Mrs. Day - 9th Lit/Comp
Why should you believe me?
What makes a credible source?
What makes a good leader?
How can I persuade someone to see my
point of view?
What is Nonfiction?
Written works intended to give
facts, or true accounts of real
things and events.
The author writes about actual persons, places
The writer may just report facts
The writer may also include personal opinions
Often there is a mixture of both
Readers must read critically
Critical Reading Strategies
look at writer’s background
Look at writer’s purpose
Look at writer’s attitude
Look at writer’s audience
Journalism Texts Types of Journalism
• Newspapers Interviews
• Magazines Columns
• Online sources
A writing style on a A writing style on any
serious topic in a topic in a light,
serious manner, humorous, amusing
usually tightly manner; often
prepared and loosely organized,
organized rambling and casual
Other Essay Forms
Comparison and Contrast Essays
Cause and Effect Essays
Diaries: a private form of writing
with no further intended audience
Journals: varying styles and topics.
Give a glimpse of the writer’s value
of his or her world
Personal Reflections must be memorable and significant and :
Give character insight
Lead to an unexpected conclusion
Show how a lesson was learned
Awaken feeling of pity, compassion, joy and nostalgia
Written by the subject for publication
Author has some purpose for writing
To arouse awareness
Simply to entertain
A TYPE OF AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL
WRITING, DEALING WITH THE
RECOLLECTIONS OF IMPORTANT
PEOPLE OR PEOPLE WHO HAVE
BEEN A PART OF OR HAVE
The accurate presentation of a life
story from birth to death of an
Historical biographies include
strands of an individual’s
life interwoven with
places and events.
Other Forms of Nonfiction
Speeches – oral; used to persuade or
inform (often through use of rhetoric)
How-to manual- most widely published
form of expository writing
Expository- nonfiction document used to
explain or inform
What is Rhetoric?
The art or study of using language
effectively and persuasively
Origin- Ancient Greece
Ethos- appeal to credibility, beliefs
Logos- appeal to logic
Pathos- appeal to emotions
Reason (logos) - support your general claims
with concrete, specific data.
Support your reasons with evidence.
Facts - can be proven.
Expert opinions or quotations
Definitions - statement of meaning of word or phrase
Statistics - offer scientific support
Examples - powerful illustrations
Anecdote - incident, often based on writer's personal experiences
Present opposition - and give reasons and evidence to prove the
Conclude with call to action - urge the reader to do something
Ethics (ethos) - convince your readers
that you are fair, honest, and well
informed. They will then trust your
values and intentions.
Avoid over-use of negatively charged
Emotion (pathos) - a carefully reasoned
argument will be strengthened by an
Use description or narrate an example,
often from your own experience.
Your point of view is demonstrated in an
emotional appeal, and is important to
Careful word choice presents your
How to Build a Strong Argument
Introduction - establish your argument, and clarify the
importance of the issue.
Statement of the Case - tell story behind the
argument, offering background information
Proposition Statement - carefully state central
proposition, as a thesis statement would be given
Refutation - refute opposition arguments, exposing
Confirmation - develop your case, using examples,
facts, statistics (logos)
Digression - appealing anecdote or description,
offering ethos or pathos
Conclusion - finish with strong conviction; review main
points, or suggest call to action
Tips for Reading Nonfiction
Try to separate Facts from Opinions.
The writer has chosen facts that present a certain
picture of the subject.
Think about what might be missing as well as what is
Think about the writer's purpose.
Is the writer trying to win you over to his or her
Learn to appreciate how well a writer says something,
even when you don't agree.
Be a critical reader.
Be aware of the writer's tone.
Frequently a writer reveals much about himself or
herself by the tone he or she uses.
This is especially important in autobiographical writing
Pieces to Read - today
Go Deep to the Sewer - page 368
Fly Away – page 373
The Talk – page 381