmenaHrdæakrTwknwgeFIVkar
bNþúHbNþalbuKÁlikenaH.
         -mYyvijeTotrdæakrTwkeFIVkarbNþúHbNþalcMeBaHbuKÁlikmYycMnYn EdlEpñkrbs;Kat;man
plRbeyaCn_dl;rdæakrTwk EtKat;minTan;mansmtßPaB nigcMeNHdwgRKb;RKan;.
        -eRkABIenHenAmanbuKÁlikEdlcg;GPivDÆn_xøÜnÉgeGaymancMeNHdwgkan;Etx<s; eday
h‘ancMNayfvikapÞal;xøÜneronsURtbEnßm rdæakrTwknwgmankarelIkTwkcitþedayeFIVkarEkERbRkb
x½NÐebovtSCUnKat;enAeBlEdlKat;)anTTYlsBaØabR½t.
        CasMNUmBrcaM)ac;énkarGPivDÆn_FnFanmnusS begáInRbsiT§iPaB KuNPaBkargar nig
edIm,IGaceRbIR)as;nUv]bkrN_TMenIb² Edlkan;EtrIkcMerInBImYyéf¶eTAmYyéf¶enaH rdæakrTwk
sVy½tRkugPñMeBj)anGnuvtþKMeragbNþúHbNþalFnFanmnusSEdleFIVeLIgTaMgenAkñúgRsuk nigenA
breTs.
         1-karbNþúHbNþalkñúgRbeTs
         karbNþúHbNþalenAkñúgRbeTsenHeFIVtamBIrrUbPaB³ 1-karbNþúHbNþalenAkñúgGgÁPaB
rdæaTwk nig 2-bBa¢ÚneGayeTAbNþúHbNþalenAtamviTüasßan mhaviTüal½y nigmCÄmNÐlbNþúH
bNþalnanaeTAtamCMnajrbs;buKÁlikmñak;². rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjmanmNÐlbNþúH
22
     bTsMPasn_CamYyelakRbFannaykdæanrdæ)al nigFnFanmnusSkalBIéf¶TI 25 Exemsa qñaM 2002.
                                                                                    27
bNþalmYyEdlebIkTVarTTYlbNþúHbNþalsikçakamtaMgBIqñaM 1997 mkemø:H. mNÐlenHsßit
enAeRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;GgÁPaBbNþúHbNþalEdlTTYlr:ab;rgelIkargarbNþúHbNþalTaMgGs;
ehIymanKMeragfvikaRbcaMqñaMedayELkrbs;xøÜn. nieyaCitmYycMnYnFMkMBugEtbNþúHbNþalelI
CMnajkuMBüÚT½r PasaGg;eKøs bec©keTs RKb;RKg rdæ)al KNenyü nigFnFanmnusS. CMnaj
xagelIenHmanxøHeFIVkarbNþúHbNþalenAkñúgmNÐlbNþúHbNþalnigxøHeTotbNþúHbNþalenAtam
mCÄmNÐlbNþúHbNþalxageRkAdUcCa mCÄmNÐlGb;rMGURsþalI ¬ACE¦ salabec©keTseRKOg
ynþGKÁisnIb¤sSIEkv nigmhaviTüal½y FML CaedIm.
          2-karbNþúHbNþalenAeRkARbeTs
        karbNþúHbNþalenAeRkARbeTsPaKeRcIneFIVenARbeTséf hVIlIBIn nigCb:un. Cak;Esþg
kalBIkMLúgqñaM1995-1996 rdæakrTwk)aneFIVkarbNþúHbNþalRTg;RTayFMmYyenAeRkARbeTs
elImuxCMnajmYycMnYndUcxageRkam 23³
        -EpnkarGaCIvkmµesdækic©TIpSar kargarRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúenA AIT RbeTséf 2 nak;
        -CMnajRKb;RKgkMritkNþal nigx<s;enA AIT RbeTséf 1 nak;
        - CMnajdwknaMmRnþIfñak;kNþalenA PWA RbeTséf 4 nak;
        -EpñksikSaKMeragTwks¥at plitTwks¥at RbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twks¥at kargarbridæan suxPaB
         Gnam½y KImIbridæan nigGtisuxumCIvsaRsþenA AIT RbeTséf 5 nak;
        -fñak;eRtomykbriBaØØaCan;x<s;sMrab;visVkrenA AIT RbeTséf 2 nak;
        -EpñkdMeNIrkarnigkarEfTaM]bkrN_pÁt;pÁg;TwkenA viTüasßanbec©keTs Kong Mongkut
         enARbeTséf 8 nak;
        -EpñkeFIVKMeragpÁt;pÁg;Twk RbB½n§sMGatTwk m:asIunbUmbNþajEckcayTwk karRKb;RKg
         esdækic© eFIVvik½ybR½tenA RbeTshIVlIBIn 10 nak;.
23
     mUlehtusMxan;EdlnaMeGaymankarbNþúHbNþalenAeRkARbeTs edaysarEtRbeTskm<úCaminTan;man
     kEnøgbNþúHbNþalGMBICMnajTwks¥at. rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjRtUvBwgEp¥kelIR)ak;pÞal;xøÜn rYmpSMCa
     mYykarCYy]btßmÖBIbreTs kmµviFIGPivDÆn_GgÁkarshRbCaCati nigFnaKarBiPBelak edIm,IbBa¢Ún
     buKÁlikxøÜneTAbNþúHbNþalenAbreTs. bTsMPasn_CamYyRbFannaykdæanrdæ)al nigFnFanmnusS
     kalBI éf¶TI 25 Exemsa qñaM 2002.
                                                                                               28
        eRkABIkargarbNþúHbNþalxagelIrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj)anbBa¢ÚnbuKÁlik nieyaCik
rbs;xøÜneTAcUlrYmkñúgsikçasalananaenAeRkARbeTseTotpg edIm,ITTYlyknUvbTBiesaFn_BI
bNþaRbeTsepSg² elIvis½yTwks¥atenH.




                                                                                 29
                                   CMBUk TI II
             yuT §s aRsþénkarRKb;RKgrbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj

I-yuT §s aRsþénkarRKb;RKgGaCIv kmµ
         rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjk¾dUcRkumh‘unÉkCndéTeTotEdrminGacdMeNIrkarÉkÉgeday
ÉkraCüBImCÄdæanrbs;xøÜn)aneT. ktþaepSg² EdlnwgERbRbYlRKb;eBlevlaRtUv)aneFIVkarRtYt
Binitü\tQb;Qr ehIyGñkRKb;RKgRtUvEtsMrbeTAtamsßanPaBfµIy:agqab;rh½stam EdlGac
eFIVeTA)an. mCÄdæanEdlelIkmkBiPakSaeBlenHsMedAelImCÇdæanxagkñúg nigmCÄdæanxageRkA.
mCÄdæanxagkñúgrYmmantaMgBIbuKÁlik nieyaCk nieyaCitkmµkr nig]bkrN_plitkmµ cMENkÉ
mCÄdæanxageRkAvijmanGtifiCn GñkpÁt;pÁg; GñkRbkYtRbECg nigsßab½nEdlBak;B½n§.
         karEbgEcktYnaTIenAkñúgGgÁPaB)anepÞrkarTTYlxusRtUveTAeGayEpñkCMnajmYy² tam
naykdæanRKb;RKg sMercenAkñúgkMritkMNt;mYy nigedIm,IRtYtBinitüemIlBIskmµPaBRbcaMéf¶.
         1-karRKb;RKgbuK Álik
        karRKb;RKgCabBaðacMbgrbs;GgÁPaB ebIsinCakarRKb;RKgmin)anditdl;eTGacbNþal
eGayGgÁPaBdMeNIrkarmin)anl¥ ehIyedIm,IeGaylT§plkargarmanPaBRbesIr nigl¥caM)ac;
Nas;RtUveFIVeGaybuKÁlikRKb;EpñkecHsamKÁIKañ Rslaj;Kña shkarKñaeFIVkargar nigman
vin½yéføfñÚrRbkbedaykarTTYlxusRtUvx<s;.
        kñúgqñaM 2001 fñak;dwknaM mRnþI nignieyaCitsrubTaMgGs;rbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj
mancMnYn 416nak; burs 348 nak; nigRsþI 68 nak; EdlmankarEbgEckeTAtamRkbx½NÐdUc
teTA 24³
        -Rkbx½NÐrdæ              1 nak;
        -Rkbx½NÐnaykdæan 7 nak;
        -Rkbx½NÐGnuvtþ           61 nak;
        -Rkbx½NÐRbtibtþi 347 nak;.
24
     rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj r)aykarN_lT§plqñaM 2001 ¬8ExedImqñaM¦ d> É> m> TMB½rTI 13.
                                                                                           30
         taragTI 4 bgðajBIkMritCMnajrbs;mRnþIEbgEcktamGayu
                     Gayu                    eRkam 25- 36-
                                                                            elIs45qñaM   srub
kMritGb;rM nigmuxCMnaj                       25qñaM 35 45
bNÐit                                           -         -         1            -        1
GnubNÐit                                        -         5         7            -       12
visVkr¼]tþmsikSabec©keTs                       7         20 3                    5       35
Gñkbec©keTsCan;x<s;¼mFüm                        9        24 6                   3        42
GñkmanbTBiesaFn_kargarcab;BI10qñaMeLIg -                33 46                   45       124
mFümsikSaTutiyPUmi nigGñkTTYlkarbNþúH
                                               36        26         -            -       62
bNþalry³eBlxøI
kmµkrCMnaj                                      5         9         6            6        26
kmµkrBlkmµ                                     27        39 26                  22       114
srub                                           84 156 94                        81       416
RbPB ³ rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ³ r)aykarN_lT§plqñaM2001 ¬8ExedImqñaM¦ TMBrTI 13.
                                                                          ½
        GgÁPaB)anGnuvtþkargarbNþúHbNþalbMBak;bMb:nmuxCMnaj mankarEtgtaMgtMelIgtYnaTI
nigzan³ karpþl;CargVan;elIksresIr nigkarpakBin½ycMeBaHbuKÁlikEdl)anRbRBwtþxus 25 kñúg
dMeNIrkarRKb;RKg nigGPivDÆn_FnFanmnusS. minEtb:ueNÑaHEfmTaMg)ansMercdak;eGayGnuvtþ
nUvbTbBa¢aépÞkñúgedIm,IeGaybuKÁlikTaMgGs;mansuCIvFm’ nigesckþIéføfñÚrkñúgskmµPaBkargar.
                1-1-eBlevlaeFIVk ar
        nieyaCikTaMgGs;rbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjRtUvbMeBjkargarcMnYn 8 em:ag kñúgmYy
éf¶ nig 5 éf¶kñúgmYys)aþh_tameBlem:ag nigéf¶kMNt;dUcxageRkam ³
                 -éf¶eFIVkarcab;BIéf¶ c½nÞ dl;éf¶ suRk
                 -em:ageFIVkar eBlRBwk cab;BIem:ag 7 dl;em:ag 11 ³ 30 naTI
                 -em:ageFVIkar eBlresol cab;BIem:ag 14 dl;em:ag 17 ³ 30 naTI.
25
     tamRbsasn_rbs;elakRbFannaykdæanrdæ)al nigFnFanmnusSéf¶TI 17 Exmkra qñaM2002.
                                                                                     31
        GgÁPaBk¾manR)ak;kMérbEnßmcMeBaHbuKÁlikEdlbMeBjkargareRkABIeBlevlakMNt;xag
elItambTbBaØatiþEdlmanEcgkñúglkçnþik³buKÁlik. nieyaCitTaMgGs;RtUvmanParkic©eKarBTg;Cati
enAral;eBlRBwk elIkElgEtkñúgkrNImanbBa¢aebskmµ b¤Fur³caM)ac;bnÞan;EdlRtUv)ancat;taMg
b¤TTYlsÁal;edaymRnþIRKb;RKgpÞal;.
                 1-2-karQb;s Mrak
        buKÁlikTaMgGs;mansiT§iTTYlkarQb;sMrakRbcaMqñaM nigéf¶buNüCatiGnþrCatitameKalkarN_
EdlrdæaPi)al)ankMNt;. nieyaCitGacsuMc,ab;Qb;sMrak kñúgkrNIEdlmanFur³pÞal;xøÜnkñúgRKYsar
EtRtUvdak;BaküsuMGnuBaØatQb;sMrakeTAmRnþIRKb;RKgpÞal;tamzananuRkm nigtamkarkMNt;dUc
xageRkam26 ³
        -RbFanEpñk mansiT§iGnuBaØatc,ab;cMnYn 1 éf¶
        -naykariyal½y mansiT§iGnuBaØatc,ab;cMnYn 2 éf¶
        -RbFannaykdæan mansiT§iGnuBaØatc,ab;cMnYn 3 éf¶
        -ebIelIsBI 3 éf¶RtUvsuMkarGnuBaØatBIGKÁnayk b¤GKÁnaykrgEdlTTYlsiT§i.
        ral;karQb;sMrakeRkABIlkçxNÐTaMgbu:nµanxagelInwgRtUvcat;TukCakarelµIs nigbTbBa¢a
nwgRtUvTTYlTNÐkmµedayeyagtamlkçnþik³buKÁlik.
                 1-3-ÉksNæan nigkarEfrkSar]bkrN_s MPar³
        rdæakrTwk)ankMNt;eGaymanCaÉksNæan nigpøaksBaØac,as;las;sMrab;eRbIR)as;enA
kñúgGgÁPaB ehIyEdlnieyaCitmñak;² RtUvEtesøókBak;eBlbMeBjkargarCacaM)ac;. pøaksBaØa
nigÉksNæanenaH)ankMNt;dUcxageRkam ³
        -buKÁlikkariyal½y ³ exa b¤sMBt;BN’Twkb‘íc GavBN’s manb:Ul.
        -Pñak;garTarR)ak; Pñak;garRsg;elxnaLika Pñak;garGegátGtifiCn nigPñak;garGFikarkic©
manÉksNæan exa b¤sMBt;Twkb‘íc nigGavBN’épÞemX.
        -buKÁlikeragcRk nigeragCag ³ exa b¤sMBt; nigGavBN’exov.
        -Pñak;garkarBarRtUv)ankMNt;ÉksNæanedayELk.

26
     eyagtamlkçnþik³buKÁlikRbkar 43 .
                                                                                     32
      ÉcMENkkareRbIR)as;]bkrN_sMPar³vijnieyaCikmñak;² RtUvEtEfrkSasMGat nigTukdak;
eGay)anRtwmRtUvRbkbedaykarykcitþTukdak;.
               1-4-Rkit RkmeFIVk argar
        tamRkitRkmkargarnieyaCitrbs;rdæakrTwkRtUvFanakarsMgat;viC¢aCIv³rbs;GgÁPaB. kññúg
enaHEdr naykdæannImYy² CaGñkesñIñnUvRkitRkmTaMgenH edaymankarGnum½tBIGKÁnayk. kar
RbtibtþikargarRbcaMéf¶ nieyaCitRtUvGnuvtþtamzananuRkmdUcxageRkam KW 27 ³
        -fñak;elImanParkic©bBa¢a nigTTYlxusRtUv
        -fñak;eRkammanParkic©Gnuvtþ b¤RbtibtþitambBa¢a
        -naykdæan nigkariyal½ynImYy² mankmµviFI nigEpnkarkargar ehIyRtUvGnuvtþrbb
raykarN_CUnfñak;elIeGay)aneTogTat;tameBlkMNt;.
               1-5-kareRCIs erIs buK Álik fµI
        kareRCIserIsbuKÁlikfµIRtUvEp¥ktamr)aykarN_RbcaMExBIRKb;naykdæan sMrab;CaBt’man
dl;RbFanEpñkRKb;RKgFnFanmnusS)andwgBIcMnYnbuKÁlikfµIEdlRtUveRCIserIs. ebIsinCaenAkñúg
naykdæanNamYyRtUvkarbuKÁlikbEnßmsMrab;kargarEpñkNamYy GñkRKb;RKgnaykdæanenaHnwg
RtUvbMeBjBaküesñIsuMbuKÁlikbEnßmedaymanbBa¢ak;BImUlehtu nigcMnYneGay)anc,as;las;eTA
naykdæanrdæ)al nigFnFanmnusSedIm,IsuMkaryl;RBm nigsMercedayP¢ab;CamYyParkic© nigkar
TTYlxusRtUvsMrab;buKÁlikEdlnwgRtUveRCIserIs. bnÞab;BImankarsMercrbs;EpñkRKb;RKgFnFan
mnusSehIyRtUvcab;epþImeFIVkarpSBVpSayRbkaseRCIserIsbuKÁlik. knøgmkeRcInEtRbkastam
sarBt’man biTRbkasenAtamTIFøasaFarN³ nigeFIVkarpSBVpSaykñúgGgÁPaB 28.
                       1-5-1-karbegáIt KN³kmµk ar

      munnwgeFIVkareRCIserIsbuKÁlikGKÁnaykRtUvEtgtaMg nigRbKl;Parkic©eGayKN³kmµkar
ÉkraCümYy edIm,IeFIVkareRCIserIstamEbbbT niglkçxNÐkMNt; ehIysmasPaBenAkñúg

27
   bTsMPasn_CamYyelakRbFannaykdæanrdæ)al nigFnFanmnusS éf¶TI 17 Exmkra qñaM2002.
28
   -d -.
                                                                                   33
KN³kmµkarmandUcteTA ³
     -RbFannaykdæanrdæ)al nigFnFanmnusS               Ca RbFan
     -RbFannaykdæanBak;B½n§                              smaCik
     -kariyal½yFnFanmnusS                                smaCik
     -naykariyal½yBak;B½n§                               smaCik
     -RbFanEpñkebovtSr_-buKÁlik                          elxaFikar
       tYnaTIrbs;KN³kmµakarRtUvBinitüemIlelIsm,TaTUeTArbs;ebkçCnmñak;² tamry³kar
RblgRbECgviC¢aCIv³ karsÞabsÞg;smtßPaBedayeGayebkçCnGnuvtþCak;Esþgtambec©keTs b¤
tamviFINamYyEdlKN³kmµkarÉkPaBykmkGnuvtþ. ral;esckþIsMercrbs;KN³kmµkarRtUveFIV
Car)aykarN_sMrab;bBa¢ÚneGayGKÁnaykCaGñkGnum½tsMerc faetIRtUvTTYlyk b¤minyk ?
                       1-5-2-lkçN ³sm,tiþrbs;ebkçCn

       Cak;EsþgbuKÁlikenAkñúgsßab½nrdæ b¤ÉkCnsuT§EtsßiteRkamc,ab;kargarrbs;raCrdæaPi)al
ebImankarxusqÁgnwgRtUvpakBin½ytameTasF¶n;-Rsal. karkMNt;BIlkçN³sm,tþirbs;buKÁlik
mandUcCa ³
       -mansBa¢atiCaExµr
       -manGayuy:agtic 18 qñaM
       -CaBlrdæsuIvil mankaysm,TaRKb;RKan;
       -mankiriyamayaTl¥ BuMEdlmanCab;eTasBIbT]Rkidæ EdleFIVeGayb:HBal;dl;kitþiys
         nigesckþIéføfñÚr.
       -mansmtßPaBxagviC¢aCIv³RKb;RKan;tamsMNUmBr niglkçxNÐénkargar .
                       1-5-3-dMN ak;k alénkareRCIs erIs

         dMNak;kaldMbUgCakareRCIserIsebkçCnEdlmanlkçN³vinicä½yRtwmRtUvtamlkçxNÐ Ca
bnÞab;RbkaspSayBIeQµaHrbs;ebkçCnEdlCab;elIkTI1 edIm,ImkeFIVetsþtamkarkMNt;elIkTI2
elIviBaØasarsresrGMBICMnajEdlRtUverIs kareRbIR)as;kuMBüÚT½r PasaGg;eKøs nigkareFIVsMPasn_
pÞal;mat;. kareFIVsMPasn_pÞal;mat;maneKalbMNgEsVgyl;BIGtþcrik lkçN³sm,tþi sßanPaB

                                                                                     34
rs;enA nigsßanPaBRKYsar. CadMNak;kal cugeRkayCakarRbkaslT§plebkçCnEdl)anCab;
edIm,IeGaymkcuHkic©snüakargarRsbtamlkçnþik³buKÁlik.
        KN³kmµkarminRbkan;;RbPBénkareRCIserIsBIxagkñúg b¤xageRkAeT RbkarsMxan;Tam
Tar EtbMeBjtamlkçxNÐ)anRtwmRtUvtamkarEdlcg;)an kareRCIserIseTotesatminsMxan;elI
bTBiesaFn_ b¤Gayuekµg b¤cas;eT eGayEtmansmtßPaB.
                          1-5-4-karsakl,gkargar

         buKÁlikfµIRtUvcUleFIVkarelIkdMbUgkñúglkçN³Cakarsakl,geRkayBI)ancuHkic©snüakar
garrYc ry³eBlenHbuKÁlikfµIRtUvmanvtþmanCaRbcaMtamkarkMNt;. krNIGvtþmanelIsBI 15
éf¶kñúgry³eBlsakl,g 6 ExRtUvbBaÄb;ElgeGayeFIVkarCasV½yRbvtþi.
                  1-6-karvaytMélelIk argarrbs;buK Álik

         karvaytMélelIkargarRtUv)aneFIVtamzananuRkmRKb;Epñk kariyal½y nignaykdæan.
Caerogral;qñaMrdæakrTwk)aneFIVnUvRBwtþibR½tBinÞúdl;RKb;mRnþInieyaCitTaMgGs; edIm,IkMNt;vaytMél
nUvsñaédkñúgkarGnuvtþn_kargarknøgmk RBmTaMgvaytMélsIlFm’pÞal;xøÜnrbs;mRnþI nieyaCit
mñak;² nwgCamUldæankñúgkartMelIgfñak;-kaM nigpþl;rgVan;elIkTwkcitþdl;mRnþITaMgenaH. tamkar
kMNt;éf¶TI 13 Exemsaerogral;qñaM CaeBleFIVRBwtþibR½tBinÞúsrubdl;mRnþI nieyaCit Rkbx½NÐrbs;
rdæakrTwkTaMgGs;29 Edl)anTTYlkarvaytMéldak;BinÞú nigBinitüsegáty:agm:t;ct;BIlkçN³
sm,tþikargartaMgBIedImrhUtdl;cugqñaM.
         kariyal½yrdæ)almantYnaTICaGñkRKb;RKg nigEfrkSaTukr)aykarN_vaytMélCakar
sMgat;kñúgsMNuMlixitbuKÁlik. plRbeyaCn_cugeRkayénkarvaytMél nigdak;BinÞúelIlT§plkar
garCak;EsþgRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karpþl;kMérelIkTwkcitþ kartMelIgkaM-fñak; karbBaÄb;BIkargarCa
beNþaHGasnñ karRBman karbBaÄb;CasßaBr nigkarbBa©úHzan³.
          2-karRKb;RKgGtifiCn
          karRKb;RKgÉksarGtifiCnenABuMTan;)anerobcMeGaymanPaBc,as;las;enAeLIyeT

29
     kñúgkrNIenHbuKÁlikEdlminsßiteRkamlkçnþik³buKÁlikmin)anKitbBa©ÚleT.
                                                                                         35
taMgBIdMeNIrkareLIgvijrhUtmkdl;qñaM 1993 Cak;EsþgGtifiCnman 26 882 nak; k¾b:uEnþcMnYn
60° BMu)anbg;éføTwkmanEteQµaHkñúgÉksar b¤eTAeRbIR)as;TwkBIRbPBdéT30. enAqñaM 1994
salaRkugPñMeBj)anbBa¢ÚnmRnþIraCkarBImnÞIreRkam»vaTcMnYn 100 nak;cUlrYmCamYyrdæakrTwk
eFIVyuT§nakarGegátRsavRCavrkGñkeRbIR)as;TwkBitR)akdenATUTaMgraCFanIPñMeBj edIm,IksagÉksar
GtifiCneGay)anRtwmRtUv edaymankarCYy]btßmÖBIFnaKarBiPBelak nigkmµviFIGPivDÆn_
GgÁkarshRbCaCati.
          CalT§pleRkayBIeFIVkareFIVGegátRsavRCavkñúgqñaM 1994 mk)anrkeXIjfaGtifiCn
mancMnYn 27 623 nak;. karerobcMÉksarGtifiCn)anGnuvtþCabnþeTotehUtdl;cugqñaM 1995
GtifiCnkñúgbBa¢I¢Edl)anerobcMehIymancMnYnsrub 28 654nak;. GtifiCn)anekIneLIgCabnþ
bnÞab;BImYyqñaMeTAmYyqñaMrhUt dl; 67 016 nak; kñúgqñaM 2000 nig 72 660 nak; enAcugqñaM
2001 edaysarkarerobcMdUrpøas;bMBg;emfµI nigkarGegátRsavRCavbEnßm. karplit nigpÁt;pÁg;
Twks¥atenAmansmtßPaBTabminGaceqøIytbeTAnwgsMNUmBreRbIR)as;)ankalBIqñaM1979 enaH
bNþaleGayRbCaBlrdænaMKñaCIkGNþÚgbgðÚrTwks¥atBIbMBg;edIm,IEckcayKñaeRbIR)as;enAkñúgtMbn;
EdlmanTwkexSay. enAeBlEdlsMBaFTwkxøaMgGNþÚgTaMgenaHkøayeTACaRbPBénkar)at;bg;
Twky:agsn§wksn§ab;31. tamr)aykarN_GegátkñúgqñaM 1994 )aneGaydwgfamanGNþÚgrYmman
cMnYn 1 870 ehIycMnYnenH)anekIneLIgrhUtdl; 1 945 kñúgx½NÐTaMg 4 enAqñaM 199532.
bBaðaGNþÚgrYmTaMgenaHRtUv)anedaHRsaytamBIrrUbPaB ³ 1-cat;taMgtMNagTTYlxusRtUvrYm
mñak;edIm,IcuHkic©snüaeRbIR)as;Twkedaymandak;naLika nigTUTat;éføTwkCamYyrdæakrTwk nig 2-
krNIEdlrkGñktMNagmin)anRtUvbMEbkbNþajdak;naLikaedayELkBIKñatamsMNUmBrCak;Esþg
rbs;GñkeRbIR)as;. rhUtdl;qñaM 1996 GNþÚgrYmcMnYn 1 851 RtUvCa 95° RtUv)anedaHRsay
nigenAqñaM 1999 GNþÚgrYmTaMgGs;RtUv)anlb;bM)at;CasßaBr. enAkñúgr)aykarN_rbs;Epñk
GaCIvkmµ)anbBa¢ak;fakñúgqñaM 1993 GtifiCnEdlmannaLikasÞg;manEt 3 391 nak;b:ueNÑaH.

30
   mkdl;sBVéf¶enHesÞIrEtKµanbBaðaenHekIteLIgeT. bTsMPasn_CamYyelakRbFannaykdæanGaCIvkmµ
   éf¶TI 05 ExkumÖ³ qñaM2002.
31
   - d -.
32
   x½NÐTaMg4 enaHman x½NÐdUneBj TYleKak cMkarmn nigx½NÐ 7mkra. bTsMPasn_CamYyelakRbFan
   naykdæanGaCIvkmµ d> É> m>.
                                                                                    36
rdæakrTwk)anGnum½ttemøIgnaLikaTwkeTAelIRKb;bNþajcUlpÞHTaMgGs; edIm,Ikat;bnßybrimaN
Twk)at;bg;edaykareRbIR)as;x¢Hx¢ay nigkarxusqÁgkñúgkar)a:n;sµan. kartemøIgnaLika)ancab;
epþImBIqñaM 1994 k¾b:uEnþedaysartMéltemøIgx<s;eBk RBmTaMgTItaMgtemøIgBuMmanlkçN³RbmUlpþúM
eFIVeGaykargartemøIgnaLikamanel,ÓnyWt)anEt 1 579 naLikabu:eNÑaHkñúgmYyqñaM. rhUtdl;
qñaM 1995 kmµviFItemøIgnaLikaRtUv)anEksMrYledaybBa©úHtMélkñúgkartemøIg nigerobcMkargar
temøIgeGaymanlkçN³RbmUlpþúMtambøúkvij. kargarEdlmanlkçN³RbmUlpþúMtambøúkRtUv)an
GnuvtþCalT§plenAcugqñaM 1996 GtifiCnEdl mannaLika)anekIneLIgdl;eTA 27 724 nak;
esµInig 85° éncMnYnGtifiCnsrub 32 404 nak;. karpøas;bþÚrnaLikasÞg;fµIenH)aneRbInaLika
m:ak {Ekn} 33 CaCMnYs edaysarEtvamanKuNPaBx<s;Cag nigmanPaBeTogTat;CagnaLika
{nIjbU } 34. Cak;EsþgkñúgtMbn;Edl)anbþÚr nigdak;eGayeRbIeXIjfabrimaNTwkeRbIR)as;)an
ekIneLIgRbmaNCa 17°. naLikasÞg;m:ak {nIjbU} Edldak;eGayeRbIR)as;taMgBImunmk
edaysarEtnaLikaenHmantMélefak nigRsbtamsßanPaBnaeBlenaH. kartbNþajcUlpÞH
CUnGtifiCn)anbegáInTaMgbrimaN nigKuNPaBedayeRbIR)as;nUvsMPar³tambTdæan nigkMlaMg
BlkmµGENþtCYy. cMENkéføsiT§itbNþajCavTwkRtUv)anEkERbCabnþbnÞab; dMNak;kalTI1
BIqñaM 1994 dl;qñaM 1997 nigdMNak;kalTI2 BIqñaM 1997 dl;bc©úb,nñ. enAdMNak;kalTI2
éføsiT§iCavtbNþajTwkRtUv)anEksMrYleGaymanlkçN³TabCagmunedaysarEtmankaredjéfø
sMPar³pÁt;pÁg;sMrab;bNþajcUlpÞHeFIVeGaytMélsMPar³mankarfycuH. bEnßmBIelIéføsiT§iCavTwk
xagelIGtifiCnRtUvkk;nUvTwkR)ak;EdlsmamaRt nigkareRbIR)as;cMnYn 3 Ex. cMnYnbNþajtcUl
pÞH)anekIneLIgBI 1 775 kñúgqñaM1995 dl; 10 799 kñúgqñaM 2000 Ep¥ktammUldæanTaMgenH.
          kargarGaCIvkmµ)anrIkcMerInCalMdab;tamry³kMeNInGtifiCnBImYyqñaMeTAmYyqñaM. rhUt
mkdl;qñaM 2001 GtifiCn)anekIneLIgdl; 76 000 nak; 35.

