CHAPTER 11: FAIRNESS AND DIVERSITY IN THE WORKPLACE
Distinguish between the concepts of justice, fairness, and trust.
Describe the concepts of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.
Understand the impact of perceptions of injustice on attitudes, emotions, and behaviors.
Understand the conditions under which employees will feel justly treated in the performance
Explain the concept of voice and how it is related to perceptions of fairness.
Understand the common applicant reactions to selection procedures.
Describe the different forms that Affirmative Action Programs can take.
Describe how Affirmative Action Programs are related to justice perceptions.
Explain the concept of diversity and discuss the different forms it can take.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of diversity in work groups.
Describe the characteristics of organizations that are most likely to manage diversity
Module 11.1 Fairness
The Concept of Justice
Justice, Fairness, and Trust
Approaches to Organizational Justice
Justice versus Injustice
Module 11.2 The Practical Implications of Justice Perceptions
Applicant Perceptions of Selection Fairness
A Special Case of Applicant Reactions: Stereotype Threat
A Model of Applicant Decision Making
The Special Case of Affirmative Action
Culture and Affirmative Action Programs
Module 11.3 Diversity
What Does Diversity Mean?
The Dynamics of Diversity
Group and Multicultural Diversity
Managing Diversity from the Organizational Perspective
Leadership and Diversity
Glossary Terms for Chapter 11
This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 11 can be used in conjunction with
reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 11 in the textbook, define each
of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your answers with the
textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!
merit or equity norm
rational economic model
rational psychological model
organizational fit model
Practice Questions for Chapter 11
Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions. Answers
are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.
1. Procedural justice is concerned with:
a. The possibility of influencing a process or outcome.
b. The perceived fairness of the allocation of outcomes to members.
c. The process by which rewards are distributed.
d. The sensitivity with which employees are treated.
2. Two separate facets of interactional justice are:
a. Interpersonal and informational justice
b. Interpersonal and environmental justice
c. Environmental and social justice
d. Informational and comparative justice
3. Sarah has just had a performance review. She is frustrated with the unprofessional manner
in which her manager conducted the review, even though the review was very positive and
encouraging. Sarah is concerned about which type of justice?
4. All of the following conditions would most likely lead to an experience of fairness during
performance reviews except:
a. The supervisor was familiar with the duties and responsibilities of the subordinate.
b. The supervisor relied on only those he/she most trusted to provide peer reviews.
c. The supervisor provided suggestions on how to improve performance.
d. The supervisor had an adequate opportunity to observe the subordinate at the workplace.
5. Why might the use of student participants in conducting research on applicant perceptions of
fairness be a concern?
a. There is a difference between pretending to be rejected and the reality of being rejected.
b. Students tend to be unruly and may skew the results.
c. Very few students have had the experience of a job to rely upon.
d. Students are better able to handle issues of fairness than employees.
6. Which of the following conclusions is false concerning research on applicant reactions?
a. Applicants express unfavorable opinions of work samples, citing them as stressful.
b. Candidates are more favorable to interviews that appear to be related to the job under
c. Applicants see recruiters as the personification of the organization doing the recruiting.
d. Candidates are more favorable toward cognitive ability tests that have concrete items.
7. Affirmative Action Programs (AAP):
a. help in assuring that employees are hired based only on merit.
b. equalize the selection opportunities of all applicants.
c. develop quotas to reduce underrepresentation.
d. provide specific mechanisms for reducing underrepresentation.
8. Which term is used to describe the method by which work groups and organizations are
composed and changed?
a. Morphing composition
b. Relational demography
d. Composition transformation
9. All of the following are characteristics of organizations most likely to manage diversity
a. They foster diversity only in formal levels of the organization.
b. They take steps to reduce interpersonal conflict.
c. They exhibit diversity at every level.
d. They uncover and root out bias and discriminatory practices.
10. The _______________ assumes there are no advantages for a diverse workforce since all
employees share the same values and culture, while the ________________ often leads to
justice and fairness debates.
a. assimilation model; value model
b. value model; assimilation model
c. protection model; assimilation model
d. assimilation model; protection model
Chapter 11 Exercises
Exercise 11.1. The Supreme Court’s 2003 decision about affirmative action has received a lot of
media scrutiny. There seem to be 2 camps on this issue -- those who think that affirmative
action is good and those who think it is bad. Both camps seem to be defined by justice
considerations. First, describe the perspective of those who support affirmative action in terms
of justice. Next, take the other side and describe the perspective and logic of those who are
against affirmative action. Finally, describe which view fits better with your own position.
Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 11