General Nutrition Principles by 22wBhWxl


									General Nutrition Principles
      and Nutrition
  Molly M. Smith, Ph.D.
    Nutrition for Health & Fitness

•   Six Essential Nutrients
•   Food Pyramid
•   Assessing Dietary Intake
•   Diet and Blood Lipid Profile
•   Nutrition for Physical Activity
•   Female Athlete Triad
          Six Essential Nutrients

              Six Classes

Energy Nutrients     Non-Energy Nutrients
 Carbohydrate             Vitamins
      Fat                 Minerals
    Protein                Water
                     Carbohydrate (CHO)

•   Function: primary energy source; basic fuel is
    glucose stored as glycogen
•   Simple CHOs (monosaccharides and
    disaccharides): sugar, honey, corn syrup
•   Complex CHOs (polysaccharides): starches
•   AMDR for CHO is 45-65% of total Cal
•   DRI for CHO is 130 gm/day
•   DRI for fiber is 1.4 gm/100 Cal consumed
•   Sources: grains, fruits, vegetables, pasta

•   Function: energy, temperature insulation, organ
    protection, store vitamins A, D, E, K
•   Saturated fats: contain no carbon-carbon double
    bond, solid at room temp., animals
•   Unsaturated: contain one or more C-C double
    bond, liquid at room temp., plants
•   AMDR for Fat is 20-35% of total Cal
•   DRI for linoleic (17 g) and alpha-linolenic acid
    (1.6 gm/day)

•   Function: provide amino acids for growth &
    repair, act as enzymes, transmit genes
•   Complete: provide the nine essential a.a.
•   Incomplete: may have low levels of one or
    two essential a.a.
•   AMDR: 10-35% total daily caloric intake
•   DRI is 0.8 gm/kg body weight
•   Sources: meat, poultry, fish, beans, nuts
•   Function: serve as catalyst in metabolic
    reactions, involved in blood clotting
•   Fat soluble: A, D, E, K
•   Water soluble: B (thiamin, riboflavin,
    niacin, B12), C, pantothenic acid, biotin,
    folate, and choline
•   Antioxidant: Beta-carotene, C, E
•   Source: abundant in fruits, vegetables, and
    grains; also in meat and dairy products

•   Function: regulate body functions, aid in
    growth & maintenance body tissues
•   Major Minerals (>5g): sodium, potassium,
    chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium
•   Trace Minerals (< 5 g): iron, zinc, iodine,
    copper, fluorine, Se, Mb, Co, F, Cr
•   Anemia and Osteoporosis

•   Function: transport, maintain temperature,
    lubricate joints, fluid in ears and eyes
•   Water loss: sweat (8%), feces (4%), lungs &
    skin (28%), urine (60%)
•   Water intake: fluids (60%), water in food
    (30%), metabolic water (10%)
•   Require 2.0 to 2.5 L . Day-1
      The Food Pyramid


   Meats & Milk

Fruits & Vegetables

Breads & Cereals
                Assessing Dietary Intake

•   People tend to under-
    report what they eat
•   People do not keep
    specific records
•   People change how
    they eat when they are
    required to keep
Diet and Blood Lipid Profile

            •   Lipids are hydro-
                phobic and must bind
                with protein to be
                transported in blood
            •   Lipoproteins are
                composed of
                triglyceride, protein,
                and phospholipid
        Nutrition for Physical Activity

•   Hydration before,
    during, and after
•   Protein intake: 1 to
    1.5 g of protein per kg
•   Ergogenic aids
•   Carbohydrate loading
             Female Athlete Triad


Disordered    Amenorrhea      Osteoporosis
  Eating           or

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