Chapter 13: Competency-Based Language Teaching Pages 141-148 Maridalys López Feliciano EDPE 4245 M-06 August 30,2007 Prof. Crespo Background CBE (Competency-Based Education) Is an educational movement that focuses on the outcomes or outputs of learning in the development of language programs. CBE 1970s Refers to an educational movement that advocates defining educational goals in terms of precise measurable descriptions of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors students should possess at the end of a course of study. Cont. CBE Described by Schenk 1978 Competencies differ from other student goals and objectives in that they describe the students ability to apply basic and other skills in situations that are commonly encountered in everyday life. Competency-Based Language Teaching(CBLT) Is an application of the principles of Competency-Based Education to language teaching. By the end of 1970s… Was the approach of the basis design of work-related and survival-oriented language teaching programs for adults. Cont. 1990s The CBLT had come to be accepted as “the state-of-the-art approach to adult ESL by national policymakers and leaders in curriculum development as well”. 1986, program based in… Any refugee in the United States who whished to receive federal assistance had to be enrolled in a competency-based program. They had to master the language and demonstrate proper behavior. Cont. CBLT agent of change… Is an opportunity for teachers to update their training programs and education. The most recent realization of a competency perspective in the U.S. is found in the standard movement, which dominated educational discussion since the 1990s. Glaser and Linn This century was identified by the national educational standard. This was evidenced by the effort of federal and state legislators, the government and presidential candidates, teachers, and subject-matters, specialist, and others. Cont. ESL in the United States… 1991 The ESL project director, noted that the majority of students they serve were not being included in the standard. 1997 Washington D.C.-based center for Applied Linguistics under control to the TESOL organization, developed the K-12 school standard for ESL. They divided the grade levels into clusters: Pre-K to 3rd grade 4th to 8th grade 9th to 12th grade Cont. CBLT in the 1980 Shared objective movement proposed as a framework for organizing foreign language teaching in Britain. Graded objectives- Short terms goals, building one learner upon the other to advance the knowledge and skills. Approach: Theory of Language and Learning CBLT (Competency Based Language Teaching) Is Base on the nature of language. Teach language in relation with society, how they use it. Its shared with behaviorist (depends on the learners situation.) Language can be analyzed into parts and subpart and they can be tested incrementally. Develops functional communication skills in learners, known of specific real-world task. Design:Objectives, Syllabus, Learning activities, Role of Learners, Teachers, and Material Docking(1994) Syllabus They point out to plan the syllabus according to the material its going to be teach, contribution of knowledge field, objectives, assessment based on norms, and a scale of scores of their expectation. CBT It focus on what students know about language to what they can do with it. Cont. Competencies consist of activities related with the real life situations for surviving social environment. ESL curriculum for immigrant and refugees included: Task performance Safety General word-related Work schedules, times sheets, paychecks Social language Job application Job interview Competencies for retaining a job: Fallow instructions to carry out a simple task. Respond appropriately to supervisor’s comments about quality of work on the job, including mistakes, working too slowly, and complete work. Request supervisor to check work. Report completion of task to supervisor. Request supplies. Ask where object is located: Fallow oral directions to locate an object. Follow simple oral directions to locate a place. Read charts, labels, forms. Or written instructions to perform a task. State problem and ask for help if necessary. Respond to inquiry as to nature or progress of current task; state amount and type of work already competed. Respond appropriately to work interruption or modification. Cont. Tollefson 1986 Observed that the analysis of jobs don’t develop teaching objectives, they go back to the nineteenth century. Docking 1994 Establish the relationship of competencies and job performance, he defines competency as an attribute for success in a job, function or activity academically or in a work setting. Cont. Spencer 1860 and Bobbitt 1926 Both believe in developing the curricular objectives according to the adults in America, this approach is the development of the CBLT since 1960s. Northrup 1977 Reported that adults in American society performed tasks and behaviors that were classified into five knowledge areas and four basic skills areas, 65 competencies were identified. Cont. Auerbach 1986 Identifies eight key of the implementation of CBE programs in ESL, this factors are: A focus on successful functioning in society. Enable students to become autonomous individuals capable of coping with the demands of the world. A focus on life skills. Students are taught just those language forms/skills required by the situations in which they will function. Task-or performance-centered orientation. Behavior rather than on knowledge or the ability to talk about language skills. Modularized instruction. Objectives are broken into narrowly focused subobjectives so that both teachers and students can get a clear sense of progress. Outcomes that are made explicit a priori. Outcomes are public knowledge, known and agreed upon by both learner and teacher. Continuous and ongoing assessment. Program evaluation is based on test results and, as such, is considered objectively quantifiable. Demonstrated mastery of performance objectives. Base on the ability to demonstrate prespecified behaviors. Individualized, student-centered instruction. Prior learning and achievement are taken into account in developing curricula. Conclusion “It can confidently be said, as we enter a new millennium, that the business of improving learning competencies and skills will remain one of the world’s fastest growing industries and priorities”. Activity for ESL students Students will work in groups of two, one of the student will have to prepare an interview and the other will have to prepare the responses. Once they finish each group will role play the interview.
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