33
   Ekn CaeQµaHnaLikasÞg; EdlplitenARbeTsm:aeLsIuEdlmanRbeTsCaeRcInenAGasuIeRbIR)as;vadUc
   Ca sigðburI nigm:aeLsuICaedIm. bTsMPasn_CamYyelakRbFannaykdæanGaCIvkmµkalBIéf¶TI 25
   ExkumÖ³ qñaM2002.
34
   nIjbU CaeQµaHnaLikasÞg;EdlplitenARbeTscin nigmantMélefakCag {Ekn} . bTsMPasn_CamYy
   elakRbFannaykdæanGaCIvkmµ- d -.
35
   rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ³ r)aykarN_lT§plqñaM 2001 ¬8 ExedImqñaM¦ d> É> m> TMB½rTI 3.
                                                                                    37
         taragTI 5 éføsiTi§CavTwktbNþaj ¬1994 - 1997 ¦
                                               TMhMnaLika
RbEvgbNþaj
                  11 mm          20 mm          25 mm          30 mm          40 mm
1 m - 10        450 000 ¹      500 000 ¹      550 000 ¹      650 000 ¹      750 000 ¹
11 m - 20       600 000 ¹      650 000 ¹      700 000 ¹      850 000 ¹      950 000 ¹
21 m - 30       700 000 ¹      800 000 ¹      900 000 ¹      1050 000 ¹     1200 000¹
31 m - 40       850 000 ¹      950 000 ¹      1050 000¹      1250 000 ¹     1450 000¹
41 m - 50       1000 000¹      1100 000¹      1200 000¹      1450 000 ¹     1650 000¹
RbPB ³ r)aykarN_rbs;EpñkGaCIvkmµ
taragTI 6 bgðajBIéføsiT§iCavTwktbNþaj ¬1997 - bc©úb,nñ ¦
                                              TMhMnaLika
RbEvgbNþaj
                 11 mm           20 mm         25 mm          30 mm          40 mm
1 m - 10        338 400 ¹      407 700 ¹     549 100 ¹      776 800 ¹      1138700¹
11 m - 20       340 800 ¹      516 200 ¹     673 500 ¹      924 750 ¹      1313900¹
21 m - 30       257 000 ¹      582 200 ¹     797 300 ¹      1220 800¹      1665400¹
31 m - 40       624 300 ¹      690 700 ¹     922 700 ¹      1220 800¹      1665400¹
41 m - 50       720 900 ¹      799 400 ¹     1046600 ¹      1368800¹       1841200¹
RbPB ³ r)aykarN_rbs;EpñkGaCIvkmµ
        karRbmUlR)ak;éføTwk)anekIneLIgBIRbmaN 50° naqñaM 1993 eTA 95/23° naqñaM
2000 KWeRkayBIyuT§nakarGegátRsavRCavGtifiCneRbIR)as;TwkBitR)akdenATUTaMgraCFanIPñMeBj
naqñaM 1994. karekIneLIgnUvGRtaxagelICarYmmkBIbrimaNTwk)at;bg;RtUv)ankat;bnßy nig
edaysarEtmankarpþl;rgVan;elIkTwkcitþdl;Pñak;gar)ansmRsb kareRbIR)as;rUbPaBem:Akarkñúg
karRbmUléføTwkkñúgsgáat;mYycMnYn karPJak;rlwkrbs;RbCaBlrdæelIbBaðaeRbIR)as;TwkRtUvEteFIV
karTUTat; nigcugeRkayp¥akkarpÁt;pÁg;Twk nigBin½y36. GtifiCnEdlrkeXIjfa)aneRbIR)as;Twk
36
     bTsMPasn_CamYyRbFannaykdæanGaCIvkmµ éf¶TI 18 Ex 12 qñaM 2001.
                                                                                    38
Etminmanvik½ybR½tTUTat;RtUveFIVkarrMlwk nigBin½y. edIm,IrYmcMENkkñúgyuT§saRsþkat;bnßyPaB
RkIRkrbs;raCrdæaPi)al GgÁPaB)aneFIVkarpÁt;pÁg;TwkCUndl;shKmn_GñkRkIRktamrUbPaBbg;rMelaH
éføsiT§iCavtbNþajcUlpÞHEdltamkarGegátnaqñaM 1994 eXIjfamancMnYn 28 bøúk. shKmn_
GñkRkIRkmankareRbIR)as;Twkx¢Hx¢ayminRBmTUTat;sgéføTwknigmanbNþajTwksµúRKsµajminsm
RsbtamlkçN³bec©keTs EfmTaMgmansMNg;mYycMnYnsg;enABIelIbMBg;emnaMTwikeTotpg.
edIm,IedaHRsaybBaðaenHshKmn_nImYy² RtUvrktMNagTTYlxusRtUvmñak; b¤eRcInshkarCamYy
GaCJaFrmUldæanedIm,IpÁt;pÁg;TwkbnþeTAeGayGñkrs;enAkñúgshKmn_ nigTUTat;éføTwkCamYyrdæakr
Twktamkic©snüa37. CalT§plénkarerobcMenHcMNUléføTwk kñúgbøúkTaMgenaH)anekIneLIgBI 3
eTA 4 dg. RkumkargarcMnYnBIrRkumrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj Edl)anbegáIteLIg RtUvcuH
eFIVkarRtYtBinitüdl;TIkEnøgrs;enACak;Esþgrbs;RbCaBlrdækñúgshKmn_ edIm,IBRgIk nigBRgwg
karpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥atCUnRbCaBlrdæRkIRk nigeFIVkarpSBVpSay RBmTaMgGnuvtþkargarerobcMbNþaj
Twks¥atCUnRbCaBlrdæRkIRkTaMgenaHtamkarkMNt;.
II-  karRKb;RKgkarEsVgyl;BIT IpSar
       karRKb;RKgkarEsVgyl;BITIipSar)anbgðajBImuxgar plRbeyaCn_EdlTTYl)an nig
karerobcMyuT§saRsþsmRsbmYy.
         1-etIGIVeTACakarEsVgyl;BIT IpSar ?
        karEsVgyl;BITIpSarmantaMgBIedImstvtSTI 20 EdlepþatTisedAeTAelIkarbMeBjmux
gar nigkarGPivDÆn_shRKas.
        Baküfa karEsVgyl;BITIpSar eBlenHyktamGtßn½yrbs;PasaGg;eKøsEdlmann½½y
fa {Marketing} 38. niymn½yCaeRcIn)anelIkeLIgxus² KñacMeBaHbBaðaenH ³
        elak Jerome E. McCarthy nig William D. Perrealt )aneGayn½y karEsVgyl;BITI

37
   sUmemIl rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ³ r)aykarN_RtImasTI 1 qñaM 2001 karpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥at
   CUnGñkRkIRk PñMeBj 2002 TMB½rTI 7.
38
   Marketing ERbfa karEsVgyl;BITIpSar m:aXItFIg cMeNHviC¢asikSaBITIpSar. hwug fUr:ak;suI nig

   h‘an sahIub ³ vcnanuRkm esdækic©nighirBaØvtßú e)aHBum<elIkTI 1 PñMeBj 2001 TMB½rTI 588.
                                                                                               39
pSar fa CaskmµPaBmYyEdl)anbMeBjedayGgÁPaBGaCIvkmµ nigdMeNIrkarénsgÁm 39.
        The American Marketing Association CatMN  agénGñkmanviC¢aCIv³xagTIpSarenA
shrdæGaemric nigkaNadayl;fa karEsVgyl;BITIpSar CadMeNIrkarerobcMEpnkar karGnuvtþ
xagKMnit éfø karpSBVpSaylk; karEbgEckTMnij nigesvakmµtamry³karedaHdUredIm,IbMeBj
bMNgbuKÁl nigGgÁPaB 40.
        GñkRKb;RKgGaCIvkmµxøH)anniyayfakarEsVgyl;BITIpSarmann½½yelIsBIkarlk; b¤kar
pSayBaNiC¢kmµeTAeTot eRBaHnaMeGaymankarpøas;bþÚrrebobrbbplitEbbburaNrbs;shRKas
eFIVeGaydMeNIrkarEbbbT nigviFIsaRsþplitQaneTArkPaBRbesIrbnþicmþg². dMbUglkçN³
EbbenHTamTareGaymankarvinieyaKd¾smRsbmYy nigkareRbIR)as; tMrUvkareRcIny:ag. enA
dMNak;kalTI2 TMnij nigesvaEdlplitRtUvEtmanKuNPaBl¥sMrab;karlk;dUr BIeRBaHGtifiCn
CaGñkRtUvkarplRbeyaCn_ nigCakBa©k;qøúHbBa©aMgBI TegVIrbs;shRKas 41.
        CasrubeTA karEsVgyl;BITIpSar CaskmµPaBTaMgLayNaEdlEsþgeLIgedaybuKÁl
GgÁPaBGaCIvkmµ GgÁPaBminEmnsMedAR)ak;cMeNj edIm,IbMeBjtMrUvkar nigcMNg;cMNUlcitþqøg
tamkaredaHdUr. eKaledAcugeRkayrbs;shRKaseFIVy:agNaeGaylk;TMnij)aneRcInbMput nig
RtUvyl;dwgGMBI GtifiCneGay)anc,as;faetIplitpl b¤esvakmµsmRsbCamYyeK b¤Gt; ?
                  1-1-plRbeyaCn_én karEsVgyl;BIT IpSar

         kñúgkarRbkYtRbECgrbs;GgÁPaBGaCIvkmµ CakarcaM)ac;Nas;EdlRtUvEsVgyl;BITIpSar.
ebItamelak Jerome E. McCarthy nig William D. Perreault bgðajfakarEsVgyl;BITIpSar
)anpþl;plRbeyaCn_CaeRcIndUcCa 42 ³
         -plRbeyaCn_énTMrg; ³ CakarerobcMplitplCaTMrg;GaceRbIR)as;)aneqøIytbeTAnwg
tMrUvkarrbs;mnusSNamYyenaH. plRbeyaCn_enHpSarP¢ab;CasMxan;CamYyplitkmµ karpøas;bþÚr
xagrUbsaRsþ nigKImIsaRsþ EdleFIVeGayplitplkan;EtmantMélCagmun.
39
     E. Jerome McCarthy and William D. Perrealt, Basic Marketing, 11th, USA, 1993, p. 8.

     ¬Marketing is both a set of activities perform by organizations and a social process¦
40
     Eric N. Berkowitz et al., Marketing, 4th, U. S. A., 1994, p. 10.
41
     Chan Savary, Economic de l'entreprise, Phnom Penh, 1997, p. 2
42
     E. Jerome McCarthy and William D. Perreault, Basic Marketing, 11th, op. cit., p. 5


                                                                                             40
        -plRbeyaCn_énTIkEnøg ³ ekIteLIgenAeBlEdlplitplNamYyQaneTAdl;skþa
nuBlGtifiCn . eBlplitpleTAdl;hagEdlenACitGtifiCnEdlRtUvkareRbIR)as; enaHtMél
rbs;vaRtUv)anbMeBjbEnßmmYykMriteTot .
        -plRbeyaCn_éneBlevla ³ mann½yfamanplitplenAeBlEdlmantMrUvkar nigbgá
lkçN³gayRsYldl;GtifiCnkñúgkarTij edaymincaM)ac;cMNayeBledIrrk .
        -plRbeyaCn_GMBIBt’man ³ plRbeyaCn_enHRtUv)anbegáIteLIgedaykarpþl;Bt’man
dl;GtifiCnGMBIplitpl ebIBuMenaHeTGtifiCnnwgmindwgfaetImanplitplGIV ? ehIyenATIkEnøg
NaEdleKGacTij)an .
        -plRbeyaCn_kmµsiTi§ ³ ekIteLIgenAeBlGtifiCnTijplitpleBlenaHPaBCam©as;
RtUv)anepÞreTAeGayGñkTij EdlkarepÞrkmµsiT§iRtUv)aneFIVeLIgtamry³karedaHdUrrvagrUbiyvtßú
¬luy¦ nigrbs; ¬TMnij¦.
               1-2-mux garén karEsVgyl;BIT IpSar
        karEsVgyl;BITIpSarmanmuxgarCaeRcIndUcxageRkam ³
        -RsavRCavGMBIGñkTij nigGñklk;
        -bnSIúTMnij nigesvakmµ nigkarpþl;epSg² eTotcMeBaHtMrUvkarGtifiCn
        -EsVgrknUvéføEdlGacTTYlyk)anenAelITIpSar
        -RbmUlBt’manGMBIGñklk; nigGñkTijnUvplitpl nigbgáPaBTukcitþ)andl;GñkTij
        -dwkCBa¢u¢Ún nigsþúkplitpl
        -sMrbsMrYlsMrab;karedaHdUrcugeRkay ¬sMrbsMrYl\NTan karRbKl;luy nigTMnij¦
        -karTTYlyknUvPaBeRKaHfñak; dUcCaTTYlyknUvkarxatbg;sMrab;plitplEdleKmin
RtUvkar b¤cMNaykñúgkarrkSaTMnijrhUtdl;mantMrUvkar .
       2-yuT §s aRsþén karEsVgyl;BIT IpSar
        muneBlEdlbegáIteLIgnUvyuT§saRsþénkarEsVgyl;BITIpSarmYy GgÁPaBGaCIvkmµTaMg
Gs;RtUvEtkMNt;eGay)anc,as;nUveKaledA nigeKalbMNgTIpSar edayEp¥kelIkaryl;dwg
Edl)anmkBIkareFIVviPaKbriyakas nigsßanPaB . tamFmµtayuT§saRsþ karEsVgyl;BITIpSar

                                                                                   41
CarebobEdlRkumh‘uncat;EcgFnFanrbs;xøÜn edaybMeBjtamtMrUvkarrbs;GtifiCneGay)an
RbesIrbMput ehIycugeRkaybg¥s;sMerc)annUvebskkmµµ nigeKalbMNgrbs;Rkumh‘un . Cakar
lM)akNas;kñúgkarkMNt;RBMEdnényuT§saRsþkarEsVgyl;BITIpSar eRBaHfaRBMEdnrbs;vasßitenA
elIkarKitKUrerobcM nigbegáIteLIgrbs;GñkRKb;RKgEpñkenHEtb:ueNÑaH . ÉksarCaeRcIn)anGH
GagfayuT§saRsþsMrab;begáInskmµPaBGaCIvkmµGacEbgEckCaBIr ³ mYyEpñkykcitþTukdak;elI
      i
GtifCn nigmYyEpñkeTotykcitþTukdak;elITIpSarénkarRbkYtRbECg . yuT§saRsþEdlykcitþ
Tukdak;;elIGtifiCnGacEbgEckCaEpñkEdlsgát;F¶n;eTAelIkarbegáInbrimaNlk; nigEpñkEdl
sgát;F¶n;eTAelIR)ak;cMeNj . brimaNlk;GacekIneLIgedaykarTRnÞancUlkan;EteRCAeTAkñúg
TIpSarbc©úb,nñCamYyplitplkMBugman kar]eTÞsnamplitplfµIcUleTAkñúgTIpSarkMBugman kar
Qaneq<aHeTArkTIpSarfµICamYyplitplkMBugman b¤k¾kar]eTÞsnamplitplfµIeTAkñúgTIpSarfµI.
karbegáInR)ak;cMeNjGacsMerc)anedaykarbnßyéføedIm nigtamry³karbegáInTinñpl43. kar
begáItnUvyuT§saRsþkarEsVgyl;BITIpSarTak;TgpgEdr dl;kareRCIserIscMENkTIpSarsMrab;plit
plrbs;GgÁPaBGaCIvkmµ . GgÁPaBRtUvEtsMerceRCIserIsykTIpSarmYycMENkNamYy b¤eRCIs
erIsykcMENkmYycMnYn b¤k¾TIpSarTaMgmUl . eRkayeBlkMNt; nigeRCIserIsTIpSareKaledArYc
ehIyRtUvkMNt;nUvyuT§saRsþ nigCMhrplitplfaetIRtUvEbgEcklk;plitplkñúgTIpSareKaledA
y:agdUcemþc eTIbGacTTYl)ankarTukcitþBIGtifiCn ebIeRbobeFobeTAnwgplitplrbs;KUrRbkYt
RbECg . bBaðaTaMgenHGacedaH Rsaytamneya)ayepSg² EdlTak;TgeTAnwgplitpl éfø
karbMpuspSBVpSayeGaylk;dac; nigkarEckcay 44 .
                  2-1-yuT §s aRsþplit pl

       plitpl KWCaFatupSMmYyEdlrYmmanGIV² TaMgGs; Edl)anpþl;eTAeGayTIpSareday
GgÁPaBGaCIvkmµ edIm,IbMeBjtMrUvkar. CaRbkarsMxan;bMputsMrab;GñkRsavRCavBITIpSarEdlRtUv
yl;fa plitplEtgEtRtUv)anemIleTAtamTsSn³epSg² KñarvagGñkeRbIR)as; nigGñklk;
¬GaCIvkr¦. GaCIvkrmanTsSn³fa plitpl KWCaGIV² TaMgGs;Edlpþl;dl;TIpSar mann½yfa

43
     karbnßyéføedImGaceFIV)antamkarbnßycMNay nigbegáInRbsiT§iPaBplitkmµ . ehg suPaB ³ karRKb;
     RKgm:aXItFIg PñMeBj 1996 TMB½rTI 4.
44
     Chan Savary, Economic de l'entreprise, op. cit., Page 9.


                                                                                           42
eKRbmUlpþúMelIGIVEdleK)anpþl;. cMENkGñkeRbIR)as;vijyl;fa{ plitpl } KWGIVEdlbMeBj
tMrUvkarrbs;eK mann½yfakarykcitþTukdak;RtUv)anRbmUlpþúMelItMrUvkar45. plitplGaceGay
niymn½yfaCaTMrg;EbbbTEdlmanlkçN³bec©keTs maneQµaH mankardak;plitplenAkñúg
lk½çx½NÐ nigéfø. karbegáItplitplCalT§pléndMeNIrkar b¤RbtibtþikarnanaEdlrYmmanktþa
plitkmµ karsikSa BaNiC¢kmµ hirBaØvtßú ehIyRtUvKitbBa©ÚlnUvplitplfµI² eTAkñúgExSsgVak;Ca
viCman edIm,IeCosvagkarxUcxat EkøgbnøMrUbPaB sBaØarbs;shRKas46 . kMhusrbs;GaCIvkr
    ¢
ekItmanenAeBleKminKitdl;tMrUvkarGtifiCn b¤KitfatMrUvkarmincaM)ac;b:unµaneT kñúgeBlsMerc
citþTij. m©as;ePaCnIydæanxøHKitfa { mðÚbGahar KWCamðÚbGahar} mnusS nwgTijmðÚbGaharenA
eBlEdlXøan. krNIenHCakMhusmYyEdlGñklk;yl;faXøanCatMrUvkarmUldæanmYy ehIynwg
manmnusSticNas;EdljauMenAePaCnIydæanRtwmEtkarXøanb:ueNÑaH. tamBitkarsMerccitþcMeBaH
ePaCnIydæanNamYyGaRs½yelIktþaCaeRcIndUcCa rsCati esvakmµ briyakas TItaMg nigéføCa
edIm.
                          2-1-1-smasPaKénplit pl

        smasPaKsMxan;² énplitplRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IbegáItplitpleGaymanPaBRbesIr
CagKUrRbkYtRbECg EdleqøIytbcMeBaHtMrUvkarCak;lak;énTIpSareKaledA. ral;smasPaKTaMg
Gs;minEmnsuT§EtRtUvmancMeBaHRKb;plitplenaHeT. karRsavRCav nigpliteTIbCaRbkarcaM
)ac; edIm,IbegáItnUvplitplmanRbsiT§iPaB b:uEnþGñkRsavRCavBITIpSarRtUvdwgBIlT§PaBpøas;bþÚr
EdlGacnwgRtUveFIVeLIgcMeBaHplitpl nigeRCIserIsPaBcMruHénkarbMeBjtMrUvkar edIIm,IbMerITI
pSareKaledA.
       -lkçN³Biessénplitpl ³ GgÁPaBGaCIvkmµRtUvbEnßmelIKuNPaBnUvlkçN³Biess
mYy edIm,IeFIVeGayplitplEbøk nigRbesIrCagKUrRbkYtRbECg.
       -esvaEdlpSarP¢ab; ³ enHCabBaðaEdlsMxan;sMrab;bMerIeGayGtifiCndUcCa karRbKl;
TMnijdl;TIkEnøgeday\tKitéfø.
       -pøaksBaØa ³ emIlmYyEPøtpøaksBaØahak;dUcCaminEmnCaEpñksMxan;rbs;plitpleT
45
     ehg suPaB ³ mUldæanm:aXITIg PñMeBj 1996 TMB½r 54.
46
     Chan Savary, Economic de l'entreprise, op. cit., p. 10


                                                                                    43
EttamkarBitGñkTijGackMNt;)annUvplitplEdlcg;Tijtamry³pøaksBaØa ehIyvak¾Caktþa
sMxan;bMputsMrab;karsMerccitþTijelIkeRkayeTotEdr.
        -karFana ³ eBlTijTMnijmYyGtifiCnR)afñaTTYl)annUvrbs;EdlmanKuNPaBl¥.
RbsinebIdwgfaplitplpÁúMeLIgmin)anl¥RtwmRtUvmindMeNIrkar b¤rh½sxUcGtifiCnGacminTij
plitplenaHeT. Rkumh‘unRtUvpþl;nUvkarFanaeTAeGayGtifiCn edIm,ICakarGHGagfaplitpl
nwgRtUv)anCYsCul b¤dUrvijeBlmanbBaða.
        -sMbkevcx©b; ³ pþl;nUvkarkarBarsuvtißPaBcMeBaHplitplrhUtdl;GtifiCnGaceRbI
R)as;va. enAelIeRsamsMbkeRkABIpøaksBaØaenAmankarsresr nigdak;sBaØamYyeTotEdlGac
pþl;nUvBt’manCaCMnYykñúgkarsMerccitþTij.
                          2-1-2-karcat;fñak;plit pl

     plitplRtUv)ancat;fñak;CaBIr ³ plitpleRbIR)as; nigplitpl]sSahkmµ.
     -plitpleRbIR)as; ³ PaKeRcInCaplitplsMercsMrab;pþl;eTAdl;GtifiCnEdlTij
ykmkeRbIR)as;cugeRkay.
     -plitpl]sSahkmµ ³ CaplitplBak;kNþalsMercEdlsMrab;ykeTAplitecjCa
plitplmYyepSgeTot.
                          2-1-3-vdþCIv it rbs;plit pl

        vdþCIvitrbs;plitpl)anbgðajBIdMNak;kalrbs;plitplmYy Edlqøgkat;eBlcab;
epþImrhUtdl;cugbBa©b;. tamRTwsþIelak Jerome E. McCarthy plitplman 4 dMNak;kal 47
TI1-dMNak;kalcab;epþIm TI2-dMNak;kalrIkcMerIn TI3-dMNak;kalRTwg nigTI4-dMNak;kal
»nPaB.
        vdþCIvitrbs;plitplkan;EtxøIcMeBaHplitplCaeRcIn GaRs½yedaybec©kviTüa karpøas;
bþÚrcMNg;cMNUlcitþrbs;GñkTij nigkarRbkYtRbECg 48.
47
     E. Jerome McCarthy and William D. Perreault, Basic Marketing, 11th, op. cit., p. 288.
48
                                                                         ¬
     David W. Cravens, Strategic Marketing, 5th, U. S. A., 1997, p. 298. Product life cycles
     are becoming shorter for many products due to new technology, rapidly changing
     preferences of buyers and intense competition).

                                                                                             44
                   2-2-yuT §s aRsþéfø
         rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj)anGnuvtþyuT§saRsþéføTwk edayeFIVy:agNaeGayGtifiCn
eKaledATaMgGs;enAkñúgraCFanIPñMeBjTaMgGs;manTwkeRbIehIycMNayTab. kñúgkarkMNt; b¤Ek
ERbéføTwkmþg² RtUveFIVsMeNIreTARkumRbwkSaPi)alEdlmansmasPaBmkBIRKb;sßab½nBak;B½n§
EdlkñúgenaH salaRkugCaRbFanBiPakSaKñaeTAelItMélEdl)anesñIeLIg nigcugeRkayRtUvqøgenA
TIsþIkarKN³rdæmRnþI. tamkarBiesaFn_)aneFIVeGaymanniymn½yEbøk² KñaeTAelIéfø xøHfaéføCa
karsrubéntMélEdleRbIR)as;edaHdUrsMrab;GtßRbeyaCn_BIkareRbIR)as;plitpl b¤esvakmµ49.
         niymn½yd¾samBaØmYyelIkeLIgfa éføCacMnYnR)ak;srubEdlRtUvKiteTAeGayplitpl
b¤esvakmµNamYyenaH. etIéføRtUv)ankMNt;y:agNa ? CaTUeTAéføEtgEtRtUv)ankMNt;edayGñk
Tij nigGñklk;Edl)ancrcartéføKña . Gñklk;nwgkat;éføx<s;CagkMritEdleKcg;lk; GñkTijnwg
eGayéføTabCagkMritEdleKcg;)an . cugeRkayQaneTArkkarRsuHRsYlKñamYyEdlGacTTYl
yk)anTaMgsgxag .
                           2-2-1-ktþaEdlman\T§iBldl;k arsMerccit þGMBIéfø

         Rkumh‘unminEmnmanesrIPaBTaMgRsugkñúgkarkMNt;éføenaHeT dUcCardæakTwksVy½tRkug
PñMeBjEdlcaM)ac;RtUvmankaryl;RBmBIrdæaPi)alenAral;karkMNt;éfømþg². tamÉksarnana
manktþaCaeRcInEdlman\T§iBldl;karkMNt;éføplitpl ³ TI1-ktþaEdlCab;Tak;Tg sBaØakç½n§
nig\riyabfGtifiCn. kalNatMrUvkarmanPaBrYjlUtGMBIéfø b¤eBlEdlGtifiCnmanPaBePJac
GMBIéføenaHeBléføx<s;naMeGaytMrUvkarfycuH. Ca]TahrN_ TMnijkBa©b;dUcCasab‘UTwk nigsab‘UduM
bgðajBItMrUvkarEdlmanlkçN³rYjlUtGMBIéfø. TI2-Tak;TgeTAnwgRkumh‘unkþab;eGay)annUv
cMNayefr nigcMNayERbRbYlEdlBak;B½n§dl;plitkmµ. eBlEdlsmtßPaBplitkmµtUcmin
RbesIrTal;EtesaHEdllk;TMnijkñúgéføTab edIm,IQaneTAtMrUvkarmYyx<s; ehIyEdlRkumh‘un
minGacpliteTA)an. kareRbIR)as;smtßPaBx<s;naMeGaymankarbnßyéføedImEdlRkumh‘unGac
kMNt;éfølk;TabkñúgeKalbMNgbegáInnUvtMrUvkar. TI3 -Tak;Tgdl;KURbkYtRbECg eRBaHbgÁMúén
karRbkYtRbECgenAkñúg]sSahkmµman\T§iBldl;karkMNt;éførbs;Rkumh‘un. kñúgPaBpþac;mux
Rkumh‘unmanesrIPaBeBjeljkñúgkarkMNt;éføTMnijrbs;xøÜn EdlpÞúyBIlkçxNÐénkarRbkYt
49
     Eric N. Berkowitz et al, Marketing, 4th, op. cit., p. 350.


                                                                                     45
RbECgsuT§saFEdltMrUveGayTTYlyknUvkarkMNt;éføsmRsbmYy. ktþaTI4-pSarP¢ab;CamYy
rdæaPi)al nigc,ab; enARbeTsCaeRcIneKmanc,ab;RbqaMgnwgRkumh‘unEdlshkarKñakMNt;éføenA
elITIpSar ehIyvak¾minRsbc,ab;pgEdrsMrab;plitkrEdlbgçMGñkEbgEcklk; nigGñklk;ray
taméføedayCak;lak;NamYyenaH. RbsinebIplitplmYymanKuNPaBx<s;enaHéføminGacTab
eBkeT ehIyGfiCnBitCayl;BIbBaðaenH.
                          2-2-2-karkMN t;éføcMeBaHplit plfµI

        kñúgkarkMNt;éføcMeBaHplitplfµImanyuT§saRsþCaeRcInsMrab;eFIVkareRCIserIs. kñúgenH
manyuT§saRsþBIr ³ TI1-éføcMraj; nig TI2- éføvaysMruk50.
        -éføcMraj; ³ KWkMNt;éføx<s;sMrab;plitplfµI. yuT§saRsþenHsmRsbenAeBlEdlTI
pSar nigsmtßPaBplitkmµtUc.
        -éføsMruk ³ mann½yfakMNt;éføTabsMrab;plitplfµI EdlsmRsbenAeBlEdlTIpSar
nigsmtßPaBplitkmµFMTUlay.
                          2-2-3-karkMN t;éføcMeBaHplit plmanRsab;

        karkMNt;éføsMrab;plitplmanRsab;GaceFIVtamviFIsaRsþ bI y:ag ³ TI1-rkSaéfødEdl
TI2-bnßyéfø nigTI3 -begáInéfø.
        -rkSaéfødEdl ³ Rkumh‘unGacrkSaéfødEdlsMrab;plitplmanRsab;RbsinebIGefr b¤
ktþaCaeRcInrkSaesßrPaBbgÁÜr ehIycMeBlEdlRkumh‘unKµanEpnkarpøas;bþÚryuT§saRsþ b¤CMhrTI
pSarrbs;xøÜn.
        -bnßyéfø ³ sMedAbgðajnUvRbsiT§iPaBénkarpøas;bþÚr edIm,IeqøIytbnwgtMrUvkarGtifiCn.
yuT§saRsþenH dMeNIrkar)ankñúgkrNIEdlGtifiCnmanPaBePJacGMBIéføR)afñaeGaymankarbnßy
éfø Rkumh‘unRtUvEtmanPaBxøaMgGMBIhirBaØvtßúedIm,IRTaMRTnUvsRgÁaméføenH.
        -begáInéfø ³ eFIVeLIgsMrab;rkSakMritcMeNjkñúgeBlRkumh‘unRbQmmuxnwgkarekIneLIg
énéføedIm b¤k¾PaBxøaMgénplitplenAeBlmantMrUvkar ehIyKµanplitplCMnYs. yuT§saRsþenH
dMeNIrkar)anenAkñúgkrNItMrUvkarKµanPaBrYjlUtGMBIéfø.
50
     ehg suPaB ³ karRKb;RKgm:aXITIg d> É> m> TMB½rTI 38.
                                                                                     46
                          2-2-4-kareqøIy tbeTAnwgkarRbkYt RbECgkñúgbMlas;bþÚréfø
       eBlKUrRbkYtRbECgbegáInéføplitpl Rkumhu‘nGacrkSaéfødEdlénTMnijeGayenA
Rbhak;RbEhl b¤begáIntameGaysmRsb. kñúgkrNIEdlKUrRbkYtRbECgbnÞabéfø Rkumh‘un
RtUvmanRbtikmµeGayrh½s RbsinebIraErkPaKeRcInénGtifiCnnwgEbreq<aHeTArkplitplepSg
ehIyTIpSarsBVéf¶c,as;Ca)at;bg;. mü:ageToteBlEdlKUrRbkYtRbECgbegáInéføTMnij Rkumh‘un
GacBüayamrg;caMemIl b¤GacminKYreGIeBIkñúgkrNIEdlGtifiCnminmankarpøas;bþÚreRcIneTArk
plitplrbs;KUrRbkYtRbECgeTenaH.
                  2-3-yuT §s aRsþpSBVpSay
       kñúgkarlk;plitplmYyeGaydac;Rkumh‘unRtUveFIVkarpSBVpSaylk; karEdlmanRtwmEt
plitplminRKb;RKan;eT . kñúgn½yenHcg;bgðajfaRkumh‘unRtUveGayGtifiCn)andwgBIplitpl
Edlnwgman nigkMBugman etIplitplenaHeRbIy:agdUcemþc ? ebIeRbobeFobCamYyplitpl
Rbhak;RbEhlEdlmanenAelITIpSarRbkYtRbECgy:agNaEdr ? éføb:unµan ? ehIyGacTij)an
enAkEnøgNa ? eBlNa ? . kargarpSBVpSaylk;CaEpñkmYyénkarEsVgyl;BITIpSarEdlman
karEbgEckCaskmµPaBsMxan;dUcteTA ³ karpSayBaNiC¢kmµ karlk;edaypÞal; karpSaylk;
Tak;TajGtifiCn nigkarpSBVpSaytamsaFarN³Cn.
                          2-3-1-karpSayBaNiC¢k mµ
          pSayBaNiC¢kmµCaTMrg;mYyénkarcMNayeTAelITMnak;TMngBt’manBIGgÁPaB nigplitpl.
GtifiCnmñak;² EtgEtTTYlrgnUvkarpSayBaNiC¢kmµeRcIndgkñúgmYyéf¶² elIsBIenHeTotm©as;
TMnijRtUvh‘ancMNayluyeGayeRcIncMeBaHkarpSayBaNiC¢kmµ. enAshrdæGaemricRKan;Etkar
cMNayelIkarpSayBaNiC¢kmµmanRbEhl 187 ekadiduløar kñúgqñaM1997 51. karpSay
BaNiC¢kmµman 3 RbePT ³ TI1-karpSayBaNiCkmµCMerIs b¤pøaksBaØa TI2-karpSayBaNiC¢kmµ
CMrujtMrUvkarCamUldæan nigTI3 - karpSayBaNiC¢kmµGMBIsßab½n b¤Rkumh‘un 52.


51
     David W. Cravens, Strategic Marketing, 5th, op. cit., p. 369
52
     ehg suPaB ³ mUldæanm:aXItFIg d> É> m> TMB½r 84 .
                                                                                   47
       -karpSayBaNiC¢kmµCMerIs b¤pøaksBaØa ³ CakarpSaymYyEdlmaneKalbMNgbegáIn
karcUlcitþrbs;GtifiCnelIplitplrbs;Rkumh‘un.
       -karpSayBaNiC¢kmµCMrujtMrUvkarCamUldæan ³ karpSayenHRtUv)aneRbICasMxan;sMrab;
plitplEdlbegáItfµIkñúgdMNak;kaldMbUg.
       -karpSayBaNiC¢kmµGMBIsßab½n b¤Rkumh‘un ³ CakarpSBVpSayBaNiC¢kmµEdlsMedAbegáIt
ekrþ×eQµaHrbs;GgÁPaBeGay)anyUrGEgVgCaCagpSBVpSayGMBIplitpl.
         meFüa)ayeRbIsMrab;eFIVkarpSayBaNiC¢kmµmaneRcIny:agNas;dUcCa kaEst TsSnavdþI
TUrTsSn_ viTüú sMbuRt nigpÞaMg):aNUCaedIm. Rkumh‘unRtUveFIVkarBicarNaelIlkçN³rbs;plitpl
eGay)anm:t;ct; smrmüeTAnwgesckþIRtUvkarrbs;xøÜn muneBleFIVkareRCIserIsykmeFüa)ay
Edll¥RbesIrsMrab;karpSayBaNiC¢kmµenaH .
                      2-3-2-karlk;edaypÞal;

        karlk;edaypÞal;CadMeNIrénkarpþl;Bt’maneTAdl;GtifiCn nigbBa©úHbBa©ÚleGayTij
plitplqøgtamkarTMnak;TMgBt’manedaypÞal;CaGñklk;kñúgsßanPaBénkarlk;dUr. cMNucenH
xusBIkarpSayBaNiC¢kmµRtg;faeFIVedaymnusSpÞal;mineRbIR)as;meFüa)ayTMnak;TMngeT Cakar
CYbmuxtTl;KñapÞal;rvagGñklk; nigGñkTijTMnij. dMNak;kalCaeRcInRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karlk;
edaypÞal; ³
        -karrkmeFüa)aybegáItGtifiCn ³ enAmuneBllk; Gñklk;RtUvEtrkeGayeXIjnUvGñk
eRbIR)as; b¤GñkEdlsgÇwmfaTij. dMNak;kalenHsMxan;CageKenAkñúgdMeNIrRbRBwtiþeTAénkar
lk; eRBaHfaRbsinebIKµankarhUrcUlénGñkTijfµIeT Gñklk;k¾KµanskþanuBlénkarlk;Edr.
        -kareRtomxiteTACit ³ CakarsMxan;Nas;sMrab;eRtomeGay)aneRcIntamEdlGaceFIV
eTA)anmunnwglk;TMnij. eBlenHGñklk;RtUvyl;dwgGMBIRkumh‘un plitpl nigGtifiCnrbs;
xøÜneGay)anc,as;munnwgeFIVkarlk;dUr.
        -karxiteTACit ³ CadMNak;kalEdlGñklk;CYbRbTHTl;muxKñaCadMbUgCamYyGñkTij.
enATIenaHGñklk;maneKaledAcMbg² kñúgKMnitdUcCaeFIVeGaymankarcab;GarmµN_l¥rbs;GtifiCn
elIplitplrbs;Rkumh‘unrYcepÞógpÞat;ehtukarN_EdldwgxøHenAkñúgdMNak;kaleRtomxiteTACit
nigerobcMdMNak;kalkarcrcaEdlRtUveFIVbnþ.

                                                                                   48
          -karbgðajeGayyl; ³ CadMNak;kalsñÚléndMeNIrRbRBwtþieTAénkarlk; Kµanplitpl
NaEdlminGacRtUv)andak;bgðajeGayeXIjenaHeT sUm,IEtplitplEdlminGackan; b¤b:H
Bal;)andUcCakarFanar:ab;rgk¾edayenAEtGacdak;bgðaj)antamry³Rkdaskt;Rta b¤kUnesovePA
ENnaMEdr.
                          2-3-3-karpSaylk;T ak;T ajGtifiCn

         karpSaylk;Tak;TajGtifiCnCakenSambec©keTs nigCadMeNIrkarEdlbgáeGayman
karekIneLIgy:agqab;rh½snUvkarlk;dUr b:uEnþRKan;EtCakarbeNþaHGasnñb:ueNÑaHeT eRBaHpl
RbeyaCn_BiessGñkEckcay b¤GñkeRbIR)as;plitpl 53CaGñkTTYl. karpSBVpSaylk;
Tak;TajGtifiCnmanTMrg;eRcIny:agNas;dUcCa ³
         -lk;edaypþl;rgVan; ³ pþl;eday\tKitéfønUvvtßúbnÞab;bnSM vtßúKMrU CYyevcx©b;dak;fg; Et
RtUveFIVy:agNaeGaykBa©b; b¤fg;Edl)andak;TMnijenaHGtifiCnGacykeTAeRbIkarepSg² eTot
)an. karRbmUlb½NÑTij b¤karsnSMBinÞúGaceGayKat;TTYlrgVan;eTAéf¶eRkayk¾CaktþasMxan;
mYyEdrkñúgcMNucenH.
         -karpSgsMNag ³ CaEbbbTmYyeFIVeGaymankarcUlrYmBIsMNak;GtifiCn Büayam
pSgcMeBaHeqñatvtßúrbs;Rkumh‘un.
         -karbnßy b¤bBa©úHéfø ³ eRbIb½NÑbnßyéføTabCagFmµta cuHéføBiesskñúgry³ eBlkMNt;
NamYy lk;rYmbBa©ÚlKñadUcCa 3 Kit 2 b¤ 4 Kit 3 CaedIm.
         -karsakl,gKMrU ³ CakarEckcayKMrUeGaysakl,geday\tKitéfø eGayPøkSsak
dl;GtifiCn.
                          2-3-4-karpSBVpSaytamsaFarN³

      CaskmµPaBrbs;Rkumh‘un b¤TMnijEdlRtUv)anGtifiCndwgt² KñaBImYyeTAmYy. rUbPaB
EbbenHeFIVtamrUbPaBkarpSaybgáb;.



