The Rwanda Genocide by 282REF


									          Agenda: May 10, 2010
 Genocide in Rwanda
1. Quiz
2. Summarizing the Rwanda case
   Q and A: background, IO’s reactions
3. Timeline of Case: prelude
4. film: “Ghosts of Rwanda”
5. Timeline of Case: The Genocide
6. Tuesday: Timeline of Case: After the
   Genocide: Justice for Rwandans?
7. Generalizing from the Case
                3a. Summarizing the Case

Setting the stage:

    What are the major Rwandan ethnicities? What are
       the major political factions?

    What problems caused the world to view Rwanda as
       a crisis requiring attention in 1993-94?

    Initially, who did what to address the problems?

    What events proved catalytic to a major escalation in
       the problems there?
3b. Summarizing the Case: Analyzing the Evolution of
           problem and of the I.O. intervention:

    The U.N.’s first mandate was that of the UNOMUR. Who did
         what here? Did it resemble classical “peacekeeping”?
         Was it successful?

    What was the Arusha Agreement of August 1993?

    When the UN mandate changed from UNOMUR to UNIMIR how
        was the problem redefined and how did this affect
        achieving the role of the UN Peacekeepers?

    What happened in April 1994 that altered the problems further?
        How did it affect the operation of UNIMIR?

    What were UNIMIR II and “Operation Turquoise”? Did either
        have potential to stop the genocide?

    Assess the contribution of the US Operation Support Hope.
        How did its mandate differ from that of UNIMIR II and
        “Operation Turquoise”?
                6. Generalizing from the Case

Think of the precedent set by the UN intervention in Somalia. How
     did lessons from that case infect the responses of IOs in this

The U.N.’s inability to coordinate actions by member states hampered
     goal achievement in Somalia. How did that affect U.N. actions in

Think of the U.S. role in Rwanda as a humanitarian intervention. Was
     it successful in the same sense that UNOSOM I and the Task
     Force there were limited successes? Why or why not?

What are the advantages to the US of acting multilaterally in cases of
     humanitarian intervention? What are the disadvantages of
     acting multilaterally?
                 4a. Prelude to Genocide in Rwanda

August 1992: Three year Hutu-Tutsi war in Burundi and Rwanda
    comes to negotiated end in Arusha Agreements: power
    sharing among Tutsi rebels of RPF (14% of Rwandans) and
    Hutu Government (85%) is called for. Fighting continues, off
    and on.

Feb. 1993: First 300 foreign armed forces to assist with ceasefire
     are French and arrive in February.

March 4, 1993: Rwandan Govt. asks U.N. Sec. Council to
    investigate; Secy. General sends fact finding mission.

March 12: U.N. Sec. Council adopts Resolution 812, calling for
    cooperation with ceasefire.

June 1993: U.N. Sec. Council adopts Resolution 846, establishing
    observer mission UNOMUR.

Oct. 1993: U.N. Sec. Council adopts Resolution 872, establishing
     assistance mission UNAMIR. Goals in several phases
              Establishing a transitional administration as
     planned in Arusha Agreement; demilitarization; de-mining;
     investigate violations.
              De-mobilization of rebel armed forces.
              Monitor election security.

Oct. 22: Canadian Gen. Romeo Dallaire arrives to implement
     agreements, and to command UNAMIR.
              4. Prelude to Genocide in Rwanda –2-
Jan. 1994: New Pres. Habyarimana sworn in, but Hutu extremist
          parties obstruct power sharing plan. Chief among
           MRND Interahamwe (“we who work together”)
           CDR Impuzamugambi (“the ones who have only one
      Dallaire requests permission to seize arms from these
      groups, but U.N. headquarters declares that that is beyond
      the UNAMIR mandate.

Jan.-Feb. 1994: Assassinations of key politicians continue.
         UNAMIR forces increase to 2500.

April 5: U.N. Sec. Council debates, extends UNAMIR mandate 4

April 6: Tanzanian Pres. Ali Hassan Mwinyi calls Burundi and
          Rwanda Presidents back for one day meeting to
          discuss restarting progress on implementing the
          Arusha Agreement.
         5. A Case of Genocide: Rwanda, 1994

April 7, 1994: Pres. Juvenal Habyarimana dies when
          airplane is shot down in which he and Burundi
          President are returning from talks in Tanzania.
          Both were Hutus.

April 7: Hutu hard-line opponents of compromise murder
          (Hutu) Prime Minister, 10 Belgian U.N.
          peacekeepers. Kigali descends into anarchy. Jean
          Kambanga made PM. Interahamwe roadblocks,
          house searches for enemies begin 45 min. after
          plane crashes.

April 9: France, Belgium begin emergency airlift of foreigners
          out of Rwanda.

April 12: Widespread massacres in countryside.

April 21: Despite Gen. Dallaire’s plea for more forces,
          broadened mandate, U.N. Sec. Council refuses and
          announces reduction of force from 2500 to 270.
          Ghana, BenglaDesh, Belgium quit UNAMIR.

Late April-May: Widespread killings. RPF, Kambanga
         accuse each other of the violence.

May 17: U.N. Sec. Council Resolution 918 authorizes
        UNAMIR II: 5500 troops with expanded mandate,
        but only as peacekeepers; no enforcement authority

May 24: ICRC reports from 200,000 to 400,000 have died.
       5. A Case of Genocide: Rwanda, 1994 -2-

May 31, 1994: U.N. relief shipments are halted after Ghanian
        peacekeeper is killed by artillery shell.

June 8: U.N. Sec. Council passes Resolution 925: mandate
         is for refugee aid, not to stop the fighting.

