Chapter 13: Competency-Based Language Teaching Pages 141-148 - PowerPoint by AwP113

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									Chapter 13: Competency-Based
     Language Teaching
          Pages 141-148


    Maridalys López Feliciano
       EDPE 4245 M-06
         August 30,2007
          Prof. Crespo
             Background
CBE (Competency-Based Education)
   Is an educational movement that focuses
    on the outcomes or outputs of learning in
    the development of language programs.
CBE 1970s
   Refers to an educational movement that
    advocates defining educational goals in
    terms of precise measurable descriptions
    of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors
    students should possess at the end of a
    course of study.
                         Cont.
CBE Described by Schenk 1978
   Competencies differ from other student goals and
    objectives in that they describe the students ability to
    apply basic and other skills in situations that are
    commonly encountered in everyday life.
Competency-Based Language Teaching(CBLT)
   Is an application of the principles of Competency-Based
    Education to language teaching.
By the end of 1970s…
   Was the approach of the basis design of work-related
    and survival-oriented language teaching programs for
    adults.
                         Cont.
1990s
   The CBLT had come to be accepted as “the
    state-of-the-art approach to adult ESL by
    national policymakers and leaders in curriculum
    development as well”.
1986, program based in…
   Any refugee in the United States who whished
    to receive federal assistance had to be enrolled
    in a competency-based program.
        They had to master the language and demonstrate
         proper behavior.
                         Cont.
CBLT agent of change…
   Is an opportunity for teachers to update their training
    programs and education.
The most recent realization of a competency
perspective in the U.S. is found in the standard
movement, which dominated educational discussion
since the 1990s.
Glaser and Linn
   This century was identified by the national educational
    standard. This was evidenced by the effort of federal and
    state legislators, the government and presidential
    candidates, teachers, and subject-matters, specialist, and
    others.
                           Cont.
ESL in the United States…
   1991
        The ESL project director, noted that the majority of
         students they serve were not being included in the
         standard.
   1997
        Washington D.C.-based center for Applied Linguistics
         under control to the TESOL organization, developed the
         K-12 school standard for ESL.
   They divided the grade levels into clusters:
        Pre-K to 3rd grade
        4th to 8th grade
        9th to 12th grade
                       Cont.
CBLT in the 1980
   Shared objective movement proposed as a
    framework for organizing foreign language
    teaching in Britain.
        Graded objectives- Short terms goals, building
         one learner upon the other to advance the
         knowledge and skills.
Approach: Theory of Language and
            Learning
 CBLT (Competency Based Language
 Teaching)
     Is Base on the nature of language.
     Teach language in relation with society, how they
      use it.
     Its shared with behaviorist (depends on the
      learners situation.)
     Language can be analyzed into parts and subpart
      and they can be tested incrementally.
     Develops functional communication skills in
      learners, known of specific real-world task.
Design:Objectives, Syllabus, Learning
activities, Role of Learners, Teachers,
              and Material
 Docking(1994)
    Syllabus
         They point out to plan the syllabus according to the
          material its going to be teach, contribution of
          knowledge field, objectives, assessment based on
          norms, and a scale of scores of their expectation.
 CBT
    It focus on what students know about language
     to what they can do with it.
                        Cont.
Competencies consist of activities related with the
real life situations for surviving social environment.
   ESL curriculum for immigrant and refugees included:
      Task  performance
      Safety

      General word-related

      Work schedules, times sheets, paychecks

      Social language

      Job application

      Job interview
Competencies for retaining a job:
 Fallow instructions to carry out a simple task.
 Respond appropriately to supervisor’s comments
  about quality of work on the job, including
  mistakes, working too slowly, and complete
  work.
 Request supervisor to check work.

 Report completion of task to supervisor.

 Request supplies.
 Ask where object is located: Fallow oral
  directions to locate an object.
 Follow simple oral directions to locate a
  place.
 Read charts, labels, forms. Or written
  instructions to perform a task.
 State problem and ask for help if
  necessary.
 Respond to inquiry as to nature or
  progress of current task; state amount and
  type of work already competed.
 Respond appropriately to work interruption
  or modification.
                       Cont.
Tollefson 1986
   Observed that the analysis of jobs don’t develop
    teaching objectives, they go back to the
    nineteenth century.
Docking 1994
   Establish the relationship of competencies and
    job performance, he defines competency as an
    attribute for success in a job, function or activity
    academically or in a work setting.
                      Cont.
Spencer 1860 and Bobbitt 1926
   Both believe in developing the curricular
    objectives according to the adults in America, this
    approach is the development of the CBLT since
    1960s.
Northrup 1977
   Reported that adults in American society
    performed tasks and behaviors that were
    classified into five knowledge areas and four
    basic skills areas, 65 competencies were
    identified.
                              Cont.
Auerbach 1986
   Identifies eight key of the implementation of CBE
    programs in ESL, this factors are:
        A focus on successful functioning in society. Enable students to
         become autonomous individuals capable of coping with the
         demands of the world.
   A focus on life skills.
        Students are taught just those language forms/skills required by
         the situations in which they will function.
   Task-or performance-centered orientation.
        Behavior rather than on knowledge or the ability to talk about
         language skills.
   Modularized instruction.
        Objectives are broken into narrowly focused subobjectives so
         that both teachers and students can get a clear sense of
         progress.
   Outcomes that are made explicit a priori.
        Outcomes are public knowledge, known and agreed
         upon by both learner and teacher.
   Continuous and ongoing assessment.
        Program evaluation is based on test results and, as
         such, is considered objectively quantifiable.
   Demonstrated mastery of performance
    objectives.
        Base on the ability to demonstrate prespecified
         behaviors.
   Individualized, student-centered instruction.
        Prior learning and achievement are taken into
         account in developing curricula.
           Conclusion
“It can confidently be said, as we enter
a new millennium, that the business of
improving learning competencies and
skills will remain one of the world’s
fastest growing industries and
priorities”.
  Activity for ESL students
Students will work in groups of two, one
of the student will have to prepare an
interview and the other will have to
prepare the responses. Once they finish
each group will role play the interview.

								
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