53
     Chan Savary, Economic de l'entreprise, op. cit., p. 19


                                                                                         49
           2-4-yuT §s aRsþEbgEckTMn ij
        karbegáIt)anplitplsmRsbmYysMrab;Rkumh‘unk¾cMNuHmYyEpñkeTAelIkarEbgEcklk;
rbs;Rkumh‘un)ansmRsbEdr. niymn½yepSg² eyaleTAtamKMnityl;eXIj nigbTBiesaFn_
CaeRcInEdlmñak;² )ancat;TukkarEckcayCakenSamRbtibtþikarnanaEdlGnuBaØateGaynaMplit
plcab;taMgBIeBlbeBa©jBIeragcRkrhUtdl;GñkeRbIR)as; ehIykarEckcayenHRtUveFIVtamExS
bNþaj nigtamry³bribT. RbB½n§ExSbNþajbegáIteLIgedaykenSambribTeRcInEdleRbIeday
shRKas edIm,InaMplitplrbs;xøÜneGayeTAdl;GñkeRbIR)as; 54.
                         2-4-1-karEbgEcklk;plit pl
        karEbgEcklk;plitplmanRbPTepSg² KñaCaeRcIn EdlRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;rkGtifiCn
eKaledA nigRbePTénplitplepSg² Kña. KYrkt;sMKal;fa RKb;RbePTénRckEbgEckTaMgGs;
suT§Etcab;epþImedayplitkr nigbBa©b;edayGñkeRbIR)as;cugeRkay b¤GñkeRbIR)as;]sSahkmµ.
RckEbgEcklk;TMnijsMedAelIpøÚvEdlTMnijRtUvRbkan;ykenAeBlEdlvaeFIVclnaBIplitkr eTA
GñkeRbI.
        -RckEbgEckrbs;TMnijeRbIR)as; ³ manviFIsaRsþeRcInNas;EdlplitkrGaceFIVkar
EbgEckTMnijrbs;xøÜntamry³ Pañk;gar Gñklk;duM Gñklk;ray niglk;pÞal;CamYyGtifiCn.
¬sUmemIlrUbPaBenATMB½rbnÞab;¦ .
        -RckEbgEckrbs;TMnij]sSahkmµ ³ RckEbgEcksMrab;TMnij]sSahkmµxusBIRck
EbgEcksMrab;TMnijeRbIR)as;. Rkumh‘unEdlplitTMnij]sSahkmµeRbIR)as;QµÜjkNþalticCag
RckEbgEckrbs;TMnijeRbIR)as;.




54
     Ibid., p. 22


                                                                               50
          düaRkamTI 1 bgðajBIRckEbgEckplitpleRbIR)as;
                                           plit kr

                                                                        Pñak;gar

                                                       Gñklk;duM       Gñklk;duM

                      Gñklk;ray                    Gñklk;ray          Gñklk;ray


                                           Gñk eRbIR)as;

 RbPB ³ David W. Cravens, Strategic Marketing, 5       th
                                                            p. 318



                          2-4-2-yuT §s aRsþEbgEckTMn ij

       Rkumh‘unRtUvRtiHriHKitKUreGay)anc,as;las;munnwgeFIVkareRCIserIsbNþajénRckEbg
Ecklk;plitplNamYy eRBaHlT§plGaceCaKC½y b¤k¾TTYlbraC½y. yuT§saRsþRtUv)anEbg
Eckman 3 cMNucsMxan;² 55 ³
       -karEbgEcklk;EbbRbBlPaB ³ EbgEcklk;plitplqøgtamRckeRcIn nigman
smaCikeRcIntamEdlGaceTArYc. PaKeRcIneRbIcMeBaHTMnijEdlmanéføedImTab.
       -karEbgEckedayELk ³ plitplRtUv)anpþl;siT§ikñúgkarEbgEck b¤lk;plitpleTA
eGayGñklk;duM nigGñklk;raytamcMnYnkMNt;enAtMbn;PUmisaRsþNaenaH. yuT§saRsþenHeRbIeTA
elIplitplEdlmanéføedImx<s;.
       -karEbgEcklk;CMerIs ³ sßitenAcenøaHkarEbgEcklk;tamRbBlPaB nigkarEbgEck
lk;edayELk. Rkumh‘unRtUveRbIyuT§saRsþEdl)aneRCIserIs edayRbugRby½tñ ehIyeRCIserIs

55
     ehg suPaB ³ mUldæanm:aXItFIg d> É> m> TMB½r 79.
                                                                                   51
EtGñklk;duM niglk;rayNaEdlpþl;nUvkarykcitþTukdak;xøaMg CaBiesscMeBaHkarRbwglk;TMnij
nigkartaMglk;.
                         2-4-3-karlk;d uM

        plitkrCaeRcIn)anBwgEp¥kelIesvarbs;Gñklk;duMkñúgkarEbgEckTMnij eRBaHfaGñklk;duM
Casßab½nEdlTij ehIybnÞab;mklk;TMnijTaMgenaHvijeTAeGayGñklk;ray GñkeRbIR)as;sMrab;
]sSahkmµ b¤eTAeGayGñklk;duMdéTeTot. Gñklk;duM eRbIR)as;sac;R)ak;eRcInCagGñklk;ray.
                         2-4-4-karlk;ray

        karlk;RbePTenHRtUvBwgEp¥kelIGñklk;rayCaQµÜjkNþalEdl)anTijTMnijBIplitkr
Pñak;gar b¤BIGñklk;duM eTAlk;eGayGñkeRbIR)as;tamkarkMNt;éføsmRsbmYy.
                         2-4-5-kardwk CBa¢Ún TMn ij

      kardwkCBa¢ÚnTMnij Camuxgard¾sMxan; eRBaHvacuHesah‘uyBak;kNþalénesah‘uysMrab;kar
EsVgyl;BITIpSarTaMgGs;;. meFüa)aysMrab;kardwkCBa¢ÚnmaneRcInEbbNas;dUcCa ³ tampøÚvEdk
tambMBg;bgðÚr ¬sMrab;TMnijrav¦ rfynþFM² pøÚvTwk nigtampøÚvGakas.
                         2-4-6-karsþúk

        kñúgkarsþúkTMnijGñkEsVgyl;BITIpSarmankareRCIserIsCamUldæanBIr ³ XøaMgÉkCn b¤XøaMg
rbs;rdæ ¬saFarN³¦ Etk¾RtUvKitpgEdr BIsßanPaB eBlevla nigesah‘uyEdlRtUvcMNay .
        RbB½n§énkarEbgEckl¥mYy begáIteGaymanlkçN³sm,tþiy:agxøaMgkñúgkarRbkYtRbECg
rbs;Rkumh‘un EdlplitkrTaMgGs;cg;)anR)akdfaTMnijrbs;BYkeK)aneTAdl;GtifiCneKaledA.
karEsVgyl;BITIpSarpÞal;eFIVeGayplitkrQaneTAdl;GñkeRbIR)as;cugeRkay edaymin)ac;eRbI
R)as;GnþrkarI cMENkÉkarEsVgyl;BITIpSarRbeyalBak;B½n§dl;kareRbIR)as;GnþrkarIedIm,IQan
dl;GñkeRbIR)as;cugeRkay56.


56
     sUmemIl ehg suPaB ³ karRKb;RKgm:aXItFIg PñMeBj 1996 TMB½rTI 53 .
                                                                                     52
           3-\riy abfGtifiC n
        karsÁal;RtwmEt\riyabfGñkplit b¤yuT§saRsþGñkplitminRKb;RKan;eT shRKasRtUv
sÁal;pgEdrnUv\riyabfédKUrrbs;xøÜnEdlCaGñkTij b¤GtifiCn karEdlTTYl)aneCaKC½yelI
yuT§saRsþ 4 P 57 minkMNt;faGaclk;plitplrbs;xøÜndac;eT drabNashRKinmin)ansÁal;BI
bMNgR)afña nigtMrUvkarrbs;GtifiCnxøÜnenaH58. GtifiCnman\riyabfepSg² BIKña ehtuenH
ehIy)anCashRKasCaeRcIn)anecaTsYrfaehtuGVIk¾eKlk;dac; ÉcMENkxøÜnlk;BMusUvdac; b¤min
dac;eTaHCaxøÜn)anGnuvtþnUvyuT§saRsþ 4 P )anl¥ehIyk¾eday. kardak;ecjnUvyuT§saRsþTI
pSarmun)ansikSaBI\riyabfGtifiCneRbobdUcCa karplitTMnijrYceTIb)anedIrrkGtifiCn. viFI
Ebb enHdUceTAnwgRTwsIþrbs;GñkniBn§mñak;EdlCaCnCati )araMgeQµaH LAFONTAINE Edl)an
bgðajfa ³ dMbUgeKRtUvedIrbr)aj;stVeGay)ansinbnÞab; mkeTIbeKykEs,kvaeTAlk;. )an
n½yfadMbUgRtUvedIrcUléRBeLIgPMñedIm,Ibr)aj;stV ¬plit¦ bnÞab;mkeTIbeKedIrlk;rkGtifiCn
edayeKBMu)andwgesaHfaetInrNaxøHEdleKcg;Tij nigmantMrUvkarelIEs,k ¬plitpl¦rbs;xøÜn
eLIy . edIm,IsMerc)annUvbMNgR)afñarbs;xøÜn shRKas RtUvEtBinitüeLIgvijnUvrebobRKb;RKg
eRBaHfaTMnijmYyRtUv)ankMNt;edayGtifiCn minEmnRkumh‘unEtmñak;ÉgeT ehIymeFüa)ay
                                I
Edll¥enaHRtUvsikSaRsavRCavGMB\riyabfrbs;GtifiCnCamun.
        GñkesdæviTUCaeRcIn)ansnµt;faGtifiCnCaGñkesdækic© 59 mann½yfaCamnusSEdldwg
TaMgGs;nUvehtukarN_TaMgLay nigeFIVkareRbobeFobCMerIsedaysmehtuplkñúglkçxNÐénéfø
nigtMélEdlTTYl)an edIm,IbMeBjnUvkarcMNayeBlevla nigFnFanrbs;BYkeK . karyl;
dwgBIGtifiCnminEmnCaerOgsamBaØeT . dUecñHetIGIVeTAEdlehAfa\riyabfGtifiCn ? ehIyktþa
NaxøHEdlman\Ti§BleTAelI\riyabfGtifiCnenaH ?
                    3-1-niy mn½y
      manTsSn³CaeRcInEdl)anelIkeLIgbgðajBIGIVeTAEdlCa\riyabfGtifiCn CadMbUgenH
\riyabfGtifiCnCadMeNIrmYy Edltamry³enaHbuKÁlbeBa©jnUvcMelIytbeTAnwgtMrUvkarmYy.
57
      4 P ( Product, Price, Promotion, Place)   man ³ plitpl éfø karpSBVpSay nigTIkEnøg
58
     Chan Savary, Marketing/Comportement Du Consommateur, Phnom Penh, 1999, p. 1
59
     Most economists assume that consumers are economic men. E. Jerome McCarthy and
     William D. Perreault, Basic Marketing ,11thedition, p. 202.

                                                                                          53
          Mekong Project Development Facility (MPDF)           yl;faCadMeNIrkarkñúgkar
sMerccitþ nigCaGMeBIEdlTak;TgnwgkarTTYlyk nigkareRbIR)as;plitpl nigesvaNamYy 60.
        cMENkelak Berkowitz )aneGayniymn½yfa CaskmµPaBrbs;mnusSkñúgkarTij nig
eRbIR)as;TMnij b¤esvakmµrYmbBa©ÚlTaMgKMnit nigdMeNIrkarsgÁmEdlenAcMeBaHmux nigkarRbRBwtþi
skmµPaBTaMgenaH61.
        smaKmn_GñkEsVgyl;BITIpSarrbs;shrdæGaemricyl;fa CaTMnak;TMngy:agqab;rh½s
eday\T§iBl nigkaryl;eXIjEdlbuKÁlmYyenaHkMBugEtRbkan;yktamry³karpøas;bþÚrTidæPaB
énkarrs;enArbs;eK. manmUldæansMxan;² mYycMnYnenAkñúgkareGayniymn½yenHdUcCa ³
                          3-1-1-\riy abfGtifiCnCakMlaMgDIN amik

         kareGayniymn½yenHcg;bgðajfa \riyabfGtifiCnCakMlaMgEdlnaMeGaymankar
pøas;bþÚr. mann½yfaGtifiCnCabuKÁl CaRkum nigCasgÁmmYyEdlEtgEtmankarpøas;bþÚr EkERb
Canic©GaRs½ytameBlevla. dUcenHGñksikSaEsVgyl;BITIpSarRtUvEtmankarRbugRby½tñkñúgkar
kMNt;eBlevla.
                          3-1-2-\riy abfGtifiCnTak;T gnwgGarmµN _ nigkaryl;eXIj

        \riyabfGtifiCnTak;TgnwgGarmµN_ dUecñHedIm,IEsVgyl;BIGarmµN_rbs;GtifiCnRtUv
yl;BIGIVEdlBYkeKKit nig)aneFIV eRBaHTaMgGs;enHman\T§iBl nigb:HBal;dl;GarmµN_EdlKit
cg;Tijrbs;GtifiCn EdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYy\riyabf nigmCÄdæanEdlmanenACMuvijGtifiCn.
                          3-1-3-\riy abfGtifiCnTak;T gnwgkaredaHduUr
        cMNucenHCakarepþatelIkaredaHdUrrvagmnusS nigmnusS. tamBitc,ab;TIpSarTamTar
eGayRkumh‘unRtUvEtbMeBjnUvkaredaHdUrdl;GtifiCnEdlekItmaneLIgtamkarbegáIt nigbMeBj
nUvyuT§saRsþTIpSar.

60
     Mekong Project Development Facility (MPDF)      ³ m:aXIFIg karlk;dUrsMrab;shRKasFuntUc nig
     mFümenAkm<úCa PMñeBj 2001 TMB½r 67.
61
     Berkowitz et al., Marketing, 18th edition, U.S.A 1997, p. 668.


                                                                                            54
                 3-2-RbePTénGtifiCn
     GtifiCnRtUv)anEbgEckCa 2 RbePT ³ 1- GtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as; nig2-GtifiCnCa
shRKasGaCIvkmµ.
                         3-2-1-GtifiCnGñk eRbIR)as;

      shRKasCaeRcInemIleXIjfaGtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as;cugeRkayCaGñkEdlcUleTAkñúghag
lk;rayTijplitplmkpÞHedIm,IeRbIR)as;. ]TahrN_ GñkTijesovePAmYyk,alykeTA
sala nigeRbIR)as;sMrab;kt;RtamuxviC¢aNaenaH GñkTijEbbenaHCaGtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as;.
\riyabfrbs;GtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as;CaskmµPaBBit nigCH\Ti§BlepSg² ehIyEdl\Ti§BlTaMg
Gs;manelIkarTij nigeRbIR)as;TMnij b¤esvakmµ.
                         3-2-2-GtifiCnTij sMrab;s hRKasGaCIv kmµ

      GtifiCnEdlshRKasGaCIvkmµTijTMnij b¤esvakmµ edIm,IplitehIynwglk;TMnij b¤
esvakmµfIµenaHvij. ]TahrN_ GñkplitTwkkk dMbUgGñkplitTijTwkravykmkbMElgCaTwkrwg
¬Twkkk¦ sMrab;lk;bnþeTot. GñkplitesovePAsresr Tijkav Rkdas nigvtßúFatuedImdéT
eTot edIm,IplitesovePAsresr. TaMgGs;enH)anbgðajeGayeXIjfaGtifiCnEdlTijsMrab;
shRKasGaCIvkmµ TijkñúgbrimaNeRcInCagGtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as; 62.
                 3-3-ktþaEdlman\Ti§Bldl;GtifiCn
       GñkTIpSarrbs;Rkumh‘unnImYy² caM)ac;RtUvyl;eGay)anc,as;nUvktþaTaMgLay Edlman
\Ti§BlmkelI\riyabfGtifiCn edIm,ICYysMrYldl;karecjyuT§saRsþsMrab;GgÁPaB. ktþaTaMg
enaHmantamlMdab;lMedaydUcxag eRkam ³
                         3-3-1-ktþasgÁm- vb,Fm’

          ktþaenHTak;TgCasMxan;elIvb,Fm’ nigvNѳsgÁmEdlGtifiCnrs;enA.


62
     E. Jerome McCarthy and William D. Perreault, Basic Marketing, 10th, USA , 1990, p. 193


                                                                                        55
                                  k-vb,Fm’
        mnusSrs;enAkñúgsgÁmEdlmanvb,Fm’epSg² KñaEdltMrUveGaysmaCikRkumnimYy² rs;
enAedayeKarBtamnUvKMrUGtþcrikenaH. ekItmkPøammnusSeyIg)anTTYl\Ti§Blvb,Fm’BIsgÁm
Edlrs;enAPøam ehtuenHehIy)anCaTsSn³CaeRcInyl;favb,Fm’CaktþakMNt;cMeBaH\riyabf
nigesckIþRtUvkarrbs;mnusSTUeTA. mnusSdwgkIþkñúgmCÄdæanNaRtUvTTYlnUvtMélénkaryl;dwg
cMNg;cMNUlcitþ TMenomTMlab; nig\riyabfqøgtamRKYsarrbs;BYkeKRBmTaMgsßab½nsMxan;epSg²
eTotEdlTak;TgenAkñúgmCÄdæanenaH63. ]TahrN_ dUcCa CnCati)araMgcUlcitþjaMunMb½ug b½r
Epøe):am cMENkRbCaCnkm<úCacUlcitþjaMu)ayCaedIm enHCaKMrUvb,Fm’rbs;RbeTsnImYy² Edl
manlkçN³BiesserogxøÜn.
        CarYm vb,Fm’man\Ti§BlelImUlehtuEdlGtifiCnTijTMnij nigCH\Ti§BlelIrcnasm<½n§
eRbIR)as; nigkMNt;eRCIserIstamcMNg;cMNUlcitþrbs;BYkeK . cMNg;cMNUlcitþrbs;GtifiCneTA
elIsMelokbMBak; mðÚbGahar kardwkCBa¢Ún plitplEfrkSaxøÜn nigsgðarwwmpÞHsMEbg suT§EtRtUv
)anCH\T§iBlBIsasna nigCatisasn_rbs;xøÜn.
        CaTUeTAmanKMrUvb,Fm’tUc² cMnYn 5 y:agEdlEtgEtCYbRbTHKW 64³
        - RkumRskrmnusSman ³ mnusSFM ekµgCMTg;
        -RkumCatisasn_man ³ CnePosxøÜnmanEbbbT niglkçN³rs;enAepSg² erog²xøÜn.
        - Rkumsasna
        - RkumCnCatiPaKticman CnCatiEs,ks Es,kexµA nigEs,kelOg
        - Rkumrs;enAtamtMbn;nanaEdlmanrebobrs;enAepSg²Kña.
                                  x- vNѳsgÁm
       vNѳsgÁmEbgEckdac;BIKñaeTAtamsar³sMxan; rebobrs;enA plRbeyaCn_ nig\riyabf
énRkumnImYy² ehIyEdlman\Ti§BlelI\riyabfGtifiCn. karyl;dwgBIvNѳsgÁmCYYyeGay
GñkyuT§saRsþTIpSareFIVkareRCIserIsRbB½n§eXasnapSayBaNiC¢kmµtamry³sßanIyviTüúú TUrTsSn_
kaEst TsSnavdþICak;lak;NamYy pSBVpSaydl;GtifiCneKaledArbs;xøÜn.
63
     sUmemIl G‘ul v:n niglI qay ³ mUldæanRKwHénm:aXIFIg PñMeBj 2001 TMB½rTI 68.
64
     Chan Savary, Marketing/Comportement Du Consommateur, op. cit., p. 2.


                                                                                  56
         mnusSEdlsßitenAkñúgvNѳTab PaKeRcIncUlcitþedIrpSarenACitpÞHCag mineRbIBt’manBI
GRtakarR)ak; minBak;B½n§karRbmUlBt’manmuneBlsMerccitþTij nigminmankaryl;dwgBICMerIs
énkaredIrpSareRcIndUcmnusSEdlsßitenAkñúgvNѳx<s;eT. lkçN³dUcKñakñúgkareRCIserIs nigkar
eRbIR)as;plitpl nigeKalbMNgénvNѳnImYy² )anbgðajeGayeXIjfa vNѳsgÁm Gac
eGayeKeRbIedIm,IEckTIpSarCacMENktUc² EdlcMENknImYy² RtUv)anbegáIteLIgedayman
lkçN³sm,tþiRbhak;RbEhlKña.
                       3-3-2-ktþasgÁm-cit þv iT üa

        eRkABI\T§iBlvb,Fm’CakarcaM)ac;Nas;RtUvykcitþTukdak;RsavRCavGMBIktþaepSg² eTot
EdlekItmankñúgsgÁm. ktþaenHcg;niyayBI\T§iBlEdlmancMeBaHmnusS nigmnusS EdlTMnak;
TMngenHman\Ti§BlmkelIkarTij kñúgenHk¾)anelIkeLIgBImnusSEdleFIVtamKña yktMrab;tamKña
Rkumer:ehVr:g; ¬ Reference Group¦ RKYsar nigtYnaTIenAkñúgsgÁm. eTaHbICaRkumEdlman
\Ti§BlTaMgenaHRtUv)aneKkMNt;niymn½yCaeRcInepSg² Kñak¾eday b:uEnþeBlenHkMNt;ykEt
niymn½ysMxan; nigTUeTAmYyenAkñúgcMeNamniymn½yTaMgGs;faRkumTaMgb:unµanxagelIsuT§EtCH
\Ti§Bldl;\riyabfrbs;GtifiCn ebIminpÞal;k¾RbeyalEdr. \riyabfGtifiCnCajwkjab;RtUv
TTYl\T§iBlBIGñkEdlGtifiCnesBKb;CitditbMput. GtifiCnGaceqøIytbcMeBaHsMBaFEdldwg
edayviBaØaNedIm,IeFIVeTAtambTdæan nigkarsgÇwmEdlpþl;edayGñk déTeTot.
                               k-Rkumer:ehVr:g;
        Rkumer:ehVr:g;CaRkummnusSEdlman\T§iBlelI\riyabf b¤Gakb,kiriyarbs;GtifiCn.kñúg
enaHbuKÁlmñak;² RtUvrgnUv\Ti§BlCaeRcInrYmmanRKYsar GñkCitxag mitþPkþi GñkrYmkargar nigenA
kñúgshKmn_nanaEdlbuKÁlenaHrs;enA. RkumenH)aneFIVGnþraKmn_tam 3 rebob 65³
        -bgðajcMeBaHbuKÁlnUv\riyabfcitþKMnit nigkarrs;enA
        -pþl;\T§iBlelI\riyabfbuKÁl
        -CabBa©b;ekobsgát;edIm,IeGaybuKÁledIrtam.


65
     Ibid., p. 4.


                                                                                     57
                             x-RKYsar
         \riyabfrbs;buKÁlmñak;² EtgTTYl\Ti§BlBIsmaCiknanarbs;RKYsarxøÜn . etIRKYsarCa
GIV ? mann½ydUcemþc ? eBlenHRKYsarCaRkummnusS 2 nak; b¤eRcInmanTMnak;TMngCamYyKñaeday
ExSelahit karerobGaBah_BiBah_ b¤karciBaw©mCIvitedayrs;enACamYyKña. enAkñúgRKYsarmYy
smaCiknImYy² EtgTTYl\Ti§BlBIRKYsarrbs;xøÜnkñúgkarTijplitpl eTaHbICaxøÜncakecjBI
RKYsarenaHehIyk¾eday. RKYsarKWCaktþasMxan;Edlman\Ti§BlelIGtifiCn dUecñHedIm,IeGaykar
garGaCIvkmµdMeNIrkar)anl¥RbesIr niglk;TMnijdac;GñkRsavRCavBITIpSarRtUvyl;fa³
         -karsMerccitþTijCaeRcInRtUv)anekIteLIgenAkñúgRKYsar
         -\riyabfGtifiCnecjBIRKYsar dUcCa kUnekµgdwg\riyabfTijBIkaremIlnUvskmµPaB
rbs;«Bukmþayrbs;BYkeK.
         -smaCikRKYsarEdlCaGtifiCnEtgEtcUlcitþTijnUvplitplGIVEdlRKYsareKniymeRbI
R)as;. karEdlGtifiCneBjcitþm:akplitpldEdlBICMnan;mYyeTACMnan;mYybgðajBIkic©Rbwg
ERbgrbs;GñkRsavRCavTIpSar.
         -karsMerccitþTij CalkçN³RKYsarCakarKYbpSMénGnþrskmµPaBkñúgRKYsarCamYynwgkar
sMerccitþCabuKÁl.
         eTaHbICay:agNak¾edayRKYsarman\T§iBly:agxøaMgcMeBaH\riyabfGtifiCnkñúgkarTij
plitpl ehIyCaGñktMrg;TisENnaMeGayTijdUcCa «Bukmþay bgb¥ÚnRsIRbus bþI RbBn§CaedIm.
sar³sMxan;énRKYsarEdlcat;TukfaCaGñkkMNt;cMeBaH\riyabfTijenH RtUv)anTTYlsÁal;CayUr
mkehIy. ehtuenHehIy)anCaGñkRsavRCavTIpSarykktþaRKYsarenHmkeFIVCaRbFanbTénkar
BicarNaRsavRCavedIm,Icg¥úlbgðajBItYnaTI nig\Ti§Blrbs;smaCikRKYsarnImYy². tamkar
sikSaRsavRCavCaeRcInBI\Ti§BlRKYsarelIkarTijeXIjfa\Ti§Blrbs;bþIRbBn§kñúgkarTijERbRbYl
                                                 [




eTAtamplitplEdleKTaMgBIrRtUvkar. plitplEdlkarTijRtUvRKbsgát;edaysarRbBn§PaK
eRcInkarTijmðÚbGahar sMelokbMBak; nigeRKOgsMGag cMENkÉplitpl EdlkarTijRtUv)an
RKbsgát;edaysarbþIvijmanrfynþ nigkarCYsCulCaedIm. cMeBaHkareFIVesckþIsMercrYmKñarvag
bþIRbBn§CalkçN³mYyénkareRCIserIsTijplitplEdlmantMéléfø eRBaHfa»kasénkareFVI



                                                                                 58
esckþIsMerccitþxusmaneRcIn dUcenHBYkeKcaM)ac;RtUvEtsYreyabl;KñaedIm,ITTYl)annUvCMerIsd¾l¥
RbesIrmYy 66.
                           3-3-3-ktþapÞal;x øÜn

        karsMerccitþrbs;GñkTijTak;TgCamYy Gayu muxrbr sßanPaBesdækic© cMNUl nig
ekrþ×mrtk vdþCIvitrs;enA TIkEnøgrs;enA kMritcMeNHdwg nigeBlevla EdlTaMgenHCabuKÁlik
lkçN³pÞal;xøÜnrbs;BYkeK.
                                   k-Gayu
         karKitRkumGtifiCneGayRtUvtamGayumansar³sMxan;Nas; kñúgkareFIVKMeragry³eBl
EvgnUvkMeNIn ¬cuH b¤eLIg¦ énRbCasaRsþrbs;GtifiCn tamkarvivtþn_CamYynigeBlevla67.
         GtifiCnTijTMnij nigesvakmµxusKñaeTAtamv½yCIvitrbs;BYkeK dUcCaeKjauMGaharekµg
enAkñúgv½yekµg ehIyjauMGahareRcInmuxRKb;RbePTenAeBlEdlmanv½yvDÆnakar b:uEnþeBlEdl
eKQancUlv½ycMNas;bnþiceKbriePaKmðÚbGahartmeTAvij.
         -ekµg nigCMTg; ³ CaTIpSareKaledAmYyy:agsMxan;minRtwmEtrab;bBa©ÚlnUvR)ak;cMNUl
EdlRkumenaHmanpgeT EfmTaMgGacemIleXIjBIsar³sMxan;énEbbbTrs;enAEdlRkumenaHman
\T§iBlelIkareRbIR)as;kñúgeBlGnaKteTotpg.
         -eBjv½y ³ CasmasPaBmYyEdlsVahab;sMrab;TIpSar kñúgkareRbIR)as;nUvplitpl
dUcCa³ sMelokbMBak; karsb,ay eRKOgsgðarwm eRKOgGKÁisnICaedIm. karBüakrN_cMeBaHv½y
enHGaceFVIeGayshRKasmanlT§PaBnwgbegáIn b¤bnßynUvbrimaNplitkmµrbs;xøÜn.
         -mnusSFM ³ RkummnusSRbePTenHmankarKitKUrBicarNaeRcIn nigmankareRbIR)as;nUv
rbs;rbrmYycMnYndUcCa ³ plitpl»sf TICMrk karFanaCIvit kareFIVdMeNIrTsSnaTIq¶ay nigtam
mNÐlvb,Fm’nana.



66
     sUmemIl G‘ul v:n niglI qay ³ mUldæanRKwHénm:aXIFIg d> É> m> TMB½rTI 77.
67
     Chan Savary, Marketing/Comportement Du Consommateur, op. cit., p. 8.


                                                                                     59
                             x-muxrbr
         shRKasxøHGacplit niglk;plitplrbs;xøÜnedaysarEt)ansÁal;BImuxrbrrbs;Gñk
Tij . muxrbrEdlbuKÁlmannaMeGaymancMNUlnigbNþaleGayekIteLIgnUvkarTijplitpl nig
esvakmµ68. kargarrbs;mnusSmñak;vaCH\Ti§BlpgEdrdl;\riyabfénkareRbIR)as;rbs;GtifiCn
cMeBaHkmµkrEdleFIVkarenAkñúgeragcRkmñak;nwgTijsMelokbMBak; Es,keCIgsMrab;eFIVkar ehIy
eFIVdMeNIrtam rWum:k b¤LanRkug cMENkÉGKÁnaykRkumhu‘nmYyvij nwgTijsMelokbMBak;éfø² nig
eFIVdMeNIrtamrfynþTMenIb² b¤ynþehaHCaedIm. GñkRsavRCavTIpSarRtUvdwgBIRbePTmuxrbrrbs;
GñkTijEdlbBa¢ak;BIRbtikmµelIplRbeyaCn_énkareRbIR)as;plitpl nigesvakmµ.
                             K-sßanPaBesdækic©
        sßanPaBesdækic©rbs;mnusSmñak;kMNt;nUvrgVas;Tij b¤GMNacénkarTij. kareRCIserIs
TijplitplRtUv)anCH\Ti§Bly:agxøaMgedaysarkal³eTs³esdækic©rbs;GtifiCn EdlrYmman
cMNUl ekrþ×mrtk smtßPaBbMNul karsnSM nig\NTan. RbPB esdækic©dUcCa cMNUl nigRTBü
sm,tþi. cMNucTaMgb:unµanxagelICaGefrTImYyEdlRtUvviPaKkñúgkarsikSaBI\riyabfrbs;GtifiCn
enAkñúgqñaM 1972. tamRTwsþImIRkUesdækic© cMNUlrbs;buKÁlman\T§iBlelIkareRbIR)as; ehIy
k¾bgðajeGayeXIjBIGMNacénkarTijEdlbuKÁlenaHman. TIpSarBak;B½n§CamYynwgkarpøas;bþÚr
RbPBhirBaØvtßúeTAvijeTAmk kñúgkarvas;GefrcMNUlmanPaBsµúRKsµajNas;BIeRBaHEtkareGay
Gtßn½yxusKñaeTAelIcMNUl . eRkABIcMNUlk¾enAmanRbPBesdækic©sMxan;BIreTot Edlman\T§iBl
elI\riyabfGtifiCn KWePaKRTBü nig\NTan. RKYsarGñkman cMNayluyelIesvakmµ kareFIV
dMeNIrkMsanþ nigcUlcitþvinieyaKkñúgmuxCMnYjepSg² CagRKYsarminsUvman. \NTanBRgIkR)ak;
cMNUly:agehacNas;k¾)anmYyry³Edr EttamkarBit\NTankat;bnßylT§PaBTijTMnij nig
esvakmµkñúgry³eBlEvgBIeRBaHéføén\NTanRtUvdkecjBIRbPBcMNUlEdlmanrbs;GtifiCn.
                             X-vdþCIvitrs;enArbs;RKYsar
      plitplEdlTijedaybuKÁlmñak;EtgEtERbRbYleTAtamdMeNIrCIvitrbs;Kat;. GaRs½y
edaymnusSmñak;² manCIvPaBepSg² Kña ehIykarsMerccitþTijk¾mankarxusEbøkKña dUecñHehIy
68
     Ibid., p. 10.


                                                                                 60
eTIbenAkñúgTIpSareKRtUvkarnUvTMnijeRcInEbbeRcIny:ag edIm,IeGayGñkTijmankareRCIserIs)an
TUlMTUlay69. eTaHy:agNak¾edayGtifiCn)aneRbIR)as;nUvplitplRKb;RbePTdUcCa sMelok
bMBak; eRKOgsgðarwm karsb,ay>>>>>> taMgBIKat;enAekµg rhUtdl;v½ycas;søab;. eKalkarN_
rbs;vdþCIvitrs;enA)anbgðajeGayeXIjBIkarvivtþn_énbMNgR)afña \riyabf sar³sMxan; nigtMél
rbs;va.
        taragTI 7 bgðajBIvdþRKYsar nigplitplpleRbIR)as;
dMNak;kalsuIkRKYsar                                cMNUl        plitpleRbIR)as;
1-enAlIv                                            eqIt        sMelokbMBak; ePsC¢³ karsb,ay
2-RKYsarfµIKµankUn                                  ekIn        plitplyUr karsb,ay
3-bþIRbBn§mankUnGayuticCag 6 qñaM                  fycuH        pÞH sgðarwm rbs;ekµgelg fñaMeBTü
4-bþIRBn§mankUnGayueRcInCag 6 qñaM                  ekIn        karsikSa kILa
5-bþIRbBn§Gayucas;mankUnkñúgbnÞúk                   esßr        pÞH karsikSa
6-bþIRbBn§cas;KµankUnkñúgbnÞúk-emRKYsarman                      eFIVdMeNIr karsb,ay pÞHsMrab;cUl
                                                  Gtibrma
kargareFIV                                                      nivtþn_
7-bþIRbBn§Gayucas;KµankUnkñúgbnÞúk-emRKYsar
                                                   fycuH        suxPaB karsb,ay
cUlnivtþn_;
8-cas;mñak;ÉgmankargareFIV                          esßr        eFIVdMeNIr karsb,ay suxPaB
9-cas;mñak;ÉgcUlnivtþn_                            fycuH        suxPaB
RbPB³ Chan Savary, Marketing/Comportement Du Consommateur, Phnom Penh, 1999, p. 10
                                   g-TItaMgPUmisaRsþrs;enArbs;GtifiCn
       TItaMgPUmisaRsþrs;enACaktþasMxan;sMrab;kMNt; nigBüakrN_BIm:ak nigm:Utrbs;plitpl
RBmTaMgrebobénkareRbIR)as; karEbgEckk¾dUcCakarpÁt;pÁg;plitplEdr. ktþaTItaMgrs;enAman
tMbn;CnbT nigtMbn;TIRkug 70. Gñkrs;enAtamTItaMgTaMgenHmanGtþcrit nig\riyabfxus² Kña
ÉkareRCIserIs karsMerccitþ nigkareRbIR)as;k¾epSg² KñaEdr.

