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digestive notes and disorders class notes by 282REF

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									Digestive Notes

• Describe the difference between Chemical digestion
  and Mechanical digestion.
     Chemical: breaking down compounds
     chemically into their most basic
     molecules
     Mechanical: breaking up food into smaller
     pieces
• Macromolecules such as Carbohydrates, Lipids, and
  Proteins are broken down into smaller components.
  What is the simplist component of each
  macromolecule:
     Proteins – amino acids
     Carbohydrates – monosaccharides
     Lipids – fatty acids
Describe the following terms and:
    Mastication: Chewing (Mouth)
    Mixing waves: muscular contractions of the
          stomach which churns food
    Peristalsis:     muscular contractions of
          smooth muscle in a tube. (esophagus,
          sm. Intestines)
    Haustral Churning: peristalsis of the lg.
          intestine
    Deglutition: swallowing
          (controlled by medulla and pons)
• Digestive Organs:
  Mouth:
     Lined with what:
            Mucous Membrane
• What does saliva in the mouth do:
     moisten food, aid in swallowing, solution for
     tasting
• What is the major enzyme secreted in the mouth and
  what does this enzyme’s role in digestion?
     Salivary Amylase: carbohydrate breakdown
• What type of Mechanical digestion occurs in the
  mouth?
     Mastication
• What is a bolus:
     chunk of food being swallowed
Esophogus:
• What type of chemical digestion occurs here:
    None
• What type of mechanical digestion occurs here:
    Peristalsis
Stomach:
• What is the stomach’s role:
    Stretchable storage and mixing chamber
• What type of muscle makes up the stomach:
    smooth muscle
• What are Rugae:
      folds in the inner lining of the stomach
• What enzymes and/or chemicals are secreted in the
  stomach and what are each responsible for digesting:
      **Pepsin and HCl – protein digestion
      Gastric Lipase – some fat digestion
• What makes the stomach tough against hydrochloric
  acid:
      Alkaline mucous membrane
• What is chyme:
      soupy food mixture in the stomach
• What type of mechanical digestion occurs here:
      mixing waves
• What things are absorbed here into the blood stream:
      some water, ions, some fatty acids, some
  drugs(aspirin and alcohol)
Pancreas:
• What 2 body systems does the pancrease
  belong to:
     Endocrine and Digestive
• What enzymes are secreted by the pancrease
  and what do the digest:
     Pancreatic Amylase – carbohydrates
    Trypsin/Chymotrypsin/Elastase/Carboxypeptidase
         - Proteins
    Pancreatic Lipase – Lipids (80%)
Liver:
• What is the role of the gall bladder:
      Secretes Bile Salts to emulsify fats
• In general, what is the role of the liver:
      Detoxify blood
• What are gall stones:
      Crystalized cholesterol
Small Intestines:
• In general, what mainly occurs in the small intestine:
      most all absorption occurs here
• What are villi and microvilli and what is their
  importance:
      folds in the wall of the intestine
      increases surface area for absorption
• What enzymes are found here and what do they
  digest:
      Maltase/sucrase/lactase – carbohydrate
      Enterokinase/peptidase – proteins
      Lipases - lipids
• What type of mechanical digestion occurs here:
      peristalsis
Large Intestine (Colon)
Large Intestine: (Colon)
• In general, what occurs here:
      no digestion
      final absorption and mainly re-absorption of
      water (creates dry waste) ( feces )
• What enzymes are secreted here and what do they
  digest:
      none
• What type of mechanical digestion occurs here:
      haustral churning
• What are Haustra:
      pouches in the Lg. Int.
• What is the role of bacteria in our large intestines
      Fermentation
      Creates hydrogen, CO2, methane gases
      Makes Vit. B and K
Digestive and Respiratory System

DIGESTIVE DISORDERS
      Cirrhosis: distorted or scarred liver as a result of
                 chronic inflammation. Liver cells are
                 replaced with fibrous or adipose tissue.
Appendicitis:   inflammation of appendix due to
                obstruction of lumen leading to an
                infection.
Diverticulitis:
      sac-likeoutpouchings of the wall of the colon
      in places where the muscularis has become
      weak.
Gallstones:   crystals of cholesterol in bile.
Peptic Ulcers: lesion in GI tract
Hepatitis: inflammation of liver caused by virus, drugs,
            and chemicals
Anorexia Nervosa:
chronic disorder characterized by
self induced weight loss.
                         Bulimia: over-eating followed
                         by self-induced vomiting.
                               Binge-purge

								
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