69
     sUmemIl G‘ul v:n niglI qay ³ mUldæanRKwHénm:aXIFIg d> É> m> TMB½rTI 75.
70
     Chan Savary, Marketing/Comportement Du Consommateur, op. cit., p. 11.


                                                                                              61
                               c-kMriténcMeNHdwg
       cMeNHdwgrbs;\T§iBlman\Ti§iBlelIkarsMerccitþkñúgkarTijrbs;rbreRbIR)as; eRBaHfa
munnwgsMerccitþTijplitplGIVmYy eK)anBicarNa edaymankarRbmUlpþúMnUvBt’man RBmTaMg
mankarsYrnaMCaeRcIn edIm,IecosvagkarRbfuyRbfan. GtifiCnCajwkjab;EbgEckEtsmtßPaB
                                         u
EdlcaM)ac;sMrab;sMKal;eRKOgpSBVpSaymYyb:eNÑaH muneBlbþÚrkarcab;GarmµN_eTAkEnøgepSg
eTot. karRbwgERbgedIm,ITTYl)annUvkarcab;GarmµN_rbs;GtifiCnCakarlM)akmYykñúgcMeNam
karlM)akTaMgGs;EdlGñkRsavRCavTIpSarEtgEtCYbRbTH.
                               q-eBlevla
        sBVéf¶enHmnusSeGaytMélelIeBlevlax<s;dUceGaytMélelIfvikaEdr dUcsuPasitExµr
)aneBalfaeBlevlaCamasR)ak;. GefrmYykñúgcMeNamGefrCaeRcInTak;TgCamYyrebobEdl
mnusScMNayfvikatameBlrbs;eK. mnusScMNayeBlPaKeRcInelIkargar eKg skmµPaBcaM
)ac;mYycMnYn nigeBlevlamYyEpñkeTotcMNayelIskmµPaBpÞal;xøÜn. edIm,IEsVgyl;BI\riyabf
GtifiCneGay)anl¥GñkRsavRCavTIpSarRtUvEtBinitürebobEdlGtifiCncMNay nigeBlevla
EdlRtUUvcMNay mann½yfaebImanfvikaeRcInGaceFIVGIV² )anKµankMNt;eT EtTnÞwmnwgenaHk¾RtUv
maneBlevlakMNt;mYyEdr. karxVl;xVayrbs;GñkEdlmanePaKRTBüeRcIn KWkarTijeBlevla
bEnßmeTotminEmnkarTijplitpleT eRBaHfaebIKµaneBlevlamnusSminGaceFIVGIVtamesckþI
R)afña)aneLIyeTaHCaman cMNUlekIneLIgk¾eday.
                       3-3-4-ktþacit þv iT üa

       citþsaRsþGaceFIVeGayGñkRsavRCavBITIpSar)anyl;BI\riyabfénGñkTij b¤Gakb,kiriya
rbs;GtifiCnEdleKnwgeFVI. tamry³kareRbIR)as; GñkRsavRCavBITIpSarGacemIleXIjGtþcrit
GñkTij ehIykareRbIR)as;qøúHbBa©aMgnUv\Ti§BlénktþacitþviTüarbs;buKÁlenaH. dUecñHehIyedIm,I
yl;dwgGMBI \riyabfGtifiCneGay)anc,as;las;RtUvEtsikSaelIdMeNIrkardUcxageRkam³
                               k-tMrUvkar nigkarCMrujelIkTwkcitþ
       karCMrujelIkTwkcitþ CakMlaMgCMrujmYyEdlCabuBVehtueGaymnusSrkviFIbMeBjtMrUvkard¾
Cak;lak;mYy. tamGñkcitþviTüa Abraham Maslow )anEcgfatMrUvkarman 5 CMhan cab;epþImBI
                                                                                     62
tMrUvkarEpñksrIr³viTüarhUtdl;tMrUvkarfñak;x<s;71. tMrUvkarTaMgenaHdwgedaysarvijaN Edl
vijaNTaMgGs;man 5 KW ckçúvijaNesatvijaNXanvijaNCIvðavijaNnigkayvijaN.
         -tMrUvkarEpñksrIr³viTüa ³ CatMrUvkarmYyedIm,IPaBKg;vgSénkarmanCIvitrs;enAelIelak.
mnusSRKb;rUbRtUvEtbMeBjnUvtMrUvkarsrIr³EdlCakarmYyminGaceCosrYc eRBaHfamnusSRtUvkar
briePaK eKg nigdkdegðImedIm,Irs;.
         -tMrUvkarsnþisux ³ eRkayeBltMrUvkarEpñksrIr³RtUv)anbMeBjCaTUeTA ehIymnusScab;
epþImbMeBjtMrUvkarEpñksnþisux. vamansar³sMxan;Nas;nUvtMrUvkarEpñksnþisuxeRkayeBlEdl
)anbMeBjtMrUvkarEpñksrIr³rYcehIy.
         -tMrUvkarsgÁm ³ tMrUvkarrs;enAkñúgsgÁmmnusSCab;Tak;TgnwgesckþIesñha nigmitþPaB
rvagKñanigKñakñúgsgÁm.
         -tMrUvkaresckþIeKarB ³ tMrUvkarenHRtUv)anbMeBjedaysar)anTTYlkareKarB nigkar
TTYlsÁal;BIGñkdéT ehIyk¾GaRs½yelIbuKÁlxøÜnÉgpÞal; eRBaHvaCab;Tak;TgnwgPaBcg;)aneCaK
C½ykñúgCIvitdUcCabuNüskþi nigzan³kñúgsgÁmCaedIm.
         -tMrUvkarénPaBBitpÞal;xøÜn ³ Bak;B½n§dl;karrIkcMerInénbBaØa karécñRbDit nigkarsMerc
plGIVmYy.
         GñkRsavRCavTIpSarRtUvkt;sMKal;fa mnusSTaMgGs;sßitenAkñúgkMriténzananuRkméntMrUv
karepSg² Kña. GñkxøHRbmUlpþúMelItMrUvkarsnþisux eBlEdlGñkxøHRbmUlpþúMelIkarbMeBjtMrUvkar
énesckþIeKarB. karpþl;nUvpÞHsMEbg KWCa]TahrN_d¾l¥mYy edIm,IbgðajeGayeXIjBItMrUvkar
rbs;GñkeRbIR)as;mYy² nigcg;dwgfaetItMrUvkarrbs;GñkeRbIR)as;xusKñadUcemþcxøH edayeyal
eTAtamzananuRkmtMrUvkarrbs; Maslow . cMeBaHtMrUvkarsrIr³ pÞH)anpþl;karkarBarBIGakas
Fatunanadl;mnusS. tMrUvkarsnþisuxRtUv)anpþl;suvtßiPaBtamry³RbB½n§snþisux ¬rbg CBa¢aMgmauM¦
ehIysMrab;RKYsartMrUvkarsgÁmRtUv)anbMeBjedaypÞHEdlmanGñkCitxageRcIn nigmanekµgeRcIn
enAkñúgRKYsar. pÞHEdlbMeBjnUvtMrUvkaresckþIeKarBCakEnøgEdlmanFøaFMTUlay mansYnc,ar.
tMrUvkarénPaBBitpÞal;xøÜnGacRtUv)anbMeBjedaypÞHEdl)anKUsbøg; nigsagsg;edayKMnitrbs;
m©as;pÞH. xageRkamCaKMnUstagzananuRkméntMrUvkarrbs; Maslow ³

71
     cf. E. Jerome McCarthy and William D. Perreault, Basic Marketing ,11th, op. cit., p 204

                                                                                           63
       düaRkamTI 2 tMrUvkarrbs; Maslow




                                     tMrUvkarén
                                   PaBBitpÞal;xøÜn

                                tMrUvkaresckþIeKarB

                                    tMrUvkarsgÁm

                                   tMrUvkarsnþisux

                               tMrUvkarsrIr³viTüa
RbPB ³ McCarthy/ Perreault, Basic Marketing, 11 edition, U. S. A. 1993, p.206.
                                                th




                                                                                 64
                                   x-karyl;dwgedayviBaØaN
       buKÁlEdldwgehtupl)anerobcMxøÜnCanic© edIm,ImanRbtikmµeqøIytbeTAnwgTegVIrbs;xøÜn.
karyl;dwgedayviBaØaNCadMeNIrkarmYyEdltamry³enaHbuKÁl)aneRCIserIs nigbkRsaynUv
Fatunanarbs;Bt’manmkxageRkA ehIysmRsbeTAnwgmCÄdæanCuMvij. ]TahrN_ GñkxøHyl;fa
Rsaebor Tiger CaRbePTRsaebormYyRbePTEdlmanRbCaRbiy ehIyEdlmaneCaKC½y
EtmnusSmYycMnYneTotEbrCayl;faRsaebor Heineken manRbCaRbiyCageTAvij. GIV² TaMg
Gs;enH CalT§plénkaryl;dwgedayviBaØaNEdlCadMeNIrkarénkareRCIserIsrbs;buKÁlmñak;²
ehIy)aneFIVkarbkRsayBIBt’manmYycMnYn EdlmanKuNsm,tþisMrab;Rkumh‘uneTotpg.
                                   K-CMenO nigGakb,kiriya
         CMenOman\T§iBlelIGtþcrikrbs;buKÁlvaTak;TgnwgcMeNHdwgEdlmnusSmancMeBaHvtßú nig
cMeBaHplitplmYy. GñkplitEtgEtR)afñaeGay)andwgBICMenOnana EdlTIpSarmancMeBaHplit
plrbs;xøÜn72. CaTUeTACMenOGaRs½yelIktþa 3 y:agKW bTBiesaFn_BImunmkrbs;buKÁlmñak;²
karpSBVpSayBaNiC¢kmµ nigkarsaksYrBIGñkdéT73. CMenOCaGakb,kiriyamYysMxan;Nas;eFIV
eGayGtifiCnyl;nUvKuNRbeyaCn_rbs; TMnijEdlnwgeFIVeGayBYkeKbegáItecjnUvPaBeBjcitþ
Tij b¤mineBjcitþelITMnijGIVmYy.
         Gakb,kiriya)ansrubnUvkarvaytMélnanatamry³ GarmµN_cMeBaHplitpl b¤esvakmµ
NamYy. Gakb,kiriyaman BIr y:agcMeBaHplitpl b¤pøaksBaØamYyKW Gakb,kiriyaCaviC¢man
nigGakb,kiriyaEbbGviC¢man. rUbPaBrbs;plitplnwgditCab;pgEdrkñúgGarmµN_rbs;GtifiCn
cMeBaHplitplmYyEdleKeBjcitþehIyeKnwgmincab;GarmµN_cMeBaHplitplepSgEdleKBuM)an
dwg b¤BuMsUvcUlcitþeLIuy. GñkRsavRCavBITIpSar)aneFIVkarpøas;bþÚrnUvGakb,kiriyarbs;GtifiCn
EdlepþatGarmµN_elITMnij b¤esvakmµNamYyeday³
         -pøas;bþÚrnUvCMenOrbs;GtifiCncMeBaHTMnijEdlkMBugEbgEckenAkñúgTIpSar.
         -pøas;bþÚrCMenOtamry³karyl;dwgBIsar³sMxan; dUcCaenAeBlEdlplitplmYymancuH
éf¶ExputkMNt;GtifiCnBitCayl;famanKuNPaBl¥CagTMnijEdlmin)ancuHkalbriecäTRtwmRtUv.
72
     cf. Chan Savary, Marketing/Comportement Du Consommateur, op. cit., p. 17.
73
     G‘ul vn nig lI qay ³ mUldæanRKwHénm:aXIFIg d> É> m> TMB½rTI 73.
                                                                                     65
          -karbEnßmnUvKuNPaB niglkçN³sm,tiþfµIelIplitpl.
                                 X-buKÁliklkçN³pÞal;xøÜn
       buKÁliklkçN³pÞal;xøÜnsMedAelI\riyabfrbs;buKÁlmñak;² kñúgkarTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaH
sßankarN_EdlekItmaneLIgcMeBaHxøÜn nigsgÁm. mü:ageTotCarcnasm<½n§Edlcat;EcgeLIg
edaykaryl;eXIjEdl)anTTYlBIvijaNnanaedaysmtßPaB nigBIbridæanEdlenACuMvij. fIVebI
manTsSn³eRcIn)anniyayBIbuKÁliklkçN³enHk¾eday EtsMxan;bMputeFIVkarBinitüemIleTAelI
Gakb,kiriyaTaMgLayEdlmanenAkñúgxøÜnrbs;buKÁlmñak;²74enAkñúgkaeFIVTMnak;TMngrbs;BYkeKCa
mYynwgGñkdéTeTot.
                                 g-sar³sMxan; b¤tMél
       karsikSaBItMél)aneGaydwgfasar³sMxan; b¤tMélmantYnaTICaBiesssMrab;bBa¢ak;nUv
\riyabfGtifiCncMeBaHplitplmYytamkaryl;eXIjrbs;GtifiCn. tMélénplitplman
sar³sMxan;cMeBaHkareRCIserIsplitplmYy eRBaHvaCaKuNsm,tþiénTMnij Edlnwgpþl;CUndl;
GñkTij. sar³sMxan; b¤tMél RtUv)anEckCalMdab;fñak;cMeBaHral;buKÁlnImYy².
          4-dMeNIrkarénkarsMerccit þT ij rbs;G tifiC n
        kareFIVesckþIsMerccitþTijrbs;GtifiCnCadMeNIrEdlGñkeRbIR)as;RbmUlBt’man nigeFIV
kareRCIserIskñúgcMeNamCMerIsCaeRcIn. CaRTwsþI eBleFIVkarsMerccitþTijGñkeRbIR)as;RtUvqøgkat;
nUvCMhancMnYn 5 b:uEnþcMeBaHkarGnuvtþn_Cak;Esþg karsMerccitþTijxøHmincaM)ac;eFIVtamCMhanTaMg
enaHeT. ]TahrN_ eBlEdlRtUvkarcaM)ac;dUcCaGgár mðÚbGahar GñkTijnwgeTArkTijenAhag
NaEdlFøab;TijBIeBlmun² nwgmincaM)ac;qøgkat;dMeNIrkarsµúKsµajeT. GtifiCnnwgeFIVkarTij
mþgehIymþgeTotnwgbegáItCaTMlab;mYyedayeFIVkarTijenAhagdEdl. ÉcMENkCMhanTaMg 5
enaHsMrab;EtkarTijEdlmanlkçN³sµúKsµaj sMxan;² nigkarTijplitplfµI² Etb:ueNÑaH.



74
     - d - TMB½r 68 .
                                                                                        66
         düaRkamTI 3 dMeNIrkarénkarsMerccit þT ij rbs;G tifiCn


     karTTYlsÁal;bBaða                  karEsVgrkBt’man            karv aytMélCMerIs



                             \riy abfeRkayeBlTij                     karsMerccit þT ij

     RbPB ³ Mekong Project Development Facility (MPDF) ³ m:aXIFIg karlk;dUrsMrab;shRKas
     FuntUc nig mFümenAkmCa PMñeBj 2001 TMB½r 16.
                         <ú

                 4-1-karTTYlsÁal;bBaða
        CaCMhandMbUgkñúgkarsMerccitþTij EdlbgðajBIPaBxusKñarvagKMniténbuKÁlmñak;eTAnwg
sßankarN_BitR)akdEdllµmRKb;RKan;sMrab;karsMerccitþ. dMeNIrkarTijcab;epþImeLIgenAeBl
NamnusSmanbBaða b¤tMrUvkar. tMrUvkareFIVeGayekItmanedaysarkMlaMgCMrujxagkñúg dUcCa kar
eRskXøanTwk eRskXøanGahar b¤k¾ekItmaneLIgedaysarkMlaMgxageRkA dUcCa karTsSnanUv
karpSayBaNiC¢kmµ kardak;taMglk;plitplkñúghagEdlTak;Tajcitþ 75. ]TahrN_ eBl
EdlGavrbs;GñkrEhk enaHGñknwgKitfa etIRtUvb:HGavrbs;Gñk b¤mYyTijfµI. CakarsMxan;Nas;
sMrab;GñkRsavRCavTIpSar kñúgkarEsVgyl;BIRbePTéntMrUvkarénbBaðaEdlGtifiCnFøab;)anCYb
RbTHnwgerobcMxøÜnpþl;plitplEbbNaEdlCadMeNaHRsaydl;GtifiCn. shRKas GaceFIV
karpSayBaNiC¢kmµedIm,IeGayGtifiCn)andwg nigyl;BIplitplrbs;xøÜn. ]TahrN_ Rkumh‘un
pliteRsamGnam½y)aneFIVkarsikSaeXIjfa sBVéf¶enHCMgWeGds_)anrIkraldalqøgBItMbn;mYy
eTAtMbn;mYyeFIVeGaymnusSmankarP½yxøac ehIyEsVgrkviFIkarBarxøÜn. Rkumh‘un)anerobcM

75
     Mekong Project Development Facility (MPDF)   ³ m:aXIFIg karlk;dUrsMrab;shRKasFuntUc nig
     mFümenAkm<úCa d> É> m> TMB½r 17.

                                                                                         67
pliteRsamGnam½yEdlGackarBarmineGayqøgemeraKeGds_ bnÞab;mkRkumh‘uncab;eFIVkarpSBV
pSayBaNiC¢kmµy:agxøaMgkøa edIm,IeGayGtifiCndwgBIdMeNaHRsayEdleK)aneFIVeLIg.
              4-2-karRsavRCavBt’man
        GtifiCnEdlmanbBaða b¤mantMrUvkarnwgEsVgrknUvmeFüa)aynanaedIm,IbMeBjnUvtMrUvkar
TaMgenaH. bnÞab;mkGtifiCnmñak;² cab;epþImRbmUl nigEsVgyl;BIBt’man ehIyeFIVkarsMerccitþ
edayeRbobeFobrvagGtßRbeyaCn_rbs;plitpl nigGIVEdleKRtUvkarEsVgrk. karrMlwkeLIg
vijnUvkarcgcaMBIplitplmYy b¤pøaksBaØaénplitplmYyCakarRsavRCavBIxagkñúg. cMENkkar
RsavRCavBIxageRkAvijTak;Tgdl;karpSayBaNiC¢kmµ karGanGtßbTkñúgkaEst TsSnavdþI kar
sþab; karsaksYrmitþPkþi b¤GñksÁal;KñaGMBIBt’man nigTsSn³nana. ]TahrN_ RbsinebIGtifiCn
cg;TijeRsamGnam½y GtifiCnRbEhlCarkemIly:agl¥itl¥n; tamry³karpSayBaNiC¢kmµ nig
karsaksYrbuKÁlikEpñklk; faetIeKGaceGayeyabl;GMBIplitpl b¤BIRkumh‘unNaEdl)anlk;
eRsamGnam½ymanKuNPaBl¥.
        GñkRsavRCavBITIpSarRtUvEtEsVgyl;BITIkEnøgEdlGtifiCn EtgEtEsVgrkBt’man edIm,I
CYypþl;Bt’manEdlTak;Tg eGayGtifiCn)andwg. karpSayBaNiC¢kmµ nigkarlk;edaypÞal;KW
BitCamansar³sMxan;Nas;kñúgCMhanenH BIeRBaHfaBt’manRtUv)aneKeRbIedIm,IGb;rMGtifiCn ehIy
CYyeGayGtifiCn)anyl;dwgbEnßmGMBIplitplEdlRkumh‘unman.
              4-3-karvaytMélCMerIs
          eRkayeBlRbmUlBt’man GtifiCn)aneRbIR)as;Bt’manEdlRbmUl)an edIm,IvaytMél
CMerIsepSg² EdleK)anrkeXIj. CakarlM)akNas;edIm,Iyl;eGaydwgfaetIRtUveRbImeFüa)ay
GIVxøHkñúgkarvaytMél b:uEnþGtifiCnnwgTijplitpl Edlpþl;eGayeKnUvkareBjcitþ nigEdlman
tMélefak. TaMgenHBak;B½n§dl;karsegçbBt’man karKNnaedayhµt;ct; karKitKUrEdlsm
Rsb kMriténkaryl;dwg nigkMlaMgCMrujnana. ]TahrN_ kñúgkarsMerccitþTijeRsamGnam½y
GtifiCnRbEhlCaEp¥keTAelIkarvaytMélGMBIsar³sMxan; nigKuNPaBrbs;vakñúgkarkarBarmin
eGayqøgemeraK. GñkRsavRCavBITIpSarRtUvEtEsVgyl;nUvmeFüa)ayEdl GtifiCneRbIR)as;kñúg
karvaytMélCMerIsplitplrbs;shRKasxøÜn nwgGaccat;viFankarelIktþaEdlCH\T§iBlelIkar

                                                                                  68
sMerccitþenaH. karlk;TMnijedaypÞal;GacbgðajBIkareRbobeFobnUv KuNPaB nigPaBEdlGac
bMeBj)anénplitplrbs;Rkumh‘unCamYy nigpliitplrbs;KUrRbkYtRbECg.
                  4-4-karsMerccit þT ij
         eBlenHQancUldl;dMNak;kalfµImYyeToténdMeNIrkarTij EdlCakarsMerccitþkñúgkar
eRCIserIsTijykplitplGIVmYyedIm,IeRbIR)as;. CaFmµtakarvaytMélCMerIsepSg² naMeTArk
karTijy:agBitR)akdmYy. RbsinebICMerIssmRsbGaceTArYcehIyenaH GtifiCnnwgerIsyk
plitplNamYyehIyTij. bu:EnþCYnkalehtukarN_EdlminGacpøas;bþÚrkarsMerccitþenAnaTIcug
eRkay. ]TahrN_ karGeBa¢IjeGayeTAcUlrYmBiFICb;elog GaceFIVeGayGtifiCnEdlTij Gav
TijnUvGavmYyEdlmantMéléføCagkarEdl)anKitTuk. \riyabfGñkdéTGacCH\Ti§BleTAelI
karsMerccitþrbs;GñkeRbIR)as;cugeRkay. GñkRsavRCavGMBITIpSarRtUverobyuT§saRsþeGay
GtifiCnTijTMnijrYcehIysinmunnwgktþadéTeTotcUlmkeRCotERCk. kñúgdMNak;kalenHman
CMerIscMnYn BIr y:ag² KW etIGñkTijTMnijenaHBIGñkNa ? nigfaetIeBlNaEdleyIgRtUvTij ? 76
cMeBaHCMerIsfaTijBIGñkNaenaH Tak;Tgdl;karRsavRCavBt’man kartaMgbgðajBITIkEnøglk;Edl
GtifiCngayTij nigkarbgðajnUvKMrUm:UtplitpleRcIny:ag. rIÉkarsMercfaetITijenAeBlNa
enaHCaFmµtavakMNt;edaykareBjcitþ ktþaFøab;TijBImun karelIkTwkcitþbBa©úHbBa©Úlrbs;Gñklk;
eBlevlaEdlRtUvbgçM nigktþahirBaØvtßú.
                  4-5-\riy abfeRkayBIk arTij
       Rkumh‘uneTaHbIlk;TMnijehIyk¾eday k¾kargarrbs;eKminTan;cb;Edr. GtifiCnnwgeFIVkar
eRbobeFobTMnij EdleKTijenaHeTAnwgkarsgÇwmTukCamunrbs;BYkeK elIplitplenaH ehIy
nwgEsVgrkBt’manmkbBa¢ak;fakareRCIserIsrbs;BYkeKRtwmRtUvb¤minRtwmRtUv. enARtg;cMNucenH
GtifiCnvinicä½yelIkarbMeBjtMrUvkar b¤minbMeBjtMrUvkarCamYynwgplitpl b¤esvakmµEdl)an
Tij. RbsinebIGtifiCnmineBjcitþeT GñkRsavRCavTIpSarRtUveFIVkarBicarNarkmUlehtuEdleFIV
eGayGtifiCnmineBjcitþcMeBaHplitplenaH. Cajwkjab;GñkTijEtgEtRbQmmuxCamYynwg
PaBRbTajRbTg;KñacMeBaHplitpl BIr b¤eRcInEdl)aneFIVeGayeKcab;GarmµN_. ]TahrN_ kñúg

76
     G‘ul vn nig lI qay ³ mUldæanRKwHénm:aXIFIg d> É> m> TMB½r 60.
                                                                                   69
karTijm:aej: cMeBaHplitplm:ak Sony nig Panasonic KWeBlEdlGtifiCnsMerccitþTijplit
plm:ak Panasonic ehIy GtifiCnnwgKitfaetIKYrTijm:ak Sony Edr b¤Gt;.
          5-RbePTénkareFIVesckþIs Merccit þ
     karsMerccitþnwgdMeNIrkarrbs;vaERbRbYledayELk² eyaleTAtamtMrUvkarénGñkTij
plitpl nigsßanPaBénakarTij. karsMerccitþTijrbs;GtifiCnmanlkçN³vinicä½y bI y:ag77³
                  5-1-\riy abfeqøIy tbdEdl²
        Bak;B½n§dl;karTijplitpledayminmankarKitKUreRcIn. \riyabfRbePTenHGtifiCn
eFIVesckþIsMercswgEtedaysV½yRbvtþi BIeRBaHeK)anpSarP¢ab;CamYykarsMerccitþTijplitpl
dEdlenaHeRcIndgrYcmkehIy. sßankarN_TijEbbenHBuMcaM)ac;sYreyabl;eRcInBIGñkdéT b¤k¾
TTYl\Ti§iBlBIGñkCMnajNamYyeLIy.
                  5-2-kareFIVesckþIsMerccit þmanRBMEdn

        kareFIVesckþIsMerccitþenHRtUv)anGnuvtþedayGtifiCnenA eBlEdleK)ansÁal; nigman
bTBiesaFn_kñúgkarTijplitplNamYyenaHxøHehIy. ehtuplenHekIteLIgenAeBlEdlman
plitplfµImYy]eTÞsnamcMeBaHGtifiCn ehIyvaRsedogKñanwgplitplEdlGñkeRbIR)as;Føab;
)anTij. Bt’man nigkarvaytMélbEnßmcMeBaHplitplfµIenH KWmansar³sMxan;bMputmuneBleFIV
kareRCIserIs nigsMerccitþTijrbs;GtifiCn. enAkñúgsßankarN_enHGtifiCnman\Ti§iBlkñúgkar
Tij ehIyGtifiCnGacnwgmaneKalbMNgpøas;bþÚrnUvplitplEdleKFøab;)anTij .
                  5-3-karsMerccit þFMT Ulay
        karsMerccitþFMTUlay CasßanPaBénkarTijmYyEdlral;karsMerccitþBak;B½n§dl;TMnij
Edlmanéføx<s; nigmin)ansÁal;BImunmk. kñúgdMNak;kalenH vaCasßankarN_mYy Rbkbeday
eRKaHfñak;eRBaHCadMNak;kaldMbUgénkarTijpliitplfµImYy EdlCaehtueFIVeGayGtifiCnRtUveFIV
karBicarNaral;dMNak;kalmYy² CamunsinrYc)aneFIVkarsMerccitþTij.

77
     sUmemIl ehg suPaB ³ mUldæanm:aXItFIg d> É> m> TMB½rTI 53.
                                                                                 70
          6-PaBcaM)ac;k ñúgkarbMeBjtMrUv cit þG tifiCn
         GtifiCn nigGñklk;suT§EtmanbMNgR)afñaEdlminTan;)anbMeBj nigminTan;)anTTYl .
GtifiCnmanR)ak;sMrab;TijTMnij nigmaneBlevlaRKb;RKan; edIm,IeTAkan;TIpSar cMENkGñklk;
vijR)afñacg;lk;TMnijrbs;eKeGayGs; . cMeNaTenARtg;faetIRtUvEsVgrk nigbMeBjral;tMrUvkar
rbs;GtifiCny:agdUcemþc ?
         Gñkesdækic©CaeRcIn)aneBalfa Rkumh‘unmaneCaKC½y edaysar)ankMNt;c,as; nigbMeBj
nUvtMrUvkarGtifiCnCak;lak;NamYy minEmnGtifiCnTaMgGs;suT§EteBjcitþelIRbePTplitpl
NamYyenaHeT ehIyk¾minEmnplitplTaMgGs;RtUv)anCaTIeBjcitþénRkumGtifiCnNamYyenaH
Edr 78. esckþIRtUvkarnwgekIteLIgeBlEdlmnusSmñak; manGarmµN_xagsrIr³viTüa. esckþIRtUv
kar nigesckþIcg;)anCabuBVehturbs;GñkeRbIR)as;edIm,I eFIVkarsMerccitþTijedaypÞal; 79.
bnÞab;BImantMrUvkarmnusSnwgQandl;dMNak;kalénkarcg;)an EdlbegáIt)anedaykaryl;dwg
vb,Fm’énbuKÁliklkçN³rbs;mnusSmñak;². dUecñHebIsinCa GñkmanGarmµN_eRskXøan enaHGñk
)anbegáItnUvtMrUvkar nigkarsMerccitþTTYlTanGIVmYy dUcCa Gñkcg;jauMnMb½ug b¤jauM)ay. GñkRsav
RCavTIpSarnwgTTYl)annUvPaBR)akdmYy edaybegáIteGay mankaryl;dwgBIplitpl nigTItaMg
lk;d¾smRsbmYy edIm,IeGayGtifiCnRsYlrkTij nig)anbMeBjnUvesckþIcg;)anrbs;GtifiCn.
GñkRsavRCavTIpSark¾GacniyaybBa©úHbBa©ÚlGtifiCneGayTijnMb½ugCaCagTij)ay edIm,IbMeBj
esckþIcg;)anrbs;BYkeKEdr.
III-   KMerag nigTis edArbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj
        kñúgkarRKb;RKgGaCIvkmµcaM)ac;Nas;EdlRtUvmanKMerag nigEpnkarsMrab;karGnuvtþn_kar
gar dUcKñaenHEdrrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjk¾manKMerag nigTisedAelIkargarsMxan;² mYycMnYn ³
          1-kargarRKb;RKgsßab½n nigFnFanmnus S
       edIm,IGnuvtþn_Parkic©rbs;GgÁPaB mRnþI nieyaCitmñak;² bMeBjkargarrbs;xøÜn sßiteRkam
karcat;taMg nigmanrcnasm<½n§c,as;las;. EbbbTkargarRKb;RKgshRKas nigkarepÞrsiT§i
78
     - d - TMB½r 11.
79
     G‘ul vn nig lI qay ³ mUldæanRKwHénm:aXIFIg d> É> m> TMB½r 7.
                                                                                      71
GMNackñúgkarRKb;RKgRtUv)anerobcMeLIgenAkñúgcMeNammRnþIdwknaMRKb;fñak; edIm,IFana)annUv
RbsiT§iPaBkargar nigkarTTYlxus RtUvBitR)akdtamc,ab; nigtameKalkarN_kMNt; . kar
Gnuvtþn_yuT§saRsþeRbIR)as;kMlaMgBlkmµkñúgRkbx½NÐrdæakrTwkeGaysmRsb tamtMrUvkarcaM)ac;
edayEp¥ktamkMritkMNt; 6 nak; sMrab;GtifiCn 1 000 nak; nigeRbIR)as;buKÁlikCab;kic©snüa
sMrab;bMeBjkargarcaM)ac; nigCabeNþaHGasnñmineGayelIsBI 100 nak;.
         edIm,IelIkkMBs;RbsiT§iPaB nigKuNPaBkargarrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj )aneFIVkarbNþúH
bNþalmRnþInieyaCiteday ³
         -bMBak;bMb:nmuxCMnajRKb;RKgTUeTAcMeBaHmRnþIRKb;RKg nignieyaCikQanmux
         -bMb:nbEnßmPasabreTs nigmuxCMnajbnÞab;bnSMepSg² eTottamkarcaM)ac;
         -bBa¢ÚnmRnþICMnajeGayeTAbMeBjkmµsikSa b¤TsSnkic©sikSaenAeRkARbeTsedayEp¥k
          tamkarpþl;GaharUbkrN_BIRbPBxageRkA b¤tamkarcaM)ac;
         -bnþkarvaytMélsñaédkargarrbs;mRnþI nieyaCik eGay)anRKb;fñak;kñúgRkbx½NÐ
         -BinitüerobcMEksMrYlnUvcMNucmYycMnYnénlkçnþik³ eGaysmRsbtamsPaBCak;Esþg
         -eFIVkareXasnapSBVpSaynUvral;Bt’manEdlmanxøwmsarTak;TgnwgkargareRbIR)as;Twk
tamRKb;meFüa)ay edIm,IeGayGtifiCnRKb;RbePTcUlrYmcMENkshkarkñúgkareKarBc,ab;rdæ
Tak;TgkargarpÁt;pÁg; nigeRbIR)as;Twk.
       2-kargarplit Twk s¥at
         kñúgeKalbMNgeGayRbCaCnenATUTaMgraCFanIPñMeBjmanTwks¥ateRbIR)as;RKb;RKan;enaH
rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjmanKMeragbegáInkargarplitTwks¥at ehIyk¾CakareqøIytbRbsasn_
rbs;Ék]tþm Ca supar:a Edlfa enAqñaM 2005 RbCaBlrdæraCFanIPñMeBjRbmaNCa 95°
RtUv)anTTYlkarpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥atedaypÞal;BIrdæakrTwk 80. CaCMhan² bnþbnÞab;rdæakrTwksVy½t
RkugPñMeBjnwg 81³
         -plitTwks¥attamsMNUmBrnigtMrUvkareRbIR)as;RbmaN 42 417 000m3.

80
   sUmemIl sunÞrkfarbs;Ék]tþm Ca supar:a EføgkñúgBiFIebIkkardæansagsg;eragcRkplitTwks¥at
    EdlerobcMedayrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj éf¶TI 19 Exvicäika qñaM2001.
81
   rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj ³ r)aykarN_lT§plqñaM 2001 ¬Cak;Esþg 8 Ex ¦ d> É> m> TMB½r 35.
                                                                                       72
       -GnuvtþKMeragCYsCulRbB½n§plitkmµ RbB½n§laysarCatiKImI nigsMPar³
       -begáInkarykcitþTukdak;dMeNIrkarEfTaMeRKOgcRk
       -RtYtBinitüKuNPaBTwks¥atedaybegáInmuxviPaK nigTItaMgykTwkkñúgRbB½n§Eckcaymk
BiesaFn_y:agticeGay)an 30 kEnøg nigeGay)an 2 dgkñúg 1Ex.
          3-karBRgIk RbB½n §EckcayTwk
        kñúgTisedAkat;bnßyPaBRkIRk nigeGayRbCaCnmanTwks¥ateRbIR)as; BiessGñkEdl
rs;enAtMbn;CayRkug rdæakrTwknwgGnuvtþKMeragBRgIkRbB½n§EckcayTwkeTAtamEpnkarvinieyaK
eGay)anRbEvg 196 642 m . CamYyKñaenHmanerobcMbegáInnUvkMlaMgCMnajrbs;rdæakrTwk
sVy½tRkugPñMeBj nigbMBak;;]bkrN_sMPar³nana edIm,IGnuvtþkargardak;bMBg;emfµIeGay)antam
EpnkarkMNt;. eFVIkareRCIserIsRkumh‘unÉkCnTaMgkñúg nigeRkARbeTselIkargardak; bMBg;TwkfµI
CaBiessRbePTbMBg;FM² edayeRbIR)as;rUbPaBdak;eGayedjéfø.
          4-kargarkat;bnßy Twk )at;bg;
        rdæakrTwkxitxMkat;bnßyGRtaTwk)at;bg;eGayfycuHmkenARtwmeRkam 20° CamFüm
rYcbnþkarGnuvtþn_kmµviFIkargarCYsCulbNþajFøúHFøay nigerobcMRbB½n§RtYtBinitü eday ³
        -erobcMkmµviFIEfTaM RbB½n§bNþajEckcayTwk edIm,IrYmcMENkkat;bnßyTwk)at;bg; nig
         begáInsMBaFTwk.
        -erobcMkarCYsCulbNþajFøúHFøayeGay)anTan;eBlevlamineGayelIsBI 1 em:agknøH
         eRkayeBlTTYl)anBt’man.
          5-kargarGaCIv kmµ
        edIm,IeqøIytbeTAnwgesckþIRtUvkarTwkcaM)ac;kñúgCIvPaBrs;enArbs;shKmGñkRkIRk Epñk
GaCIvkmµCaGñkGnuvtþkargartbNþajTwkkñúgtMbn;EdlmanRbB½n§EckcayTwkrYcehIy RBmTaMgeFIV
karpSBVpSaydl;GgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al edIm,IcUlrYmcMENkshkarelIkargarenH. KMeragEdl
RtUvGnuvtþn_man 82³

82
     - d - TMB½r 36.
                                                                                  73
         -bnßytMélsiT§iCavTwk nigbnøayry³eBlbg;rMelaHsMrab;RbCaBlrdæRkIRkEdlrs;enA
tamtMbn;CayRkug ehIypSBVpSayeKalkarN_pÁt;pÁg;Twks¥atCUnRbCaBlrdæRkIRk nigGnuvtþkar
bg;rMelaHéføsiT§iCavTwkedayshkarCamYyGaCJaFrmUldæan nigGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al.
         -lubbM)at;Gñklk;Twk nigtMNagEckcayTwkkñúgtMbn;Edl)anerobcMpþl;esvapÞal;CUn
RbCaBlrdærYcehIy. begáInkargarTarR)ak;éføTwk edaybegáInGRtaeFIVvik½ybR½tTaréføTwkeGay
sßitkñúgkMritmFüm 78° énbrimaNTwkEdl)anplit edayEp¥kelIlT§plénkarGnuvtþkmµviFI
kat;bnßyTwk)at;bg; nigkmµviFIdak;bMBg;EckcayTwkfµIkñúgx½NÐTYleKak nigtMbn;CayRkug.
         -CMrujkarTarbMNuléføTwkBIGgÁPaBrdæ nigxMbegáInGRtaTarR)ak;éføTwkeGay)an 95 °
énTwkR)ak;Rbkas.
         -BRgwgKuNPaB nieyaCikeGaymansµartIbMerIGtifiCn eGay)anl¥RbesIr nigbgálkçN³
gayRsYldl;GtifiCnkñúgkarbg;éføTwk edayerobcMRbB½n§RtYtBinitüvik½ybR½t nigBRgIksaxa
TTYlR)ak;.
         6-kargarvin ieyaK
        rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjmanEpnkarvinieyaKCaeRcIndUcCa KMeragsagsg;GagsþúkTwk
cMnYn 3 mancMNuH 1500 m3 nigkMBs; 30 m eFobnwgkMBs;dI 83³ GagTI 1-manTItaMgsßitenA
xag eCIgGakasyandæanGnþrCatieBacintug TI2-sßitenAtMbn;pøÚvev:geRsg nigTI3 -sßitenAtMbn;
KILÚEm:Rtelx 6 . KMeragkarvinieyaKman ³
        -dak;]bkrN_sMrab;kat;bnßyfamBlGKÁisnIeGaymankMritTabdl;eragcRkcMkarmn nig
         PUmiERBk.
        -shkarCamYyGñkbec©keTsCb:un edIm,IGnuvtþKMeragsagsg; BRgIksmtßPaBeragcRk
         plitTwkPUmiERBkbEnßmcMnYn 50 000 m3 kñúgRkbx½NÐCMnYy\tsMNgrbs;
         raCrdæaPi)alCb:unedayshkarCamYyRkumh‘unem:AkarCb:un.
        -bnþGnuvtþþKMeragBRgIkRbB½n§emnaMTwk RbB½n§EckcayTwks¥at nigGagsþúkTwkenAtMbn;
         CayRkugedayeRbIR)as;\NTanFnaKarBiPBelak FnaKarGPivDÆn_GasuI CMnYy\tsMNg
         rbs;TIPñak;garGPivDÆn_)araMg nigfvikapÞal; rbs;shRKas.
83
     - d - TMB½r 32.
                                                                                   74
        -shkarCamYyTIRbwkSabec©keTs kñúgdMeNIrkarbegáIttMbn;KMrURbB½n§Gnam½ykñúgraCFanI
PñMeBj EdlkarsikSaKMerag)ancab;epþImGnuvtþkalBIéf¶TI 19 Exmina qñaM 2001 edayTIRbwkSa
bec©keTs Parsons. KMeragenHmanTwkR)ak;srubcMnYn 5 127 787 duløarGaemrik EdleRKag
GnuvtþenAtMbn;TYleKak . cugeRkayerobcMÉksaredjéføsMrab;pÁt;pÁg;bMBg;bgðÚrkaksMNl;rav
sMPar³tP¢ab; nigÉksaredjéføem:Akarsagsg;sßanIy_bUmbBa¢ÚnRBmTaMgeragcRkcMraj;kak
sMNl;.
       7-kargarhirBaØv tßú nigkarpÁt ;pÁg;s MPar³
        rdæakrTwkmanKMeragdak;eGayGnuvtþkargarRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúedayeRbIRbB½n§kuMBüÚT½r RBm
TaMgerobcMtMelIgRbB½n§kt;Rta nigRKb;RKgbBa¢IkarKNenyüedayeRbIRbB½n§ Network P¢ab;BI
KNnIGtifiCnmkbBa¢Ikt;RtaTUeTACamYysþúksMPar³ nigkarRKb;RKgGcln³RTBü. shkarCa
mYymRnþIRtYtBinitürdæ edIm,IeFIVTMrg;EbbbTénkarRtYtBinitüépÞkñúgnUvral;bNþaskmµPaBkt;Rta
nana. EpñkhirBaØvtßúmanParkic© ³
        -CMrujkargarpÁt;pÁg;sMPar³sMrab;bMeBjsMNUmBrénKMeragFM² eGay)anTan;eBlkMNt;.
        -GnuvtþkaredjéføsMPar³sMNg; eRbg\n§n³ kardæanbNþajem nigbNþajcUlpÞH.
        -begáInkarTarbMNulcMeBaHbNþaGgÁPaBrdæ edIm,IbnßysnÞsSn_cMnYnéf¶GtifiCnCMBak;
        eGayenAeRkam 90 éf¶.




                                                                                      75
                                   CMBUk TI 3
                  \riy abfGtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj

       karsikSaenHepþatCasMxan;elI\riyabf cMNg;cMNUlcitþ nigbMNgR)afñarbs;GtifiCn
eqIøytbeTAnwgyuT§saRsþrbs;rdæakrTwkEdl)anGnuvtþn_knøgmk .
I-viFIs aRsþRsavRCav
       viFIsaRsþEdl)anykmkeRbIenAkñúgkarRsavRCavenH KWkareFIVsmÖasn_edaypÞal;CamYy
GtifiCnedayeRbIR)as;kMrgsMNYr .
          1-kMrgsMN Yr
         kMrgsMNYrsMrab;eFIVkarRsavRCavrYmman 30 sMNYrEbgEckCabIEpñk84 . munnwgeFIV
sMNYrmankarGegátsakl,g edIm,IEsVgrkPaBgayRsYlmYYydl;GtifiCnkñúgkareqIøy[)an
suRkit ¬sUmemIlkMrgsMNYrenAkúñúg]bsm<n½§TI3 ¦ . GñksMPasn_cMnYn 6 nak; CanisSit
briBaØabR½tesdækic©RtUv)anENnaM[yl;BIRbFanbT nigviFIsaRsþsYr edIm,I[GtifiCnqab;yl;
ehIyrIkrayeqIøy.
          2-karsMPasn_
         kñúgkarcuHsMPasn_RtUvcMNayeBlCamFüm 20 naTI sMrab;kMrgsMNYrmYy nig 5 naTI
munkarsMPasn_Bnül;BIeKalbMNgénkarRsavRCav . kMrgsMNYrcMnYn 330 c,ab;RtUv)anEck
ykeTAsmÖasn_pÞal;dl;pÞHrbs;GtifiCn. CalT§pl bnÞab;BIeFIVkarRtYtBinitüya:gm:t;ct;eLIg
vijcMnYnKMrUEt 300 b:ueNÑaHEdlGacykCakar)an ehIycMnYn 30 ¬9 ° ¦ eTotminRtUv)an
ykmkviPaKeT edaysarEtkareqøIymin)anRtwmRtUv.




84
     EpñkTaMgbIenaHKW 1-Tinñn½yRbCasaRsþ 2-yuT§saRsþ nig3-\riyabf .
                                                                                76
           3-kMrit kMN t;
        kñúgcMeNamx½NÐTaMg 7 enAraCFanIPñMeBj 85 x½NÐdegáamin)aneFIVkarRsavRCaveT eday
sarEtminTan;manbNþajTwkrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj. karRsavRCavkñúgCMBUkenHCalT§pl
Edl)aneFIVkñúgeBlmYykMNt;c,as;las; GtifiCnEdlmin)aneRbITwkbNþajpÞal;rbs;rdæakrTwk
sVy½tRkugPñMeBjminRtUv)aneRCIserIseT . cMNucsMxan;énkarRsavRCav KWkareRCIserIscMnYnKMrU
¬erIsdUcemþc ? nigcMnYnb:unµan ?¦ . cMnYnKMrU EdleRCIserIsCaGtifiCnEdl)aneRbITwkbNþaj
pÞal;rbs;rdæakrTwk .
II   -karviPaKTin ñn ½y
        Tinñn½yEdlTTYl)anRtUvbBa©ÚleTAkñúgkmµviFI SPSS eFIVkarviPaK ¬sUmemIllT§plviPaK
enAkñúg]bsm<½n§TI 4 ¦. karviPaKenHeRbIR)as;viFIsaRsþ ³
           1-karviPaKGefrmYy
         karviPaKGefrmYy edIm,IeGay)anyl;dwgBIsßanPaBcMelIyrbs;GefrnImYy² tamry³
karviPaKelI mFüm eRhVkg;dac;xat PaKry emKuNRtYtsIuKña nigemdüan 86. kñúgEpñkenH
eRbIR)as;EteRbkg; nig PaKryeT. karviPaKRtUveFIVeLIgsMrab;GefrCaeRcInEdl)anykmþgmYy²
mkeFIVkarBinitüBIkarEbgEck nigEbbbTénkareqIøysMrab;GefrnImYy². cMNucenHk¾)anbgðajpg
EdrBIcritlkçN³énRbCaCn nigcMnYnmnusSEdlRtUveFIVkarGegátTaMgGs; .
           2-karviPaKGefrBIr
        karviPaKGefrBIrsMrab;eFIVkarsikSaBITMnak;TMngKñarvagGefrBIr EdleKcg;)an . CadMbUg
RtUveRCIserIsGefr 2 mkKNnaBIsUcnakrN_EdlbgðajBITMnak;TMngrvagGefrTaMgBIr 87.
viFIsaRsþBIreRbIkñúgkarKNnaenH ³ TI1-etsþ XI-dW nigemKuNénTMnak;TMng Pearson.
85
   manx½NÐdUneBj x½NÐcMkarmn x½NÐ7mkra x½NÐTYleKak x½NÐb¤sSIEkv nigmanC½y
86
   sUmemIl Chan Savary ,Contribution à la connaissance du consommateur cambodigien :
     influence de la famille sure la decision d'achat de la moto , université de poitiers, 1999, p.133.
87
     Elles consistent à croiser deux variables permettant de calculer des indicateurs d'association entre les
     variables prises deux à deux. Ibid.,


                                                                                                          77
          3-karviPaKGefreRcIn
       eBlfµI² enHviFIsaRsþRsavRCav)anrIkcMerInCaxøaMgrhUtdl;GacviPaKGefrCaeRcInedIm,I
edaHRsaybBaða. karviPaKGacGnuBaØateGayeRCIserIsGefreRcInCagBIrmkviPaKBITMnak;TMng
rbs;GefrEdlmanRsab;kñúgeBlCamYyKña ehIyEdlGnuelamtamviFIsaRsþBIrRbePT ³ 1-viFI
saRsþBiBN’na nigviFIsaRsþBnül;88.
          4-kmµv iFI   Statistic Program and Service Solution (SPSS)


          SPSS  CakmµviFIkMuBüÚT½rmYyeRbIsMrab;viPaKBt’mansßiti. karviPaKenAkñúgsñaédenHeRbII
                                                                       énTM
SPSS Version 10.0 edIm,IrkcMnYneRbkg; PaKry etsþ XI-dW nigemKuN nak;TMng . Cakar

lM)akmYy edaysarEtkmµviFIenHeFIVkarviPaK nigpþl;lT§plCaPasaGg;eKøs EdltMrUveGay
mankarbkERbBIÉksaredImExµrCaPasaGg;eKøs. bec©keTsrbs;kmµviFI SPSS tMrUveGaytag
GefrmunnwgbBa©ÚlTinñn½ysMrab;eFIVkarviPaK ¬sUmemIl]bsm<½n§TI 5¦. kñúgkarviPaK tarag nig
düaRkam EdlTTYl)anBIkmµviFIenHCaPasabreTsBi)akkñúgkarEkmkCaGkSrExµr dUecñHehIy
)anCacaM)ac;RtUveRbIkmµviFI Excel CaCMnYyeRBaHvamanPaBgayRsYlCag.
          5-smµt ik mµ
        rdæakrTwkdMeNIrkaredaymansV½yPaBEpñkhirBaØvtßú nigrdæaPi)altaMgqñaM 1996 cab;BI
eBlenaHmk skmµPaBpÁt;pÁg;Twk)ancab;epþImrIkcMerInCalMdab;RbCaBlrdæmankatBVkic©RtUvbg;
R)ak;éføTwkedIm,IeGayshRKasmandMeNIrkar. enAeBlfµIenHmankart¥ÚjEt¥rBIsMNak;GtifiCn
elIbBaðaCaeRcIn EdlrYmmanTaMg karpþl;esvakmµ éføTwk nigkarbg;R)ak;CaedIm. edIm,IeGaydwg
faetImanbBaðaGIVxøHEdlGtifiCn)anCYbRbTH ? mancMnYnb:unµannak;Edl)anCYbRbTHbBaðaenaH ?
karviPaKxageRkamnwgbgðajeGayeXIjnUvbBaðaEdlBak;B½n§TaMgenH ³




88
     Chan Savary ,Contribution à la connaissance du consommateur cambodigien : influence
     de la famille sure la decision d'achat de la moto , op. cit., p. 134.

                                                                                         78
  -karviPaKGefrmYy
III


        karviPaKRtUveFIVeLIgsMrab;GefrCaeRcInEdl)anykmþgmYy²mkeFIVkarBinitüBIkarEbgEck
nigEbbbTénkareqIøysMrab;GefrnImYy². cMNucenHk¾)anbgðajpg EdrBIcritlkçN³énRbCaCn
nigcMnYnmnusSEdlRtUveFIVkarGegátTaMgGs; .
       1-Tin ñn ½y RbCasaRsþ
       Tinñn½yRbCasaRsþ bgðajBIsßanPaBTUeTArbs;GtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as;Twkrbs;rdæakrTwk Edl
mandUcteTA ³
               1-1-GMBIePT
         karsikSaeFVIeTAelIGtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as;TwkpÞal;rbs;rdæakTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj enAkñúg
x½NÐcMnYn 6 Edl)aneRCIserIs tamlT§plviPaKmanGñkeqøIytbEdlCaemRKYsarRbus 61/3°
¬n=184¦ nigRsI 38/7° ¬n=116¦.
         taragTI 8 bgðajGMBIePTrbs;GñktbsMPasn_
           RbePT                cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_                      PaKry
  Rbus                                 184                             61/3°
  RsI                                  116                             38/7°
            srub                       300                             100°
       düaRkamTI 4 bgðajGMBIePTrbs;GñktbsMPasn_

                    RsI                                         Rbus
                   38/7°                                       61/3°




                                                                                     79
                 1-2-cMn Yn smaCik enAkñúgRKYs ar

     karRsavRCav)anbgðajeGayeXIjfaGtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj 51/7°
¬n=155¦ mansmaCikBI 5-10 nak;. ÉGtifiCnEdlmansmaCikticCag 5 nak;man 36/3°
¬n=109¦ cMENkRKYsarEdlmansmaCikelIsBI 10 nak;mancMnYn 12° ¬n=36¦.
       taragTI 9 cMnYnsmaCikenAkñúgRKYsar
  cMnYnsmaCikkñúgRKYsar             cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_            PaKry
  ticCag 5 nak;                            109                   36/3°
  5 nak; dl; 10 nak;                       155                   51/7°
  elIsBI 10 nak;                           36                    12/0°
            srub                           300                   100°
       düaRkamTI 5 cMnYnsmaCikenAkñúgRKYsar

  elIs 10 nak;
    12/00°                                                            ticCag 5 nak;
                                                                        36/33°




  5 dl; 10 nak;
    51/67°

                 1-3-kMrit énkarsik Sa

      tamkarviPaKGMBIkarsikSarbs;GtifiCn EdleRbIR)as;TwkpÞal;rbs;rdæakrTwksVy½t)an
eGaydwgfaGtifiCnPaKeRcIn ¬31/3°¦)anTTYlkarsikSakMritmhaviTüal½y kñúgenaHGñkEdl

                                                                               80
)anbnþdl;kMriteRkay]tþmEt 6° ¬n=18¦ b:ueNÑaH. ÉGñkEdl)ansikSaRtwmkMritviTüal½y
mancMnYn 74 nak; ¬24/7°¦ RsbeBlEdlenAkMritCMnajbec©keTsman 8/7° ¬n=26¦.
CakrNIBiessmYyEdlkarsikSaenAkMritbzmsikSa 14/3° Rbhak;RbEhlKñaeTAnwgkarsikSa
kMritGnuviTüal½yEdlman 15° ¬n=45¦.
         taragTI 10 bgðajGMBIkMriténkarsikSa
               RbePT                    cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_            PaKry
        bzmsikSa                             43                       14/3°
        GnuviTüal½y                           45                      15/0°
        viTüal½y                              74                      24/7°
        mhaviTüal½y                           94                      31/3°
        eRkaymhaviTüal½y                      18                        6/0°
        CMnajbec©keTs                         26                       8/7°
                srub                        300                        100°
       düaRkamTI 6 viPaKGMBIkMriténkarsikSa

  eRkaymhaviTüal½y     CMnajbec©keTs                  bzmsikSa
       6/0°                 8/7°                       14/3°
                                                                       GnuviTüal½y
                                                                        15/0°

  mhaviTüal½y                                              viTüal½y
   31/3°                                                    24/7°


                1-4-sik SaGMBImux rbr
      GtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwkPaKeRcInCaGaCIvkr 28/3° ÉGñkEdlbMerIkargareGayEpñk
ÉkCnk¾mancMnYnKYrsmEdr 22/0°. bnÞab;BIenaHmancMnYn 19/0° ¬n=58¦ CamRnþIraCkar


                                                                                     81
EdlmancMnYnRbhak;RbEhleTAnwgcMnYnrbs;nisSit 18° ¬n=55¦. eRkABIenaHmanmuxrbrCa
empÞH cMnYn 12° ¬n=36¦.
        taragTI 11 muxrbr
            RbePT                    cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_            PaKry
   GaCIvkr                                    85                     28/3°
   buKÁlikEpñkÉkCn                            66                     22/0°
   mRnþIraCkar                                58                     19/3°
   sisS                                       55                     18/3°
   empÞH                                     36                      12/0°
               srub                         300                      100°
       düaRkamTI 7 bgðajGMBImuxrbr

                          empÞH                        mRnþIraCkar
                         12>00°                        19>33°

  buKÁlikÉkCn
    22/00°
                                                                     sisS 18/33°
                                         GaCIvkr
                                        28/33°
                1-5-sik SaGMBIGayu
        karsikSaelIGayu)aneGaydwgfa sBVéf¶enHGtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwkEdlCaemRKYsarman
GayukñúgcenøaH 20-50 qñaM EdlCav½ykMBugeBjkMlaMgBlkmµcMnYn 234 nak; esµInwg 78° .

                                                                               82
cMENkÉGayuticCag 20 qñaM manEt 4/3° ¬n=13¦ b:ueNÑaH ehIyk¾manPaKryKYreGaykt;
sMKal;Edr KW 17/7° ¬n=53¦ manGayuelIsBI 50 qñaM.
       taragTI 12 bgðajBIRkumGayurbs;GñktbsMPasn_
          RbePTGayu                   cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_           PaKry
   GayuticCag 20 qñaM                         13                     4/3°
   Gayu 20 qñaM dl; 50 qñaM                 234                     78/0°
   GayuelIsBI 50 qñaM                         53                    17/7°
             srub                           300                     100°
        düaRkamTI 8 viPaKGMBIRkumGayu
  GayuelIsBI 50 qñaM                                                   ticCag 20 qñaM
      17/7°                                                                4/3°

                                                                     20 qñaM - 50 qñaM
                                                                       78/0°

                 1-6-GMBIR)ak;cMNUl
        kareFVIGegátelIGtifiCnGñkeRbIR)as;TwkbNþajpÞal;rbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj)an
bgðajfamanGtifiCncMnYn 102 RKYsarRtUvCa 34°manR)ak;cMNUlRbcaMExticCag 50 duløar.
cMnYn 125RKYsarRtUvCa 41° manR)ak;cMNUlenAcenøaH 50 duløar dl; 100 duløar nigGñkEdl
mancMNUlelIsBI 100 duløar Et 73 RKYsar esµInwg 24/3° bu:eNÑaH.
        taragTI 13 bgðajBIR)ak;cMNUlrbs;GtifiCn
         RbePTR)ak;cMNUl               cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_            PaKry
     ticCag 50 duløar                        102                       34/0°
     50 duløar dl; 100 duløar                125                       41/7°
     elIs 100 duløar                          73                       24/3°
                srub                         300                       100°
                                                                                         83
          düaRkamTI 9 viPaKGMBIR)ak;cMNUl
                         140                      41/7°
                         120
                                  34/0°
                         100
                          80                                    24/3°
                          60
                          40
                          20
                           0
                               ticCag 50 duløar 50 duløar dl; elIs 100 duløar
                                                 100 duløar


          2-karviPaKelIy uT §s aRsþrbs;rdæakrTwk sVy ½t RkugPñMeBj
         cMNucenHsikSaBI \riyabfrbs;GtifiCneTAelIyuT§saRsþrbs;GgÁPaBrdæakrTwksVy½t
RkugPñMeBjEdl)anGnuvtþknøgmk edIm,IeGaydwgc,as;fa etIyuT§saRsþEdlrdæakrTwkGnuvtþman
RbtikmµBIGtifiCndUcemþcxøH tamry³karRsavRCavelIGtifiCnenAkñúgx½NÐTaMg 6 89.
                 2-1-cMn Yn qñaMEdl)aneRbIT wk bNþajpÞal;
        rdæakrTwk)andMeNIrkarpÁt;pÁg;TwkCUnGtifiCneRbIR)as;taMgBIGMLúgqñaM 1979 mkemøH
EdlBIdMbUgGtifiCnRtUvCIkGNþÚgrYm90 edIm,I)anTwkeRbI. ebItamlT§plénkarRsavRCaveXIjfa
GtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwkPaKeRcIneRbITwkbNþajpÞal;kMLúgqñaM1990 EdlsßitenAcenøaH 5-10 qñaM
cMnYn 43/7° ¬n=131¦. ÉGñkEdleRbITwkelIsBI 10 qñaMeBalKWtaMgBIeBlcab;epþImdMbUgman
23/7° ¬n=71¦. CamYyKñaenHk¾manGtifiCnEdleTIbEtmanTwkbNþajpÞal;eRbIenAqñaM1997
ebIKitCaqñaM KWticCag 5 qñaMcMnYn 32/7° ¬n=98¦.

89
     cMENkx½NÐmYyeTot KW x½NÐdegáamin)anRsavRCaveT edaysarEtKµanbNþajTwkeTAdl;.
90
     GNþÚgrYmCaGNþÚgEdlRbCaBlrdæCIkedIm,IbgðÚrTwkTukeRbIedaysarkalsm½yenaHsMBaFTwkenAexSay
     RbCaCnenApÞHxagelIEdlKµanlT§PaBeRbIm:UT½rbUm)an naMKñaCIkCaGNþÚgsMrab;dak;TwkTukeRbI.
                                                                                       84
       taragTI 14 cMnYnqñaMEdl)aneRbITwkbNþajpÞal;
          cMnYnqñaMEdl)aneRbITwk               cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_                   PaKry
   ticCag 5 qñaM                                           98                         32/7°
   5 dl; 10 qñaM                                       131                            43/7°
   elIs 10 qñaM                                          71                           23/7°
                    srub                                300                           100°
       düaRkamTI 10 PaKrykñúgcMnYnqñaMEdl)aneRbITwkbNþajpÞal;
      elIs 10 qñaM                                                  ticCag 5 qñaM
        23/7°                                                         32/7°



                                                    5 dl; 10 qñaM
                                                      43/7°


                     2-2-brimaNTwk EdlGtifiCneRbI
        kñúgmYyvKÁ² brimaNTwkEdlGtifiCneRbIeRcInCageKsßitenAcenøaHBI 20 - 50m3 Edl
tamkarRsavRCavmanGtifiCnrhUtdl;eTA 41/3° ¬n=124¦ eRbIenAcenøaHenH. GñkEdleRbI
TwkelIsBI 500 m3manEt 3° ¬n=9¦ cMENkGñkeRbIticCag20 m3 mancMnYnmYyKYreGaykt;
sMKal;EdlmanrhUtdl; 23/3° ¬n=70¦. TnÞwmKñaenaHEdrmancMnYn 77 RKYsar ¬25/7°¦
eRbITwkGs;BI 51-100 m3. eRkABIenaHmancMnYn 6/7° ¬n=20¦eRbIGs;BI 101-500 m3.
        taragTI 15 bgðajBIbrimaNTwkEdlGtifiCneRbIkñúgmYyvKÁénkarecjvik½ybR½t
         brimaNTwkeRbIkñúgmYyvKÁ             cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_                       PaKry
       -eRkam 20 m3                                  70                             23/3°
       -20 m3 dl;; 50 m3                           124                              41/3°
       -51 m3 dl; 100 m3                             77                             25/7°
       -101 m3 dl; 500 m3                            20                              6/7°
       elIs 500 m3                                    9                              3/0°
                 srub                              300                               100°

                                                                                              85
          düaRkamTI 11 brimaNTwkEdlGtifiCneRbIkñúgmYyvKÁénkarecjvik½ybR½t
         140
         120
         100
          80
          60
          40
          20
           0
                   eRkam 20 m3   20 - 50 m3 51 - 100 m3 101 - 500 m3 elIs 500 m3

                     2-3-RbePTGtifiCn
       tamkarkarRsavRCavkñúgcMeNamGtifiCnTaMg bI RbePT91 rbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkug
PñMeBj)aneGaydwgfaPaKeRcInénGtifiCnCaRbePTCIvPaBFmµtamancMnYn 86/0° ¬n=257¦.
cMENkÉRbePTGaCIvkmµvijmanEt 5/0° ¬n=15¦b:ueNÑaH EdlmanlkçN³Rbhak;RbEhleTA
nwgGgÁPaBrdæ)albuBVehtu 9/0°¬n=27¦pgEdr. cMeBaHGtifiCnRbePTGgÁPaBrdæ)albuBVehtu
manEt 0/3° b:ueNÑaHEdlrdæaPi)alCaGñkTUTat;TwkEdl)aneRbIR)as; eRkABIenaHman 4/3°
¬n=13¦ GgÁPaBCaGñkecj nig 4/3° ecjluypÞal;xøÜnÉg.
       düaRkamTI 12 RbePTGtifiCn
      GgÁPaBrdæ)albuBVehtu               GaCIvkmµ
             9/0°                         5/0°




                                                                     GñkeRbIFmµta
                                                                       86/0°

91
     GtifiCnTaMg bI RbePTenaHKW ³ RbePTCIvPaBFmµta RbePTGgÁPaBrdæ)albuBVehtu nigtMNagEckcay
     bnþ nigRbePTGaCIvkmµ ]sSahkmµ GgÁPaBsVy½t nigGñklk;Twk.
                                                                                       86
       taragTI 16 RbePTGñkTUTat;éføTwkkñúgRbePTGgÁPaBrdæ)albuBVehtu
                                            GñkTUTat;
      RbePTGtifCn                                                           srub
                               GgÁPaB       pÞal;xøÜn       rdæaPi)al
  GgÁPaBrdæ)albuBVehtu          13             13               1           27
  PaKry °                      4/3°          4/3°            0/3°           9°
               2-4-bBaðaEdlGtifiCn)anCYbRbTH
         kñúgcMeNamGtifiCnEdl)aneRCIserIsTaMgGs;man 32° ¬n=98¦ eqøIyfaminEdlman
bBaðaGIVeT. cMENkGñkEdlCYbbBaðaRtUvCa 23/7° ¬n=71¦ cab;GarmµN_elIkarpÁt;pÁg;Twkmin
RKb;RKan;. É 36 RKYsar ¬12°¦ eqøIyfamankarekgbnøMEm:RtKUbelIbrimaNTwkEdl)aneRbI
R)as; nigkrNInaLikaminRbRktI b¤xUcman 11° ¬n=33¦. CamYyKñaenHEdr manGtifiCn
7/3° ¬n=22¦ CYbRbTHTwkRCabenAeRkaynaLikasÞg;. TnÞwmnwgenaHGñkEdlFøab;RtUv
rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjpþac;Twkman 3° ¬n=9¦ nig)at;naLikacMnYn 8 RKYsaresµInwg 2/7°.
eRkABIenaHman 2/3° xUcvan nig 0/7° eTotdac;ExSbøúMebrbs;naLika.
         taragTI 17 bBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYbRbTH
             bBaðaEdlCYbRbTH            cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_               PaKry
 karpÁt;pÁg;minRKb;RKan;                         71                     23/7°
 )at;naLika                                       8                     2/7°
 naLikaminRbRktI b¤xUc                           33                     11°
 dac;ExSbøúMeb                                    2                     0/7°
 ekgbnøMEm:RtKUb                                 36                     12°
 esvakmµ                                         14                     4>7°
 xUcv:an                                          7                     2/3°
 TwkRCabeRkaynaLika                              22                     7/3°
 kat;pþac;Twk                                     9                     3°
 KµanTaMgGs;                                     98                     32/7°
                    srub                        300                     100°
                                                                                   87
           düaRkamTI 13 bBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYb

     KµanbBaða 32/7°                  karpÁt;pÁg;TwkminRKRKan;                  )at;naLika 2/7°
                                              23/7°
     kat;pþac;Twk 3°
                                                                               naLikaminRbRktI
                                                                                 b¤xUc 11°
     TwkRCabeRkaynaLika
          sÞg; 7/3°
                xUcv:an 2/3°          esvakmµ 4/7° ekgbnøMEm:RtKUb
                                                       12°                      dac;ExSbøúMeb 0/7°

                    2-5-Bt’manEdlGtifiCnTTYl)an
        rdæakrTwk)aneRbIR)as;meFüa)ayRKb;Ebby:agedIm,IpSBVpSayBt’maneGayGtifiCn)an
yl;dwg92 EttamkarRsavRCav)aneGaydwgfamanGtifiCn 52° ¬n=156¦ minEdl)anTTYl
Bt’manNamYyeT. ÉGñkEdlTTYlBt’manPaKeRcIn 27° ¬n=81¦ CaBt’manTak;TgkarEk
ERbtMél. ral;eBlbiT b¤ebIkTwkmþg² manEt 11/7° eT EdlTTYl)anBt’man. lT§pl
viPaKk¾)anbgðajpgEdrBIGtifiCnEdlFøab;TTYlBt’manBIkarpakBin½ymancMnYn 3/7° ¬n=11¦
nigGñkEdlTTYlkarRBman 3° ¬n=9¦. Bt’mansþIBIkarelIkTwkcitþmanPaKryticbMputesµInwg
2/7° EdlTTYl)an.
        taragTI 18 Bt’manEdlGtifiCnTTYl)an
             Bt’manEdl)anTTYl              cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_          PaKry
    KµanTaMgGs;                                   156                 52/0°
    karEkERbtMél                                   81                27/0°
    karbiT b¤ebIkTwk                               35                11/7°
    karpakBin½y                                    11                  3/7°
    karRBman                                         9                 3/0°
    karelIkTwkcitþ                                   8                 2/7°
                     srub                         300                 100°
92
     mankarpSBVpSaytamviTüú TUrTsSn_ karEst TsSnavdþI Pñak;gar lixitepSg² nigtamRBwtþibR½t.
                                                                                              88
       düaRkamTI 14 Bt’manGtifiCnEdlTTYl)an
      160
      140
      120
      100
       80
       60
       40
       20
        0
            karelIkTwkcitþ karEkERbtMél karpakBin½y   karRBman   karbiT b¤ebIkTwk KµanTaMgGs;


               2-6-sMN UmBrrbs;GtifiCn
         GtifiCnEdlFøab;)aneFIVsMNUmBrdl;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjmancMnYn 74 RKYsar
EdlesµInwg 24/7° nigminEdleFIVsMNUmBresaHmancMnYn 226 RKYsaresµInwg 75/3°. kar
GegátelIGtifiCnEdlFøab;eFIVsMNUmBr)aneGaydwgfamanGtifiCn 26 RKYsar ¬8/7°¦ eqøIyfa
ral;sMNUmBrrbs;Kat;minRtUv)anykeTAedaHRsayeT. cMENk ¬12/7°¦ RtUv)anrdæakrTwk
eFIVkaredaHRsayeGaymþgmáal nigmanEt ¬3/3°¦ b:ueNÑaH EdlTTYl)ankaredaHRsayBI
rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjRKb;eBlEdlmansMNUmBr.
         düaRkamTI 15 PaKryFøab; nigminFøab;sMNUmBr

                                                                                           Føab;
   minFøab;                                                                               24/7°
   75/3°


                                                                                                   89
       düaRkamTI 16 PaKrybgðajBImUlehtuEdleRbITwkbNþaj
       TaMgGs;xagelI                                                   esvakmµ
           17°                            KuNPaB                         3°
                                           10°
                                                                          éfø
         KµanCMerIs                                                      2/7°
          50/7°                                          bNþajCitpÞH
                                                          16/7°


                 2-7-karyl;eXIj rbs;GtifiCnelIesvakmµ
       cMeBaHsMNYrsþIGMBIkarvaytMélelIesvakmµrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjmanGtifiCn
dl;eTA 75° ¬n=227¦ EdlsresIrfal¥ Etk¾man 8/7° yl;faminl¥esaH. cMENkÉ
15/7° eTotyl;faesvakmµ rbs;rdæakrTwkl¥Nas;.
       taragTI 19 bgðajBIkaryl;eXIjelIesvakmµ
          karyl;eXIjelIesvakmµ                cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_           PaKry
   minl¥esaH                                           26                   8/7°
   l¥                                                227                    75/7°
   l¥Nas;                                              47                   15/7°
   srub                                              300                    100°
       düaRkamTI 17 PaKrykarbgðajBIeyabl;esvakmµ

   l¥Nas;                                                          minl¥esaH
   15/7°                                                             8/7°


                                                                            l¥
                                                                          75/7°

                                                                                    90
              2-8-karvaytMélrbs;GtifiCnelIKuN PaBTwk
       rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj)anRbwgERbgplitTwk edIm,IeGaymanKuNPaBRbhak;RbEhl
nwgbTdæanrbs;GgÁkarsuxPaBBiPBelak. tamkarRsavRCavmanGtifiCn 72° ¬n=216¦
TTYlsÁal;faTwkEdlplit)anmanKuNPaBl¥ Etk¾man 8° ¬n=24¦ yl;faKuNPaBTwkenA
Gn;Nas;. cMENk 20° eTot)ansresIrfal¥Nas;.
      taragTI 20 karvaytMélrbs;GtifiCnelIKuNPaB
          karyl;eXIjelIKuNPaB              cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_          PaKry
   minl¥esaH                                        24                8/0°
   l¥                                              216               72/0°
   l¥Nas;                                           60               20/0°
                   srub                            300                  100°
       düaRkamTI 18 PaKrykarbgðajBIeyabl;elIKuNPaB

               400
              200
                 0
                       minl¥esaH         l¥          l¥Nas;

              2-9-karvaytMélrbs;GtifiCnelItMélTwk
       tMélrbs;Twk EdlrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjGnuvtþsBVéf¶enHmanGtifiCncMnYnCagBak;
kNþalKW 67/7° ¬n=203¦ yl;faTwkéføNas;. cMENkÉGñkEdlyl;fatMélTwksmrmü
manEt 32/7° ¬n=97¦ bu:eNÑaH. CakarmYyKYreGaykt;sMKal;pgEdrKWKµanGtifiCnNamñak;
EdleqøIyfatMélrbs;TwkefakenaHeT.


                                                                               91
       taragTI 21 karvaytMélrbs;GtifiCnelIéføTwk
              karyl;eXIjelIéføTwk                  cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_        PaKry
   éføNas;                                                 203             67/7°
   lµmsmrmü                                                 97             32/3°
   efakNas;                                                  0               0/0°
                     srub                                  300                100°
       düaRkamTI 19 PaKryénkarvaytMélelIéføTwk
                 300
                 200
                 100
                   0
                            éføNas;     lµmsmrmü        efakNas;

               2-10-karvaytMélrbs;GtifiCnelIéføt bNþaj
          kñúgdMeNIrkarGaCIvkmµral;éf¶enHrdæakrTwksVy½t)anriHrkRKb;meFüa)ay edIm,IeGay
RbCaCnenATUTaMgraCFanIPñMeBjmanTwks¥ateRbIR)as;. tamry³enaHk¾mankarEkERbtMélsMrab;
tbNþajTwkeGaymanlkçN³Tab EdlGñkEdlxVHxatGacmanlT§PaBtTwkeRbIR)as;)andUceK.
bnÞab;BIkarsikSaCaeRcInelIk rdæakrTwk)anerobcMdak;ecjnUvesckþIkMNt;sþIBIéføsiT§iCavTwk Edl
manGRtaTabCagmun. eTaHCay:agNak¾edaytamlT§plEdlTTYl)anBIkarviPaKman GtifiCn
73° ¬n=219¦ enAEtfaéføtbNþajéføNas; ÉGñkEdlyl;faéføtbNþajefakNas;manEt
mñak;bu:eNÑaH ¬0/3°¦. eRkABIenaH27/7° eqøIyfatMéltbNþajrbs;rdæakrTwksmrmü.
          taragTI 22 bgðajBIkaryl;eXIjelIéføtbNþaj
           karyl;eXIjelIéføtbNþaj              cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_           PaKry
   éføNas;                                              219                73/0°
   lµmsmrmü                                              80                26/7°
   efakNas;                                               1                 0/3°
                     srub                               300                 100°
                                                                                      92
       düaRkamTI 20 PaKrykarbgðajBIeyabl;elIéføtbNþaj

              400
              200
                 0
                       éføNas;        lµmsmrmü      efakNas;

              2-11-kareRbIT wk BIRbPBepSg²

        GtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjmaneRbITwkBIRbPBepSg² eToteRkABITwkbNþaj
EdleRbIsBVéf¶enH. kñúgcMeNamRKYsarEdl)aneRCIserIs mancMnYn 75 RKYsaresµInwg 25°
eRbITwkePøóg ÉcMENk 5° eRbITwkGNþÚg. CamYyKñaenH GtifiCnesµInwg 3/3° eRbITwkbUmxøÜn
Ég. eRkABIenaHcMnYn 2/3° eRbITwkBIRbPBTaMgbIxagelI bEnßmelI TwkbNþaj nigcugeRkay
cMnYn 193 RKYsar esµInwg 64/3° minmaneRbITwkeRkABITwkrbs;rdæakr TwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj.
       düaRkamTI 21 PaKrybgðajBIkareRbITwkeRkABIbNþajrdæakrTwk


                           TwkGNþÚg               TaMgGs;xagelI
                             5/0°                     2/3°             TwkbUmxøÜnÉg
 TwkePøóg                                                                 3/3°
 25/0°


                                                         KµanTaMgGs;
                                                           64/3°




                                                                                93
                    2-12-bBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYbenAkEnøgbg;R)ak;
       enAkEnøgbg;R)ak;manbBaðaCaeRcInEdlGtifiCn)anCYbRbTH eBlEdlmkeFIVkarTUTat;.
tamlT§plviPaK)anbgðajfamanGtifiCn 24°¬n=72¦rG‘UfaBYkKat;RtUvrg;caMyUrehIyk¾man
8/7° ¬n=26¦ beBa©jeyabl;fabuKÁlikEdlminKYrsmCamYyePJóv. CamYyKñaenHEdrmanGñk
sMPasn_ 14°)aneGaydwgfaKat;eTAbg;minTan;edaysarem:agTTYlqab;eBk. minEtbu:eNÑaHk¾
manGtifiCn 3/3° ¬n=10¦ TTYlrgnUvkarTUTat;luyxus b¤yWt. ÉGñkEdleTAbg;ehIyrk
ÉksarmineXIjmanEt 1/7° . dUecñHbBaðaEdlFMCageKenAkEnøgbg;R)ak;KW karrg;caMyUrrbs;
GtifiCneBlEdlbg;R)ak; bnÞab;mkeTotbBaðabuKÁlikEdlminKYrsmCamYyePJóv.
       taragTI 23 bgðajBIbBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYbeBlbg;R)ak;
           bBaðaEdlCYbeBlbg;R)ak;                      cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_         PaKry
   KµanbBaðaTaMgGs;                                           175              58/3°
   karrg;caMyUr                                                72              24/0°
   buKÁlikminKYrsm                                              26              8/7°
   em:agTTYlqab;eBk                                            12                4/0°
   TUrTat;yWt¼xus                                               10              3/3°
   rkÉksarmineXIj                                                5              1/7°
                    srub                                      300               100°
        düaRkamTI 22 PaKrybgðajBIbBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYbeBlbg;R)ak;

                                     buKÁlikminKYrsm             em:agTTYlqab;eBk TUrTat;yWt¼xus
                                          8/7°                         4/0°           3/3°
 KµanbBaðaTaMgGs;
     58/3°                                                                      rkÉksarmineXIj
                                                                                    1/7°
                                                                                   karrg;caMyUr
                                                                                    24/0°



                                                                                              94
             2-13-KuN sm,tþi)anBIk arBRgIk bNþaj
       lT§plviPaKsþIBIkarBRgIkbNþajbgðajfamanGtifiCncMnYn 58/3° RtUvCa 175
RKYsareqøIyfakarBRgIkbNþajeFIVeGayRbCaCnmanTwks¥ateRbI cMENk 32/7° bkRsay
fasMBaFTwknwg)anxøaMgeRkayeBleFIVkarBRgIkbNþaj. eRkABIenHmanEt 9/0° eTyl;fakar
BRgIkbNþajeFIVeGayBYkKat;Gackat;bnßycMNayeTAelITwkenaH.
       taragTI 24 bgðajBIKuNsm,tþikñúgkarBRgIkbNþaj
                    KuNsm,tþi                     cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_     PaKry
   manTwks¥ateRbI                                       175           58/3°
   sMBaFTwkxøaMg                                          98          32/7°
   kat;bnßycMNay                                         27             9/0°
                      srub                             300             100°
      düaRkamTI 23 PaKrybgðajBIKuNsm,tþikñúgkarBRgIkbNþaj

             200                175
             150                             98
             100
                                                            27
              50
               0
                      manTwks¥ateRbI   sMBaFTwkxøaMg kat;bnßycMNay


             2-14-ry³eBlEdlTuk eGaybg;
         tamkarRsavRCavmanGtifiCnrhUtdl; 49/7° ¬n=149¦ cg;eGayrdæakrTwksVy½t
RkugPñMeBjTukry³eBleGaybg;luycenøaHBI 15-21 éf¶. kñúgenaHk¾man 34° ¬n=102¦
Kitfary³eBlticCag 15 éf¶RbesIrCag EtcMnYn 16/3° ¬n=49¦ EdleRCIserIsykelIs
21 éf¶eTAeTot.

                                                                                95
      taragTI 25 bgðajBIry³eBlEdlTukeGaybg;
                      cMnYnéf¶           cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_              PaKry
   ticCag 15 éf¶                                 102                    34/0°
   15 - 21 éf¶                                   149                    49/7°
   elIsBI 21 éf¶                                   49                   16/3°
                       srub                      300                    100°
      düaRkamTI 24 PaKrybgðajBIry³eBlEdlTukeGaybg;

                   elIsBI 21 éf¶
                      16/3°
                   15 - 21 éf¶                               ticCag 15 éf¶
                     49/7°                                       34°




              2-15-karecjvik½y bR½t
        tamkarRsavRCavBIry³eBlénkarecjvik½ybR½t)aneGaydwgfa manGtifCn 47/7°
¬n=143¦ cg;eGayrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBjecjvik½ybR½terogral;Ex. cMENkÉGñkEdlKit
fa 2 Exmþgman ¬39/3°¦ eRkABIenaHman 3 Exmþg 12° ¬n=36¦ 4 Exmþg 0/3° ¬n=1¦
nig 6 Exmþg cMnYn ¬0/7°¦.
        taragTI 26 bgðajBIry³eBlénkarecjvik½ybR½t
            cMnYnExEdlecjvik½ybR½t       cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_              PaKry
     1 Exmþg                                     143                  47/7°
     2 Exmþg                                     118                  39/3°
     3 Exmþg                                      36                  12/0°
     4 Exmþg                                       1                   0/3°
     5 Exmþg                                        0                   0/0°
     6 Exmþg                                       2                   0/7°
                     srub                        300                   100°

                                                                                96
      düaRkamTI 25 PaKrybgðajry³eBlénkarecjvik½ybR½t

                 200      143 118
                 100                      36
                                                      1         0        2
                   0
                        1 Exmþg 2 Exmþg 3 Exmþg 4 Exmþg 5 Exmþg 6 Exmþg

                 2-16-bBaðaeBltbNþaj
       eBltbNþajTwkmanGtifiCncMnYn64 RKYsar esµInwg 21/3° manbBaðabuKÁlikTarluy
bEnßm. cMENk 8/7° ¬n=26¦ CYbCamYybuKÁliktTuyeyaTwkeGayEtrYcBIéd ehIyEdlman
8/3° ¬n=25¦ RbTHnwgbuKÁlikminKYrsm. eRkABIenaHman 5/3° ¬n=16¦ yl;faTuyeya
Twkmins¥at.
       taragTI 27 bBaðaeBltbNþaj
                bBaðaeBltbNþaj                       cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_             PaKry
   buKÁlikTarluybEnßm                                        64                       21/3°
   Tuyeyamins¥at                                             16                       5/3°
   teGayEtrYcBIéd                                            26                       8/7°
   KµanbBaða                                                169                       56/3°
   buKÁlikminKYrsm                                           25                       8/3°
                       srub                                 300                       100°
      düaRkamTI 26 PaKrybgðajBIbBaðaeBltbNþaj
      buKÁlikminKYrsm                      buKÁlikTarluybEnßm                Tuyeyamins¥at
           8/3°                                  21/3°                           5/3°
     KµanbBaða                                                               teGayEtrYcBIéd
     56/3°                                                                       8/7°



                                                                                              97
       3-\riy abfrbs;GtifiCn
       cMNucenHeFIVkarviPaKelI\riyabfrbs;GtifiCn faetIGtifiCnmanbMNgdUcemþcxøH?
               3-1-eBlmanTwk Føay b¤RCabeRkaynaLik asÞg;
        cMeBaHsMNYrEdlsYrfaebIsinCamanbBaðaTwkFøayeRkaynaLikaetIelakGñkeFIVdUcemþc?
        kñúgcMNucenHtamlT§plviPaK)anbgðajeGayeXIjBItYelxKYreGayPJak;ep¥IlmYyeday
sarEtGtifiCnd¾eRcInelIslb; 67/3° ¬n=202¦ pþl;Bt’mandl;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj
eBlmanbBaðaTwkFøay b¤RCab ebIeRbobeFobCamYyGñkEdleFIVmindwgminlWEt 1/7° ¬n=5¦
bu:eNÑaH. CamYyKñaenHEdrk¾manGtifiCnEdlKat;eFIVkaredaHRsayxøÜnÉgedaymin)anpþl;dMNwg
dl;rdæakrTwkEdr 25° n=75. ÉcMENkGtifiCn 6/0° ¬n=18¦ eTotKat;eTABwgBak;GñkCit
xageGayCYy.
        taragTI 28 bgðajBIskmµPaBrbs;GtifiCneBlmanTwkFøay
                   dMeNaHRsay                                   cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_                   PaKry
   pþl;Bt’mandl;rdæakrTwk                                              202                        67/3°
   edaHRsayxøÜnÉg                                                       75                        25/0°
   BwgGñkCitxag                                                         18                          6/0°
   eFIVmindwgminlW                                                       5                         1/7°
                       srub                                            300                         100°
       düaRkamTI 27 PaKrybgðajBIskmµPaBrbs;GtifiCneBlmanTwkFøay
                                                                                                        250
                 67/3°
                                                                                                        200
                                                                                                        150
                                                                25°                                     100

                                            1/7°                                    6°                  50
                                                                                                        0
                   pþl;Bt’mandl;rdæakrTwk     eFIVmindwgminlW      edaHRsayxøÜnÉg        BwgGñkCitxag




                                                                                                              98
                  3-2-mUlehtuEdlyWt y:avkñúgkarbg;éføT wk
        kñúgsMNYrTI 26 EdlTak;Tgdl;karyWty:avkñúgkarbg;éføTwk manGtifiCn 36° ¬n=108¦
EdlminFøab;yWty:av cMENkGñkEdlFøab;yWty:av tamlT§plviPaK KWmanmUlehtueRcIny:ag
EtmancMnYnmYyKYreGaykt;sMKal; 28/3° ¬n=85¦ niyayfaKat;rvl;kñúgkareFIVCMnYj minGac
bg;Tan;eT enAkñúgeBlEdlGñkeFIVkar 18° ¬n=54¦ yWtedaysarEtR)ak;ExebIkminTan;.
eRkABIenaHmanGñkxøHeRBaHEtry³eBlTukeGaybg;xøIeBk 8/3° ePøcBIerOgbg;éføTwk 2/7°
caMeRkayTUlaymin)ac;caMeTARbeRCot 4/7° nigGñkEdlyl;fayWtk¾minGIEdrcMnYn n=6 .
        taragTI 29 mUlehtuEdlnaMeGayyWty:avkñúgkarbg;éføTwk
               mUlehtubg;yWt                cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_         PaKry
    KµanTaMgGs;                                     108             36/0°
    rvl;kargareFIVCMnYj                              85             28/3°
    R)ak;ExebIkminTan;                               54             18/0°
    ry³eBlbg;xøIeBk                                  25              8/3°
    caMeRkayRsYlbg;                                  14              4/7°
    ePøc                                              8              2/7°
    GagEtminGI                                        6              2/0°
                     srub                           300              100°
       düaRkamTI 28 PaKrybgðajBImUlehtuEdlnaMeGayyWty:avkñúgkarbg;éføTwk

    KµanTaMgGs;                                                        rvl;kargarCMnYj
       36°                                                                28/3°
                                                                        caMeRkayRsYlbg;
                                                                              4/7°
       ePøc
                       R)ak;ExebIkminTan;    GagEtminGI         ry³eBlbg;xøIeBk
      2/7°                                      2°                  8/3°
                              18°



                                                                                     99
               3-3-karbegáIn kareRbIR)as;
      kñúgenHmanEtGtifiCnEt 108 RKYsaresµInwg 36° cg;begáInkareRbIR)as;. eRkABIenaH
man 64° ¬n=192¦ KµanbMNgbegáInkareRbIR)as;.
      taragTI 30 bgðajBIcMnYnGtifiCnEdlmanbMNgbegáInkareRbI
                      bMNg                  cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_      PaKry
    KµanbMNgbegáIn                                   192          64/0°
    manbMNgbegáIn                                    108          36/0°
                      srub                           300          100°
       düaRkamTI 29 PaKrybgðajBIcMnYnGtifiCnEdlmanbMNgbegáInkareRbI

     KµanbMNgbegáIn
          64°                                                   manbMNgbegáIn
                                                                    36°


               3-4-mUlehtuEdlbegáIn kareRbIR)as;
       kñúgcMeNamGtifiCn 108 ¬36°¦ RKYsar Edlcg;begáInkareRbIR)as;Twkrbs;rdæakrTwk
sVy½tRkugPñMeBj mancMnYn 82 RKYsaresµInwg 27/3° kareRbIR)as;nwgekIneLIgenAeBlEdl
smaCikRKYsarekIneLIg. cMENk 5/7° ¬n=17¦ begáInkareRbIenAeBlmankarBRgIk
GaCIvkmµrbs;Kat;. kñúgcMnYnd¾tictYcNas; 3/0° ¬n=9¦ EdlRKYsarKat;RtUveRbIeRcIneBlEdl
manesvapÁt;pÁg;rbs;rdæakrTwkl¥.
       taragTI 31 bgðajBImUlehtuEdlbegáInkareRbI
                mUlehtu                cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_           PaKry
    smaCikRKYsaekIn                             82              27/3°
    BRgIkGaCIkmµ                                17               5/7°
    esvakmµkan;Etl¥                              9               3/0°
                  srub                         108              36/0°
                                                                                100
         düaRkamTI 30 PaKrybgðajBImUlehtuEdlbegáInkareRbI

                100
                 50
                   0
                       smaCikRKYsaekIn   BRgIkGaCIkmµ   esvakmµkan;Etl¥

IV- karviPaKGefrBIr ¬Cross tabulation¦
        karviPaKGefrBIrsMrab;eFIVkarsikSaBITMnak;TMngKñarvagGefrBIr EdleKcg;)an . CadMbUg
RtUveRCIserIsGefr 2 mkKNnaBIsUcnakrN_EdlbgðajBITMnak;TMngrvagGefrTaMgBIr .
         viFIsaRsþBIreRbIkñúgkarKNnaenH ³ TI1-etsþ XI-dW nigemKuNénTMnak;TMng Pearson
¬sUmemIlenAkñúg]bsm<½n§TI 6¦.
         1-karEkERbtMélTwk
         cMeNaHyuT§saRsþEkERbtMélTwkman ¬54/7°¦ RtUvCa 164 RKYsar yl;fakarEkERb
tMélTwk)aneFIVeGaykarcMNayrbs;Kat;RtUvekIneLIg. É 40° ¬n=120¦eTotBYkKat;
KµanlT§PaBTUTat;;RtUvkat;bnßykareRbIR)as;Twk. cMENk 16 RKYsarRtUvCa 5/3° )aneRCIs
erIsykkarbegáInéføTMnijenAeBlEdlmankarEkERbtMélTwk. kñúgkrNIenHGñkTTYlkarb:HBal;
dMbUgeK KWGñkrksuI 28° ¬n=85¦man 14° ¬n=42¦ Kat;RtUvbEnßmbnÞúkmYycMnYnEfmeTot
TnÞwmKñaenHman 3/7° ¬n=11¦EdlKat;RtUvtMelIgéføTMnijrbs;Kat;edIm,IeGayR)ak;cMeNj
rbs;Kat;sßitenAefrdEdl. bnÞab;mkRbCaBlrdæGñkeRbIR)as;FmµtaRtUvTTYlrgeRKaHmYyEpñk
edaysarEtkartMelIgéføTMnijrbs;GaCIvkr 92 nigmYyEpñkeTotKWtamry³kareRbIR)as;Twktam
tMélfµIrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj.


92
     TMnij eBlenHsMedAeTAelITMnijNaEdlvtßúFatuedImBITwk b¤EdlRtUveRbIR)as;TwkeRcIn Edl
     GaCIvkrplitedIm,Ilk;bnþdUcCa ³ sib,kmµplitTwkkknigGñkrksuIe)akKk;sMelokbMBak;>>>.
                                                                                    101
         taragTI 32 bgðajBImuxrbrnigplb:HBal; eBlmankarEkERbéføTwk
             kargar        mRnþIraCkar sisS¼nisSit GñkrksuI buKÁlikÉkCn      empÞH   srub
 plb:HBal;
                              35           36        42             31         20     164
  begáIncMNay
                            11/7°        12/0°      14/0°         10/3°      6/7°    54/7°
                              20           19        32             33         16     120
   bnßykareRbIR)as;
                             6/7°         6/3°      10/7°         11/0°      5/3°     40°
                               3            0        11              2          0      16
  begáInéføTMnij
                             1/0°         0/0°      3/7°           0/7°       0/0°   5/3°
                              58           55        85             66         36     300
  srub
                            19/3°        18/3°      28/3°         22/0°      12/0°   100°

         taragTI 33 emKuNXI-dW Edlmansar³sMxan;
                                                  muxrbrGñkeRbIR)as;Twk
                   karEkERbtMél              emKuNXI-dW ³ 20/196 nig P=1°
         düaRkamTI 31 plb:HBal;eBlEkERbéføTwk

                    200        54/7°
                                                 40°
                    100
                                                                   5/3°
                      0
                          karcMNayekIn bnßykareRbIR)as;     begáInéføTMnij

         2-kMrit R)ak;cMN Ul nigmUlehtuénkarTij
       rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj KWCashRKassaFarN³EdlmanlkçN³esdækic©EtmYyKt;
mantYnaTIpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥atkñúgraCFanIPñMeBj. eTaHbICay:agNa tamkarviPaK)aneGaydwgfaman
mUlehtueRcInEdleFIVeGayGtifiCneRbITwks¥atrbs;shRKasenH. lT§plénkarRsavRCav)an

                                                                                      102
bgðajfamancMnYnGtifiCn 50/7° ¬n=152¦ ykmUlehtuedaysarEtKµanCMerIsNaepSg)an
CaKat;eRbITwkbNþajxagelIenH Etk¾man 16° eRBaHEtenACitbNþajTwkrbs;rdæakrEdr.
enAmanGtifiCnmYycMnYneRCIserIsykKuNPaBrbs;TwkCasMxan;Edlman 10° ¬n=30¦ nig
3° ykbBaðaesvakmµCaFM. CamYyKñaenHGtifiCn 2/7° ¬n=9¦ BinitüeTAelIéfømunnwgsMerc
citþTij. cMENk 17° kMNt;ykcMNucTaMgGs;elIsMrab;eFIVkarvinicä½y. karviPaKBI\riyabf
GtifiCntamkMritR)ak;cMNUl)aneGaydwgfa GñkmancMNUlenAkMritNak¾)anKitKUrBITItaMgEdl
RtUvTijmunnwgkareRCIserIsepSg² eTotEdr. GtifiCnEdlmancMNUlkan;Ettic ¬ticCag 50
duløar¦ eGaytMélelIKuNPaBTwk kan;EtxøaMg 6° ¬n=18¦ cMnYnenHelIsGñkEdlmancMNUl
eRcIn ¬elIs 100 duløar¦ Edlman Et 1/7° bu:eNÑaH. GñkmancMNUl 50-100 duløarkñúg
mYyExk¾eRCIserIsykKuNPaBCacMbgEdr kñúgkarTijTwkeRbI.
        taragTI 34 kMriténR)ak;cMNUl nigmUlehtuénkarTij
        kareRCIserIs
                     KuNPaB esvakmµ éfø bNþajCitpÞH KµanCMerIs TaMgGs; srub
 R)ak;cMNUl
                      18    2    1            16        49    16 102
 ticCag 50 duløar
                     6/0° 0/7° 0/3°          5/3°      16/3° 5/3° 34/0°
                      7    2     4   21    71    20 125
 50 - 100 duløar
                    2/3° 0/7° 1/3° 7/0° 23/7° 6/7° 41/7°
                      5    5    3    13    32 15 73
 elIs100 duløar
                    1/7° 1/7° 1/0° 4/3° 10/7° 5/0° 24/3°
                     30    9     8   50    152 51 300
 srub
                    10/0° 3/0° 2/7° 16/7° 50/7° 17/0° 100°
        taragTI 35 emKuNXI-dW Edlmansar³sMxan;
                                           mUlehtuénkarTij
               R)ak;cMNUl             emKuNXI-dW ³ 18/264 nig P=5°


                                                                           103
       3-mux rbr nigplb:HBal;eBleFIVk arBRgIk bNþaj
        kñúgbBaðaenHlT§plénkarRsavRCav)anbgðajfaGtifiCn 37/3° eqøIyfakarBRgIk
bNþajrbs;rdæakrTwkb:HBal;dl;suxPaB. cMENkGtifiCn 22/3° vijfaeFIVeGayb:HBal;dl;
kargarrksuI Etk¾manGtifiCncMnYn 121 RKYsaresµInwg 40/3° yl;fakarBRgIkbNþajeFIV
eGaysÞHcracr.
        karviPaKelIplb:HBal;tamry³muxrbrGtifiCn)aneGaydwgfaGñkEdlb:HBal;xøaMgCag
eKKW GñkrksuIEdlmanrhUtdl; 28/3° ¬n=85¦. plb:HBal;PaKeRcInrbs;Kat;elIdMeNIrkar
rksuIEdlmancMnYn 13/3° ¬n=34¦. cMENkmRnþIraCkarvijmancMnYnPaKeRcInykkarsÞH
cracrCacMNucEdlb:HBal;eRcInCageK ¬9/7°¦ ehIycMelIyenHRbhak;RbEhleTAnwgsisS
b¤nisSitEdr ¬11/3°¦. dUecñHKuNvibtþiEdlFMCageKenAkñúgkarBRgIkbNþajKW eFIVeGayb:H
Bal;dl;karrksuIrbs;GaCIvkr nigbnÞab;mkeToteFIVeGaymankarsÞHcracr.
        taragTI 36 muxrbr nigplb:HBal;eBlBRgIkbNþaj
                   plb:HBal;   b:HBal;dl;suxPaB   b:HBal;karrksuI   sÞHcracr    srub
  muxrbr
                                     22                 7             29        58
   mRnþIraCkar
                                    7/3°              2/3°           9/7°      19/3°
                                     12                 9             34         55
   sisS b¤nisSit
                                    4/0°              3/0°          11/3°      18/3°
                                     30                34             21        85
   GñkrksuI
                                   10/0°             11/3°           7/0°      28/3°
                                     37                 9             20        66
   buKÁlikÉkCn
                                   12/3°              3/0°           6/7°      22/0°
                                     11                 8             17        36
   empÞH
                                    3/7°              2/7°           5/7°      12/0°
   srub                             112                67            121        300
                                   37/3°             22/3°          40/3°      100°



                                                                                  104
       taragTI 37 emKuNXI-dW Edlmansar³sMxan;
                                           plb:HBal;eBlBRgIkbNþaj
                   muxrbr              emKuNXI-dW ³ 42/073 nig P=0/5°

       4-ePT nigTIIk EnøgEdlcg;bg;R)ak;
        rdæakrTwkmankEnøgTTYlR)ak;CaeRcIndUcCa enAkñúgTItaMgrbs;rdæakrTwk enAFnaKar nig
mankarRbKl;eGayPñak;garem:AkarRbmUléføTwkenAtamtMbn;xøH. tamkarRsavRCavmanGtifCn    i
176 RKYsaresµInwg 58/7° cg;bg;R)ak;enApÞH. cMENkcMnYn 96 RKYsar ¬32°¦ eRCIserIsbg;
enAkEnøgrdæakrTwk nigenAFnaKarmanEt 9° ¬n=28¦.
       karviPaKeTAelIGtifiCnTaMgBIrePTedIm,IrkTIkEnøgEdlKat;cg;bg;R)ak;)anbgðajeGay
eXIjfaePTRbus 34/7° ¬n=104¦ suT§Etcg;bg;R)ak;enApÞH ehIymanPaKrytictYcNas;
5/3° ¬n=16¦ EdlbgðajBIkarcg;bg;enAFnaKar.
        taragTI 38 ePT nigTIkEnøgEdlcg;bg;R)ak;
             kEnøgbg;R)ak;
                              enApÞH       enArdæakrTwk    enAFnaKar        srub
      ePT
                              104             64              16            184
            Rbus
                             34/7°           21/3°           5/3°          61/3°
                              72              32              12            116
            RsI              24/0°           10/7°           4/0°          38/7°
                              176             96              28           300
            srub             58/7°           32/0°           9/3°          100°

       taragTI 39 emKuNXI-dW Edlmansar³sMxan;
                                              TIkEnøgcg;bg;R)ak;
                    ePT                emKuNXI-dW ³ 17/210 nig P=2/1°

                                                                                   105
V-   karviPaKGefreRcIn
        viFIsaRsþRsavRCavbc©úb,nñenHmankarrIkcMerInCaxøaMgrhUtdl;GaceGayeFIVkarviPaKGefr
CaeRcInCamYyKña edIm,IedaHRsaybBaða. karviPaKGefreRcInGacGnuBaØateGayeRCIserIsGefr
elIsBIBIrmkviPaKBITMnak;TMngrbs;GefrEdlmanRsab;kñúgeBlCamYyKña ehIyEdlGnuelam
tamviFIsaRsþBIrRbePT ³ 1-viFIsaRsþ Alpha Factoring nig2-viFIsaRsþrbs; Viramax with
Kaiser Normalization.

         1-karviPaKBI\ riy abfrbs;GtifiCn
        karviPaKenAcMNucenH tMrUveGayKNnatMél Alpha Camun edIm,IeGaydwgBITMnak;TMng
rvagGefr. GefrCaeRcInRtUv)andak;bBa©Úl EtCalT§plmanEtGefr 4 eT EdlRtUv)aneRCIs
erIs edaysarEtmantMélGal;hVax<s;.
        taragTI 40 Gefr\riyabfrbs;GtifiCnkñúgkarTijTwk
                                 eQµaHGefr                        elxerogGefr
         ePT                                                      B1

         cMnYnsmaCikkñúgRKYsar                                    B2

         Gayu                                                     B3

         R)ak;cMNUl                                               B4


         Gal;hVa Alpha = 0/5424
         tMélGal;hVaEdlKNnaeXIj)aneGaydwgfaGefrTaMg 4 xagelIsuT§Etman\T§iBlelI
karsMerccitþTijrbs;GtifiCn b:uEnþCamYyKñaenH KWcaM)ac;RtUvKNnatMél Eigenvalues edIm,I
eGaydwgfa etIGefrNaEdlman\T§iBlxøaMgCageK ¬PaKry Variance x<s;¦ enAkñúgkarsMerc
ciitþTij. taragTI 41 )aneGaydwgfa ³ GefrTI 1 nigGefrTI 2 manPaKry Variance x<s;
CageKkñúgcMeNamGefrTaMg 4 Edl)aneRCIserIs. edIm,IeGaykan;Etc,as;faGefrTaMgBIrenH
man\T§iBlxøaMgCageKenaH eyIgRtUvykGefrTaMg 4 eTAeFIV Rotation Sums of Squared
                                                                 t;
Loading mþgeTot ¬sUmemIltaragTI 42¦. tamry³enHeyIgGackMN )anfaGefrTaMg 2 enH

Ca Factor sMxan; nigCaG½kS sMrab;eFIVkarviPaK.
                                                                                  106
       taragTI 41 bgðajBItMél Eigenvalues
                                               tMél Eigenvalues
                  Gefr               cMnYnsrub      PaKry       PaKry
                                       Total             Variance   Cumulative
                   1                  1/422          35/540          35/540
                   2                  1/030          25/762          61/302
                   3                  0/786          19/649          80/951
                   4                  0/762          19/049          100/00
       taragTI 42 Rotation Sums of Squared Loading
                                       Rotation Sums of Squared Loading
                 Factor              cMnYnsrub           PaKry        PaKry
                                       Total             Variance   Cumulative
                   1                  0/659          16/476         16/476
                   2                  0/289          7/234          23/710
         edIm,IeFIVeGaykarKNnaTMnak;TMngrvag Factor nig Gefrkan;EtRbesIr karviPaK)aneRbI
R)as;viFIsaRsþ Varimax Rotation EdlmanbgðajkñúgtaragxageRkam ³
       taragTI 43 Factor eRkayeBlbgVil ¬ Rotated Factor Matrix ¦
                                               Factor1              Factor2
     ePT                                         0/000               0/201
     cMnYnsmaCikkñúgRKYsar                       0/444               0/480
     Gayu                                        0/415               0/000
     R)ak;cMNUl                                  0/538              -0/107
        karBinitüemKuNénTMnak;TMng Factors eFobeTAnwgGefr)anbgðajeGayeXIjfa man
ktþa BIr EdlsMxan;kñúg\riyabfTijrbs;GtifiCn ³ TI1-R)ak;cMNUl EdlbgðajBIsßanPaB
esdækic© nigTI2-cMnYnsmaCikkñúgRKYsar.

                                                                                  107
       Factor   TI1 viPaK)aneGaydwgfabgÁMénkarsMerccitþrbs;GtifiCnGaRs½yelIcMnYnsma
CikenAkñúgRKYsar nigtamGayurbs;Kat; b:uEnþkñúgenaHktþakMNt; KW sßanPaBR)ak;cMNUl Edlrk
)ansMrab;CakMlaMgCMrujkññúgkarTij.
         Factor TI2 GtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwkTaMgRbus-RsI suT§Etman\T§iBlelIkarTij bu:Enþktþa

EdlmanTMnak;TMngsMxan;CamYykarTijKW cMnYnsmaCikRKYsar.
       2-karviPaKBIy uT §s aRsþ
       karviPaKBIyuT§saRsþ vas;EvgBITMnak;TMngrvagGefrcMnYn 5 EdlmanCa\T§iBlelIkar
Tijrbs;GtifiCn. tMélGal;hVa Alpha EdlbgðajBITMnak;TMngrbs;GefrRtUv)anKNnabgðaj
enAxageRkamtarag ³
       taragTI 44 GefryuT§saRsþrbs;rdæakrEdlnaMeGayGtifiCnTijTwk
                                  eQµaHGefr                       elxerogGefr
       esvakmµ                                                    S5

       KuNPaBTwk                                                  S6

       éføTwk                                                     S7

       éføP¢ab;bNþaj                                              S8

       ry³ecjvik½yb½Rt                                            S9

       Gal;hVa Alpha = 0/5633
       taragTI 45 bgðajBItMél Eigenvalues
                                              tMél Eigenvalues
                Gefr                cMnYnsrub     PaKry              PaKry
                                      Total        Variance       Cumulative
                 1                   1/408        28/157            28/157
                 2                   1/309        26/174            54/331
                 3                   0/877        17/537            71/869
                 4                   0/720        14/407            86/276
                 5                   0/686        13/724            100/00

                                                                                  108
      kñúgkarviPaK G½kScMnYn 2 RtUv)ankMNt; tamry³kareFIV Rotation Sums of Squared
Loadings eTAelIGefryuT§saRsþTaMg 5 Edl)aneRCIserIs.


       taragTI 46 Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
                                    Rotation Sums of Squared Loading
                Factor           cMnYnsrub        PaKry            PaKry
                                  Total          Variance        Cumulative
                  1              0/658           13/159           13/159
                  2              0635            12/708           25/868

       viFIsaRsþ Varimax Rotation RtUv)aneRbIedIm,IrkTMnak;TMngeGaykan;Etl¥RbesIrrbs;
Factor CamYynwgGefr EdlmanbgðajkñúgtaragxageRkam ³


       taragTI 47 Factor eRkayeBlbgVil ¬ Rotated Factor Matrix ¦
                                             Factor1               Factor2
    esvakmµ                                   0/340               -1/120
    KuNPaBTwk                                 0/564               0/230
    éføTwk                                    0/580                0/424
    éføP¢ab;bNþaj                             0/000                0/490
    ry³ecjvik½yb½Rt                           0/292                0/000
        emKuNénTMnak;TMng Factors eFobeTAnwgGefryuT§saRsþ)anbgðajeGayeXIjfa man
ktþa BIr Edlman\T§iBldl;karTijrbs;GtifiCn ³ TI1-éføTwk EdlbgðajBIkarecjyuT§saRsþ
éførbs;rdæakrTwk nigTI2-éføP¢ab;bNþaj EdlCadMNak;kaldMbUgnaMeGayGtifiCnTijTwk.
       Factor   TI1 bgðajfayuT§saRsþEdlman\T§iBldl;karTijrbs;GtifiCn KWéføTwk Et
cMNucenHk¾RtUvmanrYmpSMBI KuNPaBrbs;Twk nigesvakmµEdlpþl;CUnGtifiCnEdr.
         Factor TI2 karviPaK)anbBa¢ak;fa KuN   PaBTwkman\T§iBlRbhak;RbEhl eTAnwg
éføP¢ab;bNþajTwk EdlmanTMnak;TMngxøaMgCageKkarTijrbs;GtifiCn.


                                                                                109
       3-karviPaKBIT Mn ak;T Mn grvag\riy abf nigyuT §s aRsþ
           karviPaKenHnwgeFIVkarvas;EvgBITMnak;TMng EdlmanRsab;rvagyuT§saRsþrbs;rdæakrTwk
nig\riyabfrbs;GtifiCn. karvas;EvgRtUvviPaKFaturbs;GefrTaMgGs;Edlcgsm<½n§CamYyKña
edIm,IeFIVeGaymankarCak;c,as;faGefrEdlykmkeRbIR)as;nwgsIusgVak;Kña. tMélGal;hVa Alpha
RtUv)anKNnaCamunelIGefrEdlRtUvviPaK.
       taragTI 48 Gefr\riyabfrbs;GtifiCnkñúgkarTijTwk
                               eQµaHGefr                           elxerogGefr
       ePT                                                         B1

       cMnYnsmaCikkñúgRKYsar                                       B2

       Gayu                                                        B3

       R)ak;cMNUl                                                  B4

       Gal;hVa Alpha = 0/5424
       taragTI 49 GefryuT§saRsþrbs;rdæakrEdlnaMeGayGtifiCnTijTwk
                               eQµaHGefr                           elxerogGefr
         esvakmµ                                                   S5

         KuNPaBTwk                                                 S6

         éføTwk                                                    S7

         éføP¢ab;bNþaj                                             S8

         ry³ecjvik½yb½Rt                                           S9

         Alpha = 0/5633

         tMélGal;hVaEdlKNnaeXIj)aneGaydwgfaGefrTaMgGs;xagelIsuT§Etman\T§iBlelI
karsMerccitþTijrbs;GtifiCn b:uEnþCamYyKñaenH KWcaM)ac;RtUvKNnatMél Eigenvalues edIm,I
eGaydwgfa etIGefrNaEdlman\T§iBlxøaMgCageK ¬PaKry Variance x<s;¦ enAkñúgkarsMerc
ciitþTij. taragTI 50 )aneGaydwgfa ³ GefrTI 1 GefrTI 2 nigGefrTI 3 manPaKry
Variance x<s;CageKkñúgcMeNamGefrTaMgGs;Edl)aneRCIserIs. edIm,IeGaykan;Etc,as;fa


                                                                                   110
Gefr TaMg bI enH man\T§iBlxøaMgCageKenaH eyIgRtUvykGefrTaMg 4 eTAeFIV Rotation Sums
of Squared Loading mþgeTot ¬sUmemIltaragTI 51¦. tamry³enHeyIgGackMN )anfa    t;
GefrTaMg 3 enHCa Factor sMxan; nigCaG½kS sMrab;eFIVkarviPaK.
       taragTI 50 bgðajBItMél Eigenvalues
                                          tMél Eigenvalues
               Gefr             cMnYnsrub     PaKry              PaKry
                                 Total          Variance       Cumulative
                1               1/751           19/453         19/453
                2               1/349           14/990         34/443
                3               1/144           12/709         47/153
                4               0/991           11/010         58/163
                5               0/863            9/592         67/754
                6               0/832            9/248         77/002
                7               0/775           8/613          85/615
                8               0/695           7/717          93/332
                9               0/600            6/668         100/000
       taragTI 51 Rotation Sums of Squared Loading
                                   Rotation Sums of Squared Loading
              Factor            cMnYnsrub        PaKry           PaKry
                                 Total          Variance       Cumulative
                1               0/816            9/064           9/064
                2               0/662            7/353          16/417
                3               0/606            6/735          23/152
      kñúgkrNIenHG½kSRtUv)anKNnatamviFIsaRsþ Varimax Rotation edIm,IrkTMnak;TMng
eGaykan;Etl¥RbesIrrbs; Factors CamYynwgGefr ehIyEdlmanbgðajkñúgtaragxageRkam ³

                                                                             111
       taragTI 52 Factor eRkayeBlbgVil ¬ Rotated Factor Matrix ¦
                                        Factor1          Factor2         Factor3
ePT                                     0/000           -0/138          -0/119
cMnYnsmaCikkñúgRKYsar                   0/523           -0/159           0/000
Gayu                                    0/516            0/000           0/104
R)ak;cMNUl                              0/347            0/000           0/105
esvakmµ                                 0/000            0/000           0/498
KuNPaBTwk                               0/272            0/000          0/530
éføTwk                                  0/000            0/654           0/000
     ¢
éføPab;bNþaj                            0/000            0/426           0/000
ry³ecjvik½yb½Rt                         0/254            0/000           0/190
        emKuNénTMnak;TMng Factors eFobeTAnwgGefryuT§saRsþ)anbgðajeGayeXIjfa man
ktþa bI Edlman\T§iBldl;karTijrbs;GtifiCn ³ TI1-cMnYnsmaCikenAkñúgRKYsar TI2-éføTwk
EdlbgðajBIkarecjyuT§saRsþéførbs;rdæakrTwk nigTI3 -KuNPaB.
        Factor TI1 bgðajBITMnak;TMngéncMnYnsmaCikkñúgRKYsarCaktþasMxan; Etk¾GaRs½yelI

R)ak;cMNUlEdlrk)an Gayurbs;GtifiCn nigKuNPaBénTwkpgEdr .
        Factor TI2 yuT§saRsþéføTwk CH\T§iBly:agxøaMgdl;karsMerccitþTijrbs;GtifiCn .

        Factor TI3 esvakmµ nigry³eBlEdlecjvik½ybR½t bBa©ÚlKñaeFIVeGaykMriténsar

sMxan;RbEhlKñanwgKuNPaBTwk.
        CarYm éføTwkCaktþaEdlman\T§iBldl;karTijrbs;GtifiCncm,geK bnÞab;mkKuNPaB
rbs;Twk nigcMnYnsmaCikRKYsar. karTijk¾GaRs½yelIcMnYnsmaCikRKYsarEdr cMnYnkan;EteRcIn
brimaNtMrUvkarTwkkan;EtxøaMg.




                                                                               112
                                     esckþIs nñid æan
         srubmkeXIjfardæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj)anxitxMRbwgERbgCaxøaMg edIm,IpÁt;pÁg;Twks¥at
CUnGtifiCnenAkñúgraCFanIPñMeBjeRbIR)as; . sßanPaBesdækic©rbs;shRKasmanlkçN³l¥
RbesIr EdlGaceGayrdæakrTwkdMeNIrkarBRgIk nigvinieyaKbEnßm kñúgTisedAeFIVeGayRbCaCn
enATUTaMgraCFanIPñMeBjmanTwks¥ateRbI. RbsiT§iPaBénkarRKb;RKgRtUv)anykcitþTukdak; eday
mankarEbgEckkargar nigkarTTYlxusRtUveTAtamEpñknImYy² eBalKWkarGnuvtþn_kargarrbs;
mRnþIRKb;RKgtamzananuRkm KWfñak;elImanParkic©bBa¢a nigTTYlxusRtUv fñak;eRkammanParkic©
GnuvtþtambBa¢a. nieyaCikTaMgGs;rbs;rdæakrTwkRtUvbMeBjkargar 8 em:agkñúg 1éf¶ nig 40
em:agkñúgmYys)aþh_ BIéf¶c½nÞ dl; éf¶suRk ÉkarQb;sMrakrbs;buKÁlik KWdUcKñaeTAnwgsßab½nepSg
eTotEdr dUcCa Qb;sMrakkñúgéf¶buNüCati GnþrCatiEdlrdæaPi)al)ankMNt; nigmansiT§iQb;
sMrakRbcaMqñaMtamlkç½x½NÐEdlmanEcgkñúglkçnþik³buKÁlik. kñúgeBlbMeBjkargarnieyaCikTaMg
Gs;RtUvesøókBak;ÉksNæan nigBak;pøaksBaØatamkarkMNt;rbs;rdæakrTwk. karvaytMélelI
kargarrbs;buKÁlikRtUv)aneFIVCaerogral;qñaM edIm,IRtYtBinitüsñaédkñúgkarGnuvtþn_kargarCak;Esþg
RBmTaMgsIlFm’pÞal;rbs;mRnþInieyaCikmñak;² nwgCamUldæankñúgkartMelIgkaM fñak; nigpþl;
rgVan;elIkTwkcitþdl;mRnþITaMgenaH.
         karRKb;RKgGtifiCnk¾)anerobcMtamdan nigRtYtBinitüCaRbcaM eFIVeGaycMnYnGtifiCn
ekIneLIgBImYyqñaMeTAmYyqñaM. bBaðaGNþÚgrYmEdlGtifiCneRbItaMgBIqñaM 1979 mkRtUv)anbM)at;
TaMgRsugenAqñaM 1999 cMENkkargartbNþajcUlpÞHCUnGtifiCn)anbegáInTaMgbrimaN nig
KuNPaB edayeRbIR)as;nUvsMPar³tambTdæan nigkMlaMgBlkmµGENþtCYy. ÉéføsiT§iCavt
bNþajTwkRtUv)anEksMrYleGaymanlkçN³TabCagmun ehIybEnßmelIéføsiT§iCavtbNþajTwk
xagelIGtifiCnRtUvkk;R)ak;EdlsmamaRt nigkareRbIR)as;cMnYn 3 Ex. rdæakrTwk)andMeNIr
karbegáIttMbn;KMrUGnam½ykñúgraCFanIPñMeBj EdlkarsikSaKMeragcab;epþImtaMg BIéf¶TI 19 Exmina
qñaM 2001 mkemø:H edaysarkarshkarCamYyTIRbwkSabec©keTs Parson. ebIsinCatMbn;
Gnam½yKMrUenHRtUv)anBRgIkeGay)aneRcInCacMNucmYyl¥Nas;sMrab; suxmalPaBRbCaCn nig
bridæanTIRkugPñMeBj.


                                                                                      113
         tamlT§plénkarviPaK)anbgðajeGayeXIjfaPaKeRcInénGtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwkRkug
PñMeBjmansmaCiksßitenAcenøaHBI 5 dl; 10 nak; ¬51/7°¦ kñúgenaHmanemRKYsarCa burs
61/3° ¬n=184¦ nigman 28/3° CaGñkrksuI EdlmanmanGayusßitkñúgcenøaH 20 dl; 50
qñaM. R)ak;cMNUlEdlKat;rk)ankñúg 1 Ex² sßitkñúgcenøaH 50 duløar eTA 100 duløar ¬41/7°
n=125¦. GñkEdlmanTwkbNþajpÞal;eRbIPaKeRcIn sßitenAkñúgkMLúgqñaM 1990 man ¬43/7°

n=131¦ rdæakrTwkmanGtifiCn bI RbePTcMnYnEdleRcInCageK KW RbePTCIvPaB ¬GñkeRbIR)as;

Fmµta¦ Edlman 86°.
        kñúgeBlEdlmankarEkERbtMélTwkplb:HBal;CaeRcIn)anekIteLIg TI1 elIkarcMNay
GtifiCnRtUvcMNayx<s;Cagmun ¬begáIncMNay¦ mancMnYnrhUtdl; 54/7° ¬n=164¦ TI2
brimaNTwkEdleRbIIR)as;RtUv)ankat;bnßy edayeFIVkarsnSMsMécCageBlmun nigTI3 TMnij
cMeBaHGaCIvkrPaKeRcInnwgRtUvtMelIgéføTMnijedIm,IeGayR)ak;cMeNjKat;enAkMritdEdl. cMNuc
mYyeTotEdlGtifiCnCYbRbTHjwkjab;CageK KWkarpÁt;pÁg;TwkminRKb;RKan; ¬23/7°¦ Etk¾
mankarminTukcitþBIsMNak;GtifiCn ¬11° n=33¦ elIvik½ybR½t edayyl;famankarekgbnøM
Em:RtKUbelIbrimaNTwkEdl)aneRbIR)as;.
        karpSBVpSayBt’mandl;GtifiCnenAminTan;manRbsiT§iPaBenAeLIy tamlT§plviPaK
manGtifiCn 52° ¬n=156¦ minEdl)anTTYlBt’manBIrdæakrTwkesaH ÉGñkEdl)anTTYlBt’
manPaKeRcIn KWBt’manTak;TgkarEkERbtMélTwk. ral;eBlbiT b¤ebIkTwkmþg² manGtifiCn
11/7° ¬n=35¦ )anTTYlBt’man. karTTYlBt’maneFIVeGayGtifiCnGaceFIVEpnkarkñúgkar
eRbIR)as;Twk nigeRtomTukCamun. GtifiCnEdlFøab;eFIVsMNUmBrdl;rdæakrTwkman 24/7°
kñúgenaHmanEt 3/3° ¬n=10¦ EdlEtgEtTTYlkaredaHRsaysMNUmBrBIrdæakrTwk k¾man
12/7°edaHRsaymþgmáal nig8/7° minEdlTTYlkaredaHRsay. CagBak;kNþalKW 50/7°
énGtifiCnEdleRbITwkTaMgGs;eRbITwkrbs;rdæakrTwkedaysarEtKµanCMerIs TnÞwmnwg10° eday
sarEtKuNPaB nig 8° ykcitþTukdak;elItMélTwk. TnÞwmnwgenHmanGtifiCnCaeRcIn )anelIk
sesIrBIesvapÁt;pÁg; nigKuNPaBTwkrbs;rdæakrTwksBVéf¶fal¥ EttMélTwkEdlkMBugGnuvtþsBVéf¶
manGtifiCncMnYnCagBak;kNþal 67/7° ¬n=203¦ niyayfaTwkéføNas; EdlCakarmYyKYr
eGaykt;sMKal; eRBaHKµanGñkNamñak;EdleqøIyfaTwkmantMélefakeT.

                                                                               114
         kñúgkartbNþajeTaH CardæakrTwkxMRbwgbnÞabéføy:agNak¾edayk¾GtifiCn 73° eqøIy
faéføNas;dEdl CakarcUlrYmcMENkmYyrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj kñúgkarkat;bnßyPaB
RkIRk nigCYysMralbnÞúkcMNayrbs;GtifiCn ebIsinNaCaéføTwk nigéføtbNþajRtUv)anEksMrYl
eGay)anTabCagmun. kartbNþajTwkCUnGtifiCnmanbBaðaCaeRcIndUcCa ³ buKÁlikTarluy
bEnßm kardak;Tuyeyamins¥ateGayGtifiCn buKÁlikteGayEtrYcBIéd nigbuKÁlikminecHKYrsm
CamYyGtifiCn. eBleTAbg;R)ak; GtifiCnrG‘UfaBYkKat;RtUvrg;caMyUrkñúgkarbMerIesvabg;luy
mþg² RBmTaMg 8/7° buKÁlikminKYrsm. mü:ageTot karviPaKBI \riyabfGtifiCnkñúgkareRCIs
erIsTIkEnøgbg;R)ak;k¾)anbgðajfamanGtifiCn 58/7° cg;bg;R)ak;enApÞH. karmineBjcitþBI
TIkEnøgbg;R)ak;rYmpSMCamYykarpþl;esvaminTan;eBl eFIVeGayGtifiCnminmankarykcitþTukdak;
kñúgkarTUTat;éføTwkeGay)anTan;eBlevla CadMeNaHRsayrdæakrTwk caM)ac;RtUvEtBRgIkTIkEnøg
TTYlR)ak;eGay)aneRcIn manbNþaj Network dUcGKÁisnIkm<úCa nig begáInkarRKb;RKgbuKÁlik
TaMgkñúgEpñkTTYlR)ak; nigEpñktbNþaj edIm,IeGayGtifiCngayRsYlmkTUTat; cMNayeBl
evlatic nigminCYbbBaðadUc)anbgðajxagedIm. enAeBleFIVkarBRgIkbNþaj manplb:HBal;Ca
eRcInKW ³ eTAelIdMeNIrkarrksuIrbs;GñkeRbIR)as;CaGaCIvkr nigkarsÞHcracr. cMeBaHKuNsm,tþi
Edl)anBIkarBRgIkbNþajman 58/3° ¬n=175¦ eqøIyfakarBRgIkenHeFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæ
manTwks¥ateRbIR)as; nigcMnYn 9° ¬n=27¦ yl;fakarcMNayelIéføTwkrbs;Kat;fycuH
¬GtifiCnEdlBImunmin)aneRbIbNþajTwkpÞal;rbs;rdæakrTwk¦ .
        eBlmanbBaðaTwkFøay b¤RCabeRkaynaLikasÞg; GtifiCnrhUtdl; 67/3° ¬n=202¦
niyayfaKat;nwgpþl;Bt’mandl;rdæakrTwkedIm,IeFIVkarCYsCul manEtGtifiCncMnYn 1/7°
b:ueNÑaH EdleFIVmindwgminlW. manmUlehtueRcInxus² KñaEdlbgðajBIkaryWty:avkñúgkarbg;
éføTwk PaKryEdleRcInCageKmUlehtumkBIrvl;rksuI 28° ¬n=85¦ nigmanEt 2° EdlKat;;
KitfaminGIeT ¬eTaHCabg;Tan; b¤minTan;eBlk¾eday¦. ry³eBlEdlrdæakrTwkTukeGaybg;
xøIeBk ebItamkarRsavRCavGtifiCn 49/7° ¬n=149¦ cg;eGayrdæakrTwkTukcenøaHBI 15 dl;
21éf¶ kñúgeBl Edl 16/3° ¬n=49¦ manbMNgcg;TukeGayelIs 21 éf¶. kñúg1 vKÁ²
énkarecjvik½ybR½tman 2 Ex EtGtifiCn 41/7° ¬n=143¦ cg;eGayecjvik½ybR½terog
ral;Ex edaysarEtcMnYnTwkR)ak;ticeFIVeGayKat;manlT§PaBTUTat;Tan;eBlevla. GtifiCn


                                                                                 115
36° manbMNgbegáInkareRbIR)as; EdlbNþalmkBIsmaCikRKYsarrbs;Kat;ekIneLIg nigman
cMnYnEt 3° b:ueNÑaH EdlbegáInkareRbIeBlmanesvakmµkan;Etl¥.
        karTUTat;R)ak;BIbNþasßab½nrdæRbkbedayRbsiT§iPaB CakargarmYycaM)ac;sMrab;rdæakrTwk
eRBaHfa GgÁPaBrdæRbEhl 14 ° kñúgenaHTUTat;R)ak;)anRbEhl 2° b:ueNÑaH. kñúgenaHEdr
rdæakrTwkKYrBRgIkeGay)ankan;EteRcIncMeBaHkrNIbg;rMls;éføtbNþajdl;GtifiCnEdlKµanl
T§PaBbg; R)ak;eBjEtmþg.
          TnÞwmnwgenHEdr GtifiCnk¾RtUvcUlrYmcMENkkñúgkarsnSMsMéckñúgkareRbIR)as;Twk eBalKW
kuMx¢Hx¢aykñúgkareRbIR)as; nigBiesseTotCYyTb;sáat;bTelµIslYcTwk ehIyRtUvdwgBItYnaTIrbs;
xøÜnEdleRbITwkehIyRtUvEtTUTat;éføTwkCUnrdæakrTwk.




                                                                                    116
                                     Knßn ieTÞs

1- r)aykarN_ sunÞrkfa ÉksarGgÁRbCuM nigevTikanana
   1 h‘un Esn ³ sunÞrkfakñúgBiFI ebIkkardæanCYsCulsþarRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twks¥atdMNak;kalTI2
      enA raCFanIPñMeBj éf¶TI 26 emsa 1996.
   2 Qwm esokeLg ³ sunÞrkfakñúgBiFI ebIkkardæanCYsCulsþarRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twks¥at dMNak;
      kalTI 2 enA raCFanIPñMeBj >>>>>>>>>>>>>>dUcxagelI.
   3 s exg ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgBiFI biTkardæanCYsCulsþarRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twks¥at dMNak;kalTI2
      enAraCFanIPñMeBj éf¶TI 12 mina 1999.
   4 Ék s‘uncan; ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgBiFI biTkardæanCYsCulsþarRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twks¥at dMNak;
      kalTI2 enAraCFanIPñMeBj >>>>>>>>>>>>>>dUcxagelI.
   5 m:asaKI éstU ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgBiFI biTkardæanCYsCulsþarRbB½n§pÁt;pÁg;Twks¥at dMNak;
      kalTI2 enAraCFanIPñMeBj >>>>>>>>>>>>>>dUcxagelI.
   6 tul eLaH ³ sunÞrkfa kñúg smaCRsavRCavsgÁm vb,Fm’GMBIkm<úCa elIkTI 5 enAsakl
      viTüal½yPñMeBjmNÐl 2 éf¶TI 6 vicäika 2001.
   7 h‘un Esn ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgBiFI ebIkkardæansagsg;eragcRkplitTwks¥atPUmiERBk enA
      rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj éf¶TI 19 viciäka 2001.
   8 Ca supar:a ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgBiFI ebIkkardæansagsg;eragcRkplitTwks¥atPUmiERBk enA
      rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj >>>>>>dUcxagelI.
   9 Ék su‘ncan; ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgBiFI ebIkkardæansagsg;eragcRkplitTwks¥atPUmiERBk
      enA rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj >>>>>>>>>>>>dUcxagelI.
   10 ehÁatar:U GUhÁav:a sunÞrkfa kñúgBiFI ebIkkardæansagsg;eragcRkplitTwks¥atPUmiERBk
      enA rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj >>>>>>>>>>>>dUcxagelI.
   11 s exg ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgsnñisITCatisþIBI karBRgwgPaBCaédKUrrvagsgÁmsuIvil nigraC
      rdæaPi)al enAsalRbCuMRkumRbwkSaGPivDÆn_km<úCa éf¶TI 7 FñÚ 2001.
   12 neratþm esrIvuDÆ ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgsnñisITCatisþIBI karBRgwgPaBCaédKUrrvagsgÁmsuIvil
      nigraCrdæaPi)al>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>dUcxagelI.
                                                                                 117
   13 hIug fUr:ak;suI ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgsnñisITCatisþIBI karBRgwgPaBCaédKUrrvagsgÁmsuIvil nig
        raCrdæaPi)alkñúgkarelIksÞÜy kMENTMrg;esdækic© nighirBaØvtßúsaFarN³ bBaðaRbQm
      enAsalRbCuMRkumRbwkSaGPivDÆn_km<úCa éf¶TI 7 FñÚ 2001.
   14 sux saravuDÆ ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgsnñisITCatisþIBI karBRgwgPaBCaédKUrrvagsgÁmsuIvil nig
      raCrdæaPi)al>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>dUcxagelI.
   15 s‘n sMNag ³ sunÞrkfa kñúgBIFIebIkbevsnkalCapøÚvkar énvKÁbNþúHbNþalfñak;briBaØa
      bR½tCan;x<s;CMnan;TI 2 éf¶TI 30 mkra 2002.
2-RBwtþibR½t TsSnavdþI nigsarBt’man
   1 km<úCafµI TsSnavdþIRbcaMs)aþh_elx 6 s)aþh_TI18-24 kkáda 1971 ³ TMnijeLIgéfø
        GñkNaCaGñkrgeRKaH ?
   2 ekaHsnþiPaB ³ -éf¶TI 09 ]sPa 2001 ³ Twkmansar³sMxan;bMputsMrab;ragkay.
                       -éf¶TI 02 mifuna 2001 ³ pwkTwkeRcIneBknaMeGaymansµartIminl¥.
                       -éf¶TI 30 vicäika 2001 ³ TsSn³vis½yCMrujdMeNIrkarGPivDÆn_yuT§
                          saRsþkat;bnßyPaBRkIRk.
                       -éf¶TI 02 FñÚ 2000 ³ bYnRbkarEdlPriyapSMKMnitbegáItGMeBIBukrlYy.
                       -éf¶TI 20 FñÚ 2000 ³ GnaKtkm<úCakñúgesrIPavUbnIykmµ .
    3 RbCaRbiy TsSnavdþI elx45 ExkBaØa 1996 TMB½r 7 ³ TwkfµIeFIVeGayPJak;ep¥Il.
    4 RbCaRbiy TsSnavdþI elx 169 Ex]sPa 2001 TMB½r 31 ³ kgVHxatTwkCakþI)armÖén
      BiPBelak.
    5 RbCaRbiy TsSnavdþI elx 169 Ex]sPa 2001 TMB½r 11 ³ kMeNInRbCaCn nigpl
      b:HBal;esdækic© .
    6 mCÇmNÐlGPivDÆn_sgÁm RBwtþibR½t elx 077 ExkumÖ³ 2001 TMB½r 4 ³ EsVgyl;BI
      RbPBcMNUlfvikaCati .
    7 rsµIkm<úCa ³- éf¶TI 16 FñÚ 2000 ³ TsSn³emdwknaMkm<úCaBIGnaKtkm<úCakñúgGas‘an.
                  - éf¶TI 22 FñÚ 2000 ³ RKwHénvb,Fm’Exµr .
                  - éf¶TI 22 FñÚ 2000 ³ etICnCatiExµrmkBINa .

                                                                                    118
                   - éf¶TI 14 mifuna 2002 ³ elakGPi)alRkugR)ab;eGayrdæakrtbNþaj
                     fµIenAtMbn;GPivDÆn_b¤sSIEkv .
    8 semøgRsþIExµr TsSnavdþI elx55 Exvicäika 2000 TMB½r2 ³ karerIseGIg nigPaBRkIRk.
    9 esdækic© nigCIvit TsSnavdþI elx14 Ex]sPa 1998 TMB½r10 ³ erobcMTwkfµI .
    10 GñkniBn§Exµr TsSnavdþI elx 3 ExkumÖ³ 1996 ³ KMnitKYrBicarNa .
3-sñaédniBn§e)aHBum<pSay nigniekçbbT
   1-1-PasaExµr
   1 Ekv nrinÞ ³ karviPaKelIbBaðaRtUvedaHRsayenAkm<úCa PñMeBj 1999 104TMB½r.
   2 RksYgBt’man ³ dMeNIrkaresdækic©TIpSar PñMeBj 1998 .
   3 RksYgEpnkar ³ kmµviFIvinieyaKsaFarN³ 2000-2002 PñMeBj 2000 141
      TMB½r.
   4 RksYgesdækic© nighirBaØvtßú ³ c,ab;sþIBIshRKassaFarN³ nigPaKkmµsaFarN³
      PñMeBj 1999 242TMB½r.
   5 Kat Qn; ³ 45 ExenARksYgesdækic© nighirBaØvtßú ³ tulükar vinicä½ykmµ TsSnGnaKt
      PñMeBj 1998 205TMB½r.
   6 can; savarI ³ m:aXITIg PñMeBj 1998 90TMB½r.
   7 TUc CakadU ³ karRKb;RKgbuKÁlikrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj PñMeBj 1996 50TMB½r.
   8 eFOn sutßa nigGñkdéT ³ karviPaKr)aykarN_hirBaØvtßúrdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj
      PñMeBj 1999 70TMB½r.
   9 b:uk lkµSI ³ TMnak;TMngsaFarN³ PñMeBj 2001 342TMB½r.
   10 eb:g NavuF nig John Chrisholm ³ buBVkfaénkarRKb;RKgTUeTA PñMeBj 1994
      151TMB½r.
   11 BuT§sasnbNÐitü ³ vcnanuRkmExµrPaK 1-2 PñMeBj 1967 1858TMB½r.
   12 ém:kulv:at;s_ ³ GIVeTACaEdlehAfaesdækic©TIpSarcMhr? v:asuInetan 1992 32TMB½r.
   13 mCÄmNÐlBaNiC¢kmµBiPBelak ³ mKÁúeTsk¾BaNiC¢kmµeq<aHeTArkRbB½nÐBaNiC¢kmµ
      BiPBelak e)aHBum<elIkTI2 PñMeBj 1999 350TMB½r.

                                                                               119
14 raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa ³ karGnuvtþn_kmµviFICatisMrab;nitism,TanigkarGPivDÆn__ PñMeBj
   1995 140 TMB½r.
15 raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa ³ karGPivDÆn_esdækic© sgÁmkic© tMrUvkar nigsMeNIr PñMeBj 2000
   124TMB½r.
16 rs; cin ³ yuT§saRsþénkarBRgIkGaCIvkmµrbs;rdæakrTwksVy½tRkugPñMeBj PñMeBj
   2001 73TMB½r.
17 v:an; b‘uneft ³ esdækic©km<úCa PaKTI 1 -2 PñMeBj 1995 233TMB½r.
18 h‘an sahIub nig hIug fUr:ak;suI ³ vcnanuRkm esdækic© nighirBaØvtßú PñMeBj 2001
   931TMB½r.
19 h‘U yn; ³ bBaðashkrN_enARbeTskm<úCa PñMeBj 1956 93TMB½r.
20 ehg suPaB ³ karRKb;RKgm:aXIgTIg PñMeBj 1996 66TMB½r.
21 G‘uk c½nÞDI ³ GtþcritGñkeRbIR)as;rbs; MobiTel PñMeBj 1996 45TMB½r.
22 G‘ul v:n nig lI qay ³ mUldæanRKwHénm:aXIFIg PñMeBj 2001 258 TMB½r.
1-2- PasabreTs
23 Alaerts (G.J.) et al., A Strategy for Water Sector Capacity Building, The
    Netherlands, 1991, 185 pages.
24 Berkowitz (Eric N.), et al., Marketing, 4 edition, U. S. A., 1994, 785 pages.
                                            th


25 Berkowitz (Eric N.), et al, Marketing, 5 edition, U. S. A., 1997, 733 pages.
                                            th


26 Bowerson (Donald J.), Cooper (M. Bixby), Strategic Marketing, Channel
    Management, U. S. A., 1992, 477 pages.
27 CDC/CIB,   Laws and Regulations on Investment in the Kingdom of
    Cambodia unofficial translation, Phnom Penh, 1994, 76 pages.
28 Chan    Savary, Contribution à la connaissance du consommateur
    cambodgien : Influence de la famille sur la decision d'achat de la moto,
    Université de Poitiers, 1999, 435 pages.
29 Cooper (Donald R.), et al., Business Research Methods, 6 edition, Irwin/
                                                                   th

    McGraw-Hill, 1998, 698 pages.
30 Cravens (David W.), Strategic Marketing, 5     th
                                                       edition, U. S. A., 1997, 662
    pages.
31 Dolan (Edwin G.), Basic Microeconomics. Principles and Reality, U. S. A.,
    1974, 247 pages.




                                                                              120
32 Ear Sophal, Cambodia's Economic Development In Historical Perspective,
     California, 1995, 97 pages.
33 Economic      and Finance Institution, Managing         the   Challenges    of
     Globalization, Phnom Penh, 1999, 52 pages.
34 Hawkins (Del L.) et al., Consumer Behavior Implications for Marketing
     Strategy, 3th edition, U. S. A., 1986.
35 Hawkins     (Del L.), Tull (Donald S.), Essential of Marketing Research,
     U.S.A., 1994
36 Edmund (Jeffrey Curry), International Marketing, U. S. A., 1999, 184 pages.
37 Harris ( Philip R.), Moran (Robert T.), Managing Cultural Differences.
     Leadership Strategies for New World of Business, 4thedition, U. S. A., 1996,
     392 pages.
38 Jackson (Winston), Methods : Doing Social Research, U. S. A., 1995, 480 p.
39 Katz (Michael L.), Rosen (Harvey S.), Microeconomics, U. S. A., 1991, 719
     pages.
40 Key (John), Business of Economic, Oxford, 1996, 211 pages.
41 King ( Philip), International Economics and International          Policy, 2nd
     edition, Singapore, 1995, 355 pages.
42 Lam ( Norbert.), New Millennium, New Economic, Background papers for
     Leadership forum 2001, 32 pages.
43 Langdon ( Ken), Bruce (Andrew), Creating a Market Sensitive Culture,
     Great Britain, 1997, 333 pages.
44   Loudon (David L.), Della Bitta (Albert J.), Consumer behavior concepts and
     applications, 4thedition, U. S. A., 1993
45   McGregor (James Burns), Leadership, U. S. A., 1978, 509 pages.
46   McCarthy (Jerome), Perreault (William), Basic Marketing, 10th edition,
     U.S.A., 1990, 723 pages.
47 McCarthy     (Jerome), Perreault (William), Basic Marketing, 11th edition,
     U.S.A., 1993, 761 pages.
48   Miller (Alex), Dess (Gregory G.), Strategic Management, 2nd edition, U.S.A.,
     1996, 531 pages.
49   Ministry of Commerce, Business and Investment Handbook 2000, Phnom
     Penh, 2000, 186 pages.
50   Ministry of Commerce, Main Streaming Trade for Poverty Alleviation. The
     Tokyo Road Map, Cambodia, 2001, 40 pages.
51 Mowen (John C.), Consumer Behavior, 2 edition, U. S. A., 1990.
                                              nd


52 National Institute of Statistic, Report on the Cambodia Socio-Economic
     Survey 1997, Phnom Penh, 1997, 101 pages
53 Nelson (Bob), 1001 Ways to Reward Employees, U. S. A., 1994, 259 pages.

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54   Noe (Raymond A.), et al, Human Resource Management. Gaining a
     competitive advantage, 2nd edition, U. S. A., 1996, 663 pages.
55   Okun (Daniel A.), Lauria (Donald T.), Capacity Building for Water
     Resources Management, U. S. A., 1991, 512 pages.
56   Peter (Paul J.), Olson (Jerry C.), Consumer Behavior and Marketing
     Strategy, 4 th edition, U. S. A., 1996.
57 Ray (Michael), Rinzler (Alan), The New Paradigm in Business. Emerging
     Strategies for Leadership and Organizational Change, U. S. A., 1993, 300
     pages.
58   Schiffman (Leon G.) et al., Consumer Behavior, 6thedition, U. S. A., 1997.
59   Sok Hach, et al, Cambodia's Annual Economic Review 2001, Phnom Penh,
     2001, 93 pages.
60   Sok Siphana, Sarin Denora, Legal Aspect of doing Business in Cambodia,
     Cambodia, 1998, 114 pages.
61 SPSS Inc., SPSS Base 7.5 Applications Guide, U. S. A., 1997, 339 pages.
62 Swensen (David F.), Pioneering Portfolio Management. An Unconventional
     Approach to Institutional Investment, U. S. A., 2000, 365 pages.
63 Thesing (Josef), Democracy and Development, Globalization and Social
     Market Economic, Phnom Penh, 2000, 79 pages.




                                                                             122
]bsm<½n §T I 3
                                        kMrgsMN Yr            éf¶TI Ex qñaM2002
                                                              x½NÐ>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
          CMrabsYr ¡ ´)aTCanisSitmkBIraCbNÐitsPakm<úCa. éf¶enH´)aTcg;GegátRsavRCav nig
cg;)anmtieyabl;BIelak elakRsIelIbBaðaénkarRKb;RKgrbs;rdæakrTwk edIm,IsresrniekçbbT
bBa©b;fñak;briBaØabR½tCan;x<s;enAeBlxagmuxenH. ´)aTsgÇwmfaelakGñknwgcMNayeBlcUlrYm
kñúgkic©smÖasn_enH. sUmKUssBaØa √ enAkñúgRbGb;EdlGñkeqøIysmÖasn_eBjcitþbMput.

A-   Tin ñn ½y RbCasaRsþ
Q1 :   GMBIePT
       ①      Rbus               ②     RsI
Q2 :   etIkñúgpÞH b¤GgÁPaBelakGñkmansmaCikb:unµannak;? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
        ①       ticCag 5nak;       ②   5-10nak; ③ elIs 10nak;
Q3 :   etIelakGñkTTYlkarsikSakMritNamYyxageRkam? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
        ①     bzmsikSa            ③   viTüal½y      ⑤    eRkaymhaviTüal½y
        ②     GnuviTüal½y        ④    mhaviTüal½y ⑥ CMnajbec©keTs
Q4 :   etIelakGñkRbkbmuxrbrNamYyxageRkam? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
        ①     mRnþIraCkar      ③ GñkrksuI          ⑤  empÞH
        ②     sisS¼ nisSit    ④    buKÁlikEpñkÉkCn
Q5 :    etIelak GñkmanGayub:unµanehIy ?
        ①     ticCag 20qñaM        ②      20 - 50qñaM ③ elIs 50qñaM
Q6 :   etIelakGñkmancMNUlcMnYnb:unµankñúg 1 Ex?
        ①     ticCag 50 duløar ② 50- 100 duløar ③ elIs 100 duløar
B-     sik SaBIy uT §s aRsþ
Q7 :   etIelakGñkeRbITwkrbs;rdæakrGs;ry³eBlb:unµanqñaMehIy ? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
        ①     ticCag 5qñaM        ②    5-10qñaM          ③    elIs 10qñaM
                                                                                                139
Q8 :    etIelakGñkeRbITwkGs;b:unµanEm:RtKUbkñúg 1vKÁénkarecjvik½ybR½t? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①     eRkam 20m3           ③      101-500m3 ⑤ 1001-5000 m3
         ②     20-50m3              ④      51-100m3 ⑥ elIs 500m3
Q 9:   etIelakGñkeRbITwkkñúgRbePTNamYy ? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
        ①     GñkeRbIR)as;Fmµta ¬bnþeTA Q ¦ 10

        ②     GgÁPaBrdæ ¬bnþeTA Q ¦   9.1

        ③     GaCIvkmµ niglk;Twk ¬bnþeTA Q ¦     10



Q 9.1 :  etIGgÁPaBrbs;elakGñkecjR)ak;pÞal; b¤rdæaPi)alCaGñkecj? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①     GgÁPaBecjpÞal;
         ②     ecjluypÞal;xøÜn
         ③     rdæaPi)alecjeGay
Q 10 :   bnÞab;BImankarEkERbtMélTwketIelakGñkmanbBaðaGIVxøH? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①      eFVIeGaykarcMNayekIn ② kat;bnßykareRbI ③ begáInéføTMnij
Q 11:    etIelakGñkFøab;CYbRbTHbBaðaNaxøHdUcxageRkam? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①     karpÁt;pÁg;minRKb;RKan;④ dac;ExSbøúMeb ⑦ xUcv:an
         ②     )at;naLika             ⑤ ekgbnøMEm:RtKUb ⑧    TwkRCabeRkaynaLika
         ③     naLikaminRbRktI b¤xUc⑥ esvakmµ           ⑨ karpþac;Twk


Q 12 :   etIelakGñkFøab;)anTTYlBt’’manNamYyBIrdæakrTwk? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①     karelIkTwkcitþ      ③   karpakBin½y ⑤ karbiT b¤ebIkTwk
         ②     karEkERbtMél ④ karRBman                  ⑥ KµanTaMgGs;


Q 13 :   etIIelakGñkFøab;)aneFIVsMNUmBrdl;rdæakrTwkEdr b¤eT? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①       Føab; ¬sUmbnþeTA Q ¦
                                 14

         ②       minFøab; ¬sUmbnþeTA Q ¦
                                       15



Q 14 :   etIIral;sMNUmBrrbs;elakGñkRtUv)anrdæakrTwkykeTAedaHRsayb¤eT? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①       minEdlesaH        ②     mþgmáal         ③    EtgEtyk
                                                                                     140
Q 15 :     etIehtuplNamYyEdleFIVeGayGñkeRbITwkrbs;rdæakrTwk? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
          ①      KuNPaBTwk        ③       tMél            ⑤     KµanCMerIs
          ②      esvakmµ         ④        bNþajCitpÞH ⑥ TaMgGs;xagelI
Q 16     :etIelakGñkyl;faesvakmµbMerIGtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwksBVéf¶y:agdUemþcEdr?¬KUsEtmYyKt;

¦
         ①       minl¥esaH         ②       KYrsm          ③    l¥Nas;
Q 17:      etIelakGñkyl;y:agdUcemþccMeBaHKuNPaBrbs;TwksBVéf¶?¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
          ①      minl¥esaH         ②      KYrsm           ③    l¥Nas;
Q 18     : etIelakGñkyl;fatMélTwkbc©úb,nñdUcemþcEdr? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦

          ①      éføNas;            ②     lµm             ③ efakNas;

Q 19     : etIelakGñkyl;faéføtbNþajsBVéf¶dUcemþcEdr? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦

          ①      éføNas;            ②     lµm             ③ efakNas;

Q 20     :etIelakGñkmaneRbITwkNamYyxageRkameRkAGMBIrbs;rdæakrTwkEdrb¤eT?¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;

¦
         ①TwkGNþÚg              ③ TwkePøó g        ⑤      Gt;TaMgGs;
    ②      TwkbUmxøÜnÉg ④ TaMgGs;xagelI
Q : 21        etIelakGñkFøab;CYbRbTHbBaðaNamYyxageRkam            b¤eTeBlmkbg;R)ak;?
¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
    ①     buKÁlikminKYrsm ③ TUrTat;yWt¼xus ⑤ karrg;caMyUr
    ②     em:agTTYlqab;eBk ④ rkÉksarmineXIj⑥ KµanbBaðaTaMgGs;
                                     amY
Q :etIelakGñkyl;famanplb:HBal;N ycMeBaHkarBRgIkbNþajrbs;rdæakrTwkknøgmk?
    22

    ①     b:HBal;suxPaB ② dMeNIkarrksIu ③ eFIVeGaysÞHcracr
Q :etIelakGñkyl;famanpll¥EbbNamYycMeBaHkarBRgIkbNþajrbs;rdæakrTwkknøgmk?
    23

    ①     manTwks¥ateRbI ② sMBaFTwkxøaMg ③ kat;bnßycMNay
Q :etIelakGñkcg;eGayrdæakrTwkTukry³eBlb:unµankñúgkarbg;éføeRbIR)as;?¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
    24

    ①     ticCag 15éf¶          ②   15-21éf¶ ③ elIs 21éf¶
                                                                                     141
Q 25 :  etIelakGñkmanbMNgcg;eGayrdæakrTwkecjvik½ybR½tb:unµanExmþþg? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
        ①      1 Exmþg            ③     3 Exmþg        ⑤    5 Exmþg
        ②      2 Exmþg            ④     4 Exmþg        ⑥    6 Exmþg
Q 26   :kñúgkartbNþajTwketIelakGñkFøab;)anCYbbBaðaNamYyxageRkam b¤eT?¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦

        ①      buKÁlikTarluybEnßm ③ teGayEtrYcBIéd ⑤ buKÁlikminKYrsm
        ②      dak;Tuyeyamins¥at ④ minmanbBaða
Q 27 :   etIelakGñkcg;bg;R)ak;enAkEnøgNa? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①     enApÞH              ②    enArdæakrTwk ③ enAFnaKar
C-   sik SaBI\ riy abf
Q 28 :  ebIsinCamanbBaðadUcCaTwkFøayeRkaynaLikaetIelakGñkeFVIdUcemþc? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
        ①      pþl;Bt’mandl;rdæakrTwk ③ edaHRsayxøÜnÉg ④ BwgGñkCitxag
        ②      eFIVmindwgminlW
Q 29   : etIehtuplNamYyEdlGaceFVIeGayelakGñkyWty:avkñúgkarbg;éføTwk? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦

        ①      rvl;kargar¼rksIu ③ ry³eBlbg;xøIeBk⑤ R)ak;ExebIkminTan;
        ②      caMeRkayTUlayRsYlbg; ④ GagEtminGI ⑥ ePøc
Q 30 :   etIelakGñkmanbMNgbegáInkareRbIR)as;TwkEdr b¤eT? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①     man ¬bnþeTA Q ¦
                            28.1

         ②     Kµan ¬bnþeTA Q ¦
                            29



Q 30.1 :  etImUlehtuNamYyEdleFIVeGayelakGñkbegáInkareRbIR)as;Twk? ¬KUs)anEtmYyKt;¦
         ①     smaCikRKYsarekIn ② BRgIkGaCIvkmµ ③ esvakmµkan;Etl¥


     \LÚvenHeyIgmkdl;TIbBa©b;énkic©smÖasn_ehIy . ´sUmEføgGMNrKuNdl;elakGñkEdl
)ancMNayeBlevlacUlrYmkarsmÖasn_CamYyeyIg´ . ´cg;CMrabelakGñkfaGIVEdlelakGñk
)anniyayenAkñúgeBlsmÖasn_KWmanPaBCasMgat;minmannrNamñak;dwgeLIy.
                                                                     sUmGrKuN
                                                                                 142
]bsm<½n §T I 4
                                A-Tin ñn ½y RbCasaRsþ
1-GMBIePT ?
          RbePT                  cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_            PaKry
 Rbus                                  184                   61/3°
 RsI                                   116                   38/7°
           srub                        300                    100°

2-etIkñúgpÞH b¤GgÁPaBrbs;GñkmansmaCikb:unµannak; ?
        cMnYnsmaCikkñúgRKYsar           cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_      PaKry
 ticCag 5 nak;                                 109            36/3°
 5 nak; dl; 10 nak;                            155            51/7°
 elIsBI 10 nak;                                 36            12/0°
               srub                            300             100°

3-etIelakGñkTTYlkarsikSakMritNamYy ?
              RbePT                   cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_     PaKry
    bzmsikSa                                  43              14/3°
    GnuviTüal½y                                45             15/0°
    viTüal½y                                  74              24/7°
    mhaviTüal½y                                94             31/3°
    eRkaymhaviTüal½y                          18                6/0°
    CMnajbec©keTs                             26               8/7°
               srub                         300                100°



                                                                       143
4-etIelakGñkRbkbmuxrbrNamYyxageRkam ?
             muxrbr                  cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_    PaKry
   GñkrksIu                                   85             28/3°
   buKÁlikEpñkÉkCn                            66             22/0°
   mRnþIraCkar                                58             19/3°
   sisS                                       55             18/3°
   empÞH                                      36             12/0°
               srub                          300              100°

5-etIelakGñkmanGayub:unµanehIy ?
         RbePTGayu                 cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_     PaKry
   GayuticCag 20 qñaM                      13                4/3°
   Gayu 20 qñaM dl; 50 qñaM               234               78/0°
   GayuelIsBI 50 qñaM                      53               17/7°
            srub                          300                100°

6-etIelakGñkmancMNUlb:unµankñúg 1 Ex ?
        RbePTR)ak;cMNUl             cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_     PaKry
    ticCag 50 duløar                        102             34/0°
    50 duløar dl; 100 duløar                125             41/7°
    elIs 100 duløar                          73             24/3°
              srub                          300              100°




                                                                     144
                                    B- yuT §s aRsþ

7-etIelakGñkeRbITwkrbs;rdæakrTwkGs;ry³eBlb:unµan ?
         cMnYnqñaMEdl)aneRbITwk            cMnYnGñkeqøIysMPasn_         PaKry
   ticCag 5 qñaM                                       98             32/7°
   5 dl; 10 qñaM                                   131                43/7°
   elIs 10 qñaM                                      71               23/7°
                   srub                             300                100°

8-etIelakGñkeRbITwkGs;b:unµanEm:RtKUbkñúg 1 vKÁénkarecjvik½ybR½t ?
         brimaNTwkeRbIkñúgmYyvKÁ         cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_            PaKry
 eRkam 20 m3                                      70                 23/3°
 20 m3 dl;; 50 m3                                124                 41/3°
 51 m3 dl; 100 m3                                 77                 25/7°
 101 m3 dl; 500 m3                                20                  6/7°
 elIs 500 m3                                       9                  3/0°
              srub                               300                  100°

9-etIelakGñkeRbITwkkñúgRbePTNamYy ?
           RbePTGtifiCn                   cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_           PaKry
 GñkeRbIFmµta                                     258                86/0°
 GgÁPaBrdæ)albuBVehtu                              27                 9/0°
 GaCIvkmµ                                          15                 5/0°
               srub                               300                100°


                                                                                145
9-1-etIGgÁPaBrbs;elakGñkecjR)ak;pÞal; b¤rdæaPi)alCaGñkecj ?
               GñkTUTat;                  cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_         PaKry
   GgÁPaB                                         13                4/3°
   pÞal;xøÜn                                      13                4/3°
   rdæaPi)al                                       1                0/3°
                 srub                             27                9/0°
10-bnÞab;BImankarEkERbtMélTwketIelakGñkmanbBaðaGIVxøH ?
                  plb:HBal;                  cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_      PaKry
   karcMNayekIn                                     164             54/7°
   bnßykareRbIR)as;                                 120             40/0°
   begáInéføTMnij                                    16              5/3°
                    srub                            300              100°
11-etIelakGñkFøab;CYbRbTHbBaðaNamYyxageRkam ?
           bBaðaEdlCYbRbTH           cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_            PaKry
    KµanTaMgGs;                              98                  32/7°
    karpÁt;pÁg;minRKb;RKan;                   71                 23/7°
    ekgbnøMEm:RtKUb                          36                  12/0°
    naLikaminRbRktI b¤xUc                    33                  11/0°
    TwkRCabeRkaynaLika                       22                   7/3°
    esvakmµ                                  14                    4/7°
    kat;pþac;Twk                               9                  3/0°
    )at;naLika                                 8                  2/7°
    xUcv:an                                   7                   2/3°
    dac;ExSbøúMeb                             2                   0/7°
                  srub                      300                   100°
                                                                            146
12-etIelakGñkFøab;)anTTYlBt’manNamYyBIrdæaTwk ?
           Bt’manEdl)anTTYl                cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_        PaKry
   KµanTaMgGs;                                   156               52/0°
   karEkERbtMél                                    81              27/0°
   karbiT b¤ebIkTwk                                35              11/7°
   karpakBin½y                                     11               3/7°
   karRBman                                         9                3/0°
   karelIkTwkcitþ                                   8                2/7°
                   srub                          300                100°

13-etIelakGñkFøab;)aneFIVsMNUmBrdl;rdæakrTwkEdr b¤eT ?
               kareFIVsMNUmBr            cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_       PaKry
    minFøab;                                    226            75/3°
    Føab;                                         74           24/7°
                   srub                         300             100°

14-etIral;sMNUmBrrbs;elakGñkRtUv)anrdæakrTwkykeTAedaHRsay b¤eT ?
           dMeNaHRsay                   cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_           PaKry
   minEdlesaH                                    26                  8/7°
   mþgmáal                                       38                12/7°
   EtgEt                                         10                 3/3°
               srub                              74                24/7°




                                                                            147
15-etIehtuplNamYyEdleFIVeGayGñkeRbITwkrbs;rdæakrTwk ?
         mUlehtuEdleRbITwkrdæakr         cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_         PaKry
    KµanCMerIs                                   152             50/7°
    TaMgGs;xagelI                                 51             17/0°
    bNþajCitpÞH                                   50             16/7°
    KuNPaB                                        30             10/0°
    esvakmµ                                        9              3/0°
    éfø                                            8              2/7°
    srub                                         300              100°

16-etIelakGñkyl;faesvakmµbMerIGtifiCnrbs;rdæakrTwksBVéf¶y:agdUcemþcEdr ?
          karyl;eXIjelIesvakmµ               cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_       PaKry
   minl¥esaH                                         26               8/7°
   l¥                                              227               75/7°
   l¥Nas;                                            47              15/7°
                 srub                               300               100°

17-etIelakGñkyl;y:agdUcemþccMeBaHKuNPaBrbs;TwksBVéf¶ ?
          karyl;eXIjelIKuNPaB                cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_       PaKry
   minl¥esaH                                          24              8/0°
   l¥                                                216             72/0°
   l¥Nas;                                             60             20/0°
                 srub                                300             100°



                                                                             148
18-etIelakGñkyl;fatMélTwkbc©úb,nñdUcemþcEdr ?
            karyl;eXIjelIéføTwk                 cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_      PaKry
   éføNas;                                              203             67/7°
   lµmsmrmü                                              97            32/3°
   efakNas;                                               0               0/0°
                    srub                                300              100°

19-etIelakGñkyl;faéføtbNþajsBVéf¶dUcemþcEdr ?
        karyl;eXIjelIéføtbNþaj             cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_          PaKry
   éføNas;                                          219                73/0°
   lµmsmrmü                                          80                26/7°
   efakNas;                                           1                  0/3°
                 srub                               300                 100°

20-etIelakGñkmaneRbITwkNamYyeRkABITwkbNþajrbs;rdæakrTwkEdr b¤eT?
          TwkeRkABIbNþajrdæakr         cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_             PaKry
   KµanTaMgGs;                                 193                  64/3°
   TwkePøóg                                     75                  25/0°
   TwkGNþÚg                                     15                    5/0°
   TwkbUmxøÜnÉg                                 10                   3/3°
   TaMgGs;xagelI                                 7                   2/3°
   srub                                        300                   100°




                                                                             149
21-etIelakGñkFøab;CYbbBaðaNamYyxageRkam b¤eTeBlmkbg;R)ak; ?
         bBaðaEdlCYbeBlbg;R)ak;         cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_         PaKry
  KµanbBaðaTaMgGs;                              175             58/3°
  karrg;caMyUr                                   72             24/0°
  buKÁlikminKYrsm                                26              8/7°
  em:agTTYlqab;eBk                               12               4/0°
  TUrTat;yWt¼xus                                 10              3/3°
  rkÉksarmineXIj                                  5              1/7°
                   srub                         300              100°

22-etIelakGñkyl;famanplb:HBal;NamYycMeBaHkarBRgIkbNþajrbs;rdæakrTwkknøgmk ?
              plb:HBal;              cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_          PaKry
     eFIVeGaysÞHcracr                        121               40/3°
     b:HBal;suxPaB                           112               37/3°
     b:HBal;dl;karrksuI                       67               22/3°
                 srub                        300                100°

23-etIelakGñkyl;famanpll¥EbbNamYycMeBaHkarBRgIkbNþajrbs;rdæakrTwkknøgmk ?
                KuNsm,tþi                  cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_      PaKry
   manTwks¥ateRbI                                  175            58/3°
   sMBaFTwkxøaMg                                    98            32/7°
   kat;bnßycMNay                                    27              9/0°
                    srub                           300             100°



                                                                           150
24-etIelakGñkmanbMNgcg;eGayrdæakrTwkTukry³eBlb:unµankñúgkarbg;éføeRbIR)as; ?
                 cMnYnéf¶                cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_            PaKry
  ticCag 15 éf¶                                   102                 34/0°
  15 - 21 éf¶                                     149                 49/7°
  elIsBI 21 éf¶                                     49               16/3°
                  srub                            300                  100°
25-etIelakGñkmanbMNgcg;eGayrdæakrTwkecjvik½ybR½tb:unµanExmþg ?
          cMnYnExEdlecjvik½ybR½t        cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_           PaKry
   1 Exmþg                                       143                 47/7°
   2 Exmþg                                       118                 39/3°
   3 Exmþg                                          36               12/0°
   4 Exmþg                                            1                0/3°
   5 Exmþg                                             0               0/0°
   6 Exmþg                                            2                0/7°
                   srub                          300                  100°
26-kñúgkartbNþajTwketIelakGñkFøab;)anCYbbBaðaNamYyxageRkam ?
           bBaðaeBltbNþaj                cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_         PaKry
 KµanbBaða                                       169              56/3°
 buKÁlikTarluybEnßm                               64              21/3°
 teGayEtrYcBIéd                                   26                8/7°
 buKÁlikminKYrsm                                  25                8/3°
 Tuyeyamins¥at                                    16                5/3°
                 srub                            300               100°




                                                                               151
27-etIelakGñkcg;bg;R)ak;enAkEnøgNa ?
           kEnøgEdlGtifiCncg;bg;                 cMnYnGtifiCn           PaKry
   enApÞH                                             176              58/7°
   enArdæakrTwk                                        96              32/0°
   enAFnaKar                                           28               9/3°
                    srub                              300               100°
                                   C-\riy abf
28-ebIsinCamanbBaðadUcCaTwkFøayeRkaynaLikaetIelakGñkeFIVdUcemþc ?
                 dMeNaHRsay               cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_           PaKry
    pþl;Bt’mandl;rdæakrTwk                        202               67/3°
    edaHRsayxøÜnÉg                                 75               25/0°
    BwgGñkCitxag                                   18                 6/0°
    eFIVmindwgminlW                                 5                1/7°
                     srub                         300                100°

29-etIehtuplNamYyEdlGaceFIVeGayelakGñkyWty:avkñúgkarbg;éføTwk ?
              mUlehtubg;yWt               cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_           PaKry
   KµanTaMgGs;                                  108                 36/0°
   rvl;kargarrksuI                                85                28/3°
   R)ak;ExebIkminTan;                             54                18/0°
   ry³eBlbg;xøIeBk                                25                 8/3°
   caMeRkayRsYlbg;                                14                  4/7°
   ePøc                                            8                 2/7°
   GagEtminGI                                      6                  2/0°
   srub                                         300                  100°

                                                                                152
30-etIelakGñkmanbMNgbegáInkareRbIR)as;TwkEdr b¤eT ?
                bMNg                cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_          PaKry
   KµanbMNgbegáIn                             192             64/0°
   manbMNgbegáIn                              108             36/0°
                 srub                         300             100°
31-etImUlehtuNamYyEdleFIVeGayelakGñkbegáInkareRbIR)as;Twk ?
                  mUlehtu                   cMnYnGñktbsMPasn_      PaKry
  smaCikRKYsaekIn                                     82            27/3°
  BRgIkGaCIkmµ                                        17              5/7°
  esvakmµkan;Etl¥                                       9            3/0°
                    srub                             108            36/0°




                                                                         153
]bsm<½n §T I 5
                       1-elxkUd GefrEpñk Tin ñn ½y RbCasaRsþ
elxerogsMNYr                 elxkUdGefr             eQµaHGkSrkat;enAkñúgkmµviFI SPSS
1            ePT
                         1=Rbus                                  sex1

                         2=RsI
2                cMnYnsmaCikRKYsar
                         1=ticCag 5nak;
                                                               person2
                         2=5-10nak;
                         3=elIs 10nak;
3                kMriténkarsikSa
                         1=bzmsikSa
                         2=GnuviTüal½y
                         3=viTüal½y                              edu3
                         4=mhaviTüal½y
                         5=eRkaymhaviTüal½y
                         6=CMnajbec©keTs
4                muxrbr
                         1=mRnþIraCkar
                         2=sisS¼nisSit
                                                                 jobs3
                         3=GñkrksuI
                         4=buKÁlikEpñkÉkCn
                         5=empÞH
5                Gayu
                         1=ticCag 20qaM
                                                                 age5
                         2=20-50qñaM
                         3=elIs 50qñaM
6                cMNUl
                         1=ticCag 50 duløar
                                                               revenue6
                         2=50-100 duløar
                         3=elIs 100 duløar

                                                                                 154
                          2-elxkUd GefrEpñk yuT §s aRsþ
elxerogsMNYr                  elxkUdGefr             eQµaHGkSrkat;enAkñúgkmµviFI SPSS
7            cMnYnqñaMEdleRbITwk
                       1=ticCag 5 qñaM                           nyear7
                       2=5-10 qñaM
                       3=elIs 10 qñaM
8            brimaNTwkeRbIkñúg 1 vKÁ²
                       1=eRkam 20 m3
                       2=20-50 m3
                                                                 meter8
                       3=51-100 m3
                       4=101-500 m3
                       5=elIs 500 m3;
9            RbePTGñkeRbIR)as;
                       1=CIvPaBFmµta
                                                                  type
                       2=GgÁPaBrdæ
                       3=GaCIvkmµ niglk;Twk
10           GñkTUTat;
                       1=GgÁPaBecjpÞal;
                                                                payer91
                       2=ecjluypÞal;xøÜn
                       3=rdæaPi)alecjeGay
11           bBaðaeBlEkERbtMélTwk
                       1=eFIVeGaykarcMNayekIneLIgM
                                                                 price10
                       2=kat;bnßykareRbIR)as;
                       3=begáInéføTMnij




                                                                                  155
elxerogsMNYr              elxkUdGefr            eQµaHGkSrkat;enAkñúgkmµviFI SPSS
12           bBaðaEdlGtifiCnCYbRbTH
                    1=karpÁt;pÁg;minRKb;RKan;
                    2=)at;naLikasÞg;
                    3=naLikaminRbRktI b¤xUc
                    4=dac;ExSbøúMeb                         pro11
                    5=ekgbnøMEm:RtKUb
                    6=esvakmµ
                    7=xUcv:an
                    8=TwkRCabeRkaynaLika
                    9=karpþac;Twk
13           Bt’manEdlTTYl)an
                    1=karelIkTwkcitþ
                    2=karEkERbtMél
                    3=karpakBin½y                           info12

                    4=karRBman
                    5=karbiT b¤ebIkTwk
                    6=KµanTaMgGs;
14           sMNUmBrrbs;GtifiCn
                    1=Føab;
                                                           propo13
                    2=minFøab;

15             dMeNaHRsay
                     1=minEdlesaH
                                                           soluti14
                     2=mþgmáal
                     3=EtgEtedaHRsay




                                                                             156
elxerogsMNYr              elxkUdGefr   eQµaHGkSrkat;enAkñúgkmµviFI SPSS
16           mUlehtuEdleRbITwkrdæakr
                    1=KuNPaB
                    2=esvakmµ
                    3=tMél                        reason15

                    4=bNþajCitpÞH
                    5=KµanCMerIs
                    6=TaMgGs;xagelI
17           esvakmµ
                    1=minl¥esaH
                                                  servic16
                    2=KYrsm
                    3=l¥Nas;;
18           KuNPaB
                    1=minl¥esaH
                                                   quali17
                    2=KYrsm
                    3=l¥Nas;
19           éfø
                    1=éføNas;
                                                   price18
                    2=lµm
                    3=efakNas;
20           éføbNþaj
                    1=éføNas;
                                                  conne19
                    2=lµm
                    3=efakNas;
21           kareRbITwkepSg²
                    1=TwkGNþÚg
                    2=TwkbUmxøÜnÉg
                                                  subpro20
                    3=TwkePøó g
                    4=TaMgGs;xagelI
                    5=Gt;TaMgGs;
                                                                    157
elxerogsMNYr              elxkUdGefr       eQµaHGkSrkat;enAkñúgkmµviFI SPSS
22           bBaðaeBlbg;R)ak;
                    1=buKÁlikminKYrsm
                    2=em:agTTYlqab;eBk
                    3=TUTat;yWt b¤xus                 procas21

                    4=rkÉksarmineXIj
                    5=karrg;caMyUr
                    6=KµanbBaðaTaMgGs;
23           plb:HBal;eBlBRgIkbNþaj
                    1=b:HBal;dl;suxPaB
                                                      effect22
                    2=dMeNIrkarrksuI
                    3=eFIVeGaysÞHcracr;
24           plEdl)anTTYlBIkarBRgIkbNþaj
                    1=manTwks¥ateRbI
                                                      advant23
                    2=sMBaFTwkxøaMg
                    3=kat;bnßycMNay
25           ry³eBlTukeGaybg;R)ak;
                    1=ticCag 15 éf¶
                                                      period24
                    2=15-21 éf¶
                    3=elIs 21 éf¶
26           cMnYnExénkarecjvik½ybR½t
                    1=1 Exmþg
                    2=2 Exmþg
                    3=3 Exmþg                         invoic25

                    4=4 Exmþg
                    5=5 Exmþg
                    6=6 Exmþg



                                                                        158
 elxerogsMNYr                 elxkUdGefr           eQµaHGkSrkat;enAkñúgkmµviFI SPSS
27            bBaðaeBltbNþaj
                      1=buKÁlikTarluybEnßm
                      2=dak;Tuyeyamins¥at
                                                             connec26
                      3=teGayEtrYcBIéd
                      4=minmanbBaða
                      5=buKÁlikminKYrsm
28            TIkEnøgbg;R)ak;
                      1=enApÞH
                                                              placep27
                      2=enArdæakrTwk
                      3=enAFnaKar
                            3-elxkUd GefrEpñk \riy abf
 elxerogsMNYr                 elxkUdGefr           eQµaHGkSrkat;enAkñúgkmµviFI SPSS
29            bBaðaTwkFøayeRkaynaLika
                      1=pþl;Bt’mandl;rdæakrTwk
                                                             Leakage29
                      2=eFIVmindwgminlW
                      3=edaHRsayxøÜnÉg
                      4=BwgGñkCitxag
30            karyWty:avkñúgkarbg;éføTwk
                      1=rvl;rksuI
                      2=caMeRkayTUlayRsYlbg;
                      3=ry³eBlbg;xøIeBk                       latepa30
                      4=GagEtminGI
                      5=R)ak;ExebIkminTan;
                      6=ePøc
31            bMNgbegáInkareRbITwk
                      1=man                                   increa31
                      2=Kµan
32              mUlehtu
                      1=smaCikRKYsarekIneLIg
                                                               incre32
                      2=BRgIkGaCIvkmµ
                      3=esvakmµkan;Etl¥
                                                                                159
160
                                BaküBnül;

BaküBnül;                                                                TMB½r
shRKassaFarN³ ³ CashRKasEdlmanedImTunTaMgGs; b¤mYyPaKCarbs;rdæ              6
karEsVgyl;BIT IpSar ³ mkBIBaküfa Maketing                                  39
kar]eTÞs namplit plfµI ³ karnaMplitplfµIcUlkñúgTIpSar                      42
pøaksBaØa ³ CaGtþsBaØaNrbs;plitplmYy                                       43
vdþCIv it plit pl ³ dMNak;kalplitplqøgkat;eBlcab;epþImdl;dMNak;kalFøak;cuH 44
\riy abf ³ CaskmµPaBEdlmaneTAelIGIVmYy                                     53
GtifiCn ³ GñkEdlTijTMnijGIVmYy                                             54
Rkumer:ehVr:g; ³ mkBIBaküfa Referrence Group                               44
RbB½n § Network ³ mann½yfaCabNþajEdleRbIR)as;sMrab;bBa¢ÚnBt’man            75
etsþ XI-dW ³ mkBIBaküfa Chi-Deux emKuNsMrab;vas;BITMnak;TMngrbs;GefrBIr 101
tMélGal;hVa ³ sMrab;vas;BIkMriténTMnak;TMngrvagGefreRcIn                  106
tMél Eigenvalues ³ eRbIsMrab;vas;BIPaKryEdlGefrnImYy² cUlrYm              107




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