June 14: OAU negotiates ceasefire between Provisional
        Government (Hutu) and RPF (largely Tutsi).
        Massacres continue.

June 22: U.N. Sec. Council authorizes U.N. force for
        Rwanda of 5500. French component of “Operation
        Turquoise” (2500 troops) arrive from Zaire; RPF
        denounces French as pro-Hutu force.

July 4: RPF captures Kigali, but 5/6 of its people are gone.

July 8: U.N. Special Envoy Shahryar Khan announces
         creation of “no fighting zone;” claims RPF, France,
         and Provisional Govt. have agreed to this.

July 14: Fighting continues. Provisional Govt. leaders flee
         into French occupied zone seeking protection.

July 12-17: 1.2 million Hutus flee into area around Goma,

July 18: RPF declares victory; establishes new government.

July 21: International aid agencies state that 4 million are
          refugees, of whom 2 million are now outside
       5. A Case of Genocide: Rwanda, 1994 –3-

July 22: Pres. Clinton orders airlift of supplies to refugee
         camps, assigns 1500 troops to mission.

July 29: 200 U.S. troops launch “Operation Restore Hope,”
         retake and reopen Kigali airport; French are not
         informed, and begin to withdraw their troops from

Aug. 2: U.S. announces RPF has agreed to establishment of
         a U.N. Tribunal to investigate recent violence.

Aug. 22: France withdraws its entire contingent from

Sept. 30, 1994: U.S. withdraws from Rwanda.

April 19, 1996: Last UNAMIR II troops leave Rwanda.
               6. Rwanda: After the Genocide –1-

1994-95: Violence continues in refugee camps inside Zaire.

Nov. 8, 1994: U.N. Security Council Resolution 955 establishes
     International Tribunal for Rwanda to try those responsible for
     the genocide. It passes 13-1-1, with China abstaining and
     with Rwanda voting “No.” Rwanda objected to the absence
     of capital punishment from the mandate; cases were limited
     to offenses committed in calendar 1994, to which Rwanda
     also objected as being “too narrow.” Separately, Rwandan
     courts try and convict 300+, and sentence 116 to death, in
     related cases (1994-99).

Jan. 1995: U.N. closes refugee camp at Cyanika, Rwanda.
     300,000 then remained refugees in that area.

March: U.N. in Nairobi, Kenya report that 20 detainees in
    Rwandan genocide have died in Kigali jail.

April: Rwandan Government begins first trials of accused
      perpetrators of 1994 genocide; attempts to close refugee
      camp Kibeho, evicting 100,000 Hutus.

May: Rwandan Government requests U.N. end its 1994-95 arms
     embargo against Rwanda, charging that Hutus in Zaire
     refugee camps pose a continuing threat.

The Great Lakes region surrounding Rwanda slides into a
    regional war, one that continues for a decade inside Eastern
    Congo and Burundi, and additionally involves Ugandan and
    Rwandan troops.
                6. Rwanda: After the Genocide -2-

November 23, 1995: U.N. International War Crimes Tribunal for
    Rwanda indicts 8 for genocide; first trial is scheduled to be
    begun Sept. 27, 1996, but is postponed.

April 18, 1996: Final 362 U.N. Peacekeepers leave Rwanda.

Dec. 1996: U.N. spokesperson states Rwanda is holding 87,000
     on charges related to the genocide. First two death
     sentences are handed down in these national trials (Jan
     ’97). Detained persons rise to 120,000 by Oct. 1998.

Feb. 1997: 4 UN monitors of the Rwandan peace are murdered
     by Hutu rebels after reports of Hutu “death squads” are filed.

Feb. 1997: U.N. Secy. General Kofi Annan fires top two chief
     administrators of the ICTR (Rwandan Tribunal).

April 1997: Massacres of schoolgirls and Belgian nun after group
      refuses rebel Hutu order to separate into Hutu, Tutsi groups.

August 1997: UNHCR reports massacre of 120 Tutsis in western

Dec. 11, 1997: 327 killed in Hutu attack on Tutsi refugee camp in
     Mudende, Rwanda.

Jan. 8, 1998: 8 nuns killed by Hutu rebels.

Feb. 27, 1998: FBI makes first arrest of a Rwandan indictee, in
     Laredo TX: Elizaphan Ntakirutimana.
                6. Rwanda: After the Genocide –3-

March 6, 1998: 135 killed in inter-ethnic violence, according to

May 1, 1998: Former Prime Minister Jean Kambanda pleads
    guilty to genocide before the UN Tribunal in Arusha. This is
    the first conviction before the Tribunal.

August 3, 1998: 110 killed in Hutu-Tutsi violence near Kigali.
    Justice Minister Nkubito announces that 90,000 suspects in
    the genocide currently are in Rwandan jails, jails built to
    house only 12,250.

Sept. 2, 1998: ICTR convicts Jean-Paul Akayesu, former mayor of
     Taba, Rwanda, of genocide. This is the first time that mass
     rape is defined as a violation of the 1948 Geneva
     Conventions. (Feb. 22, 2001: ICTY hands down first
     sentences, 12 to 28 years, to 3 Serb soldiers in the Foca,
     Bosnia rape camps “crime against humanity” case)

October 1998: Jean-Paul Akayesu, a Hutu, is given 3 life
    sentences by ICTR in genocide case.

Feb. 1999: UN Tribunal sentences Hutu military leader Omar
     Serushago to 15 years in genocide case

May 1999: UN Tribunal convicts 2 more in genocide cases.

Nov. 1999: Tutsi dominated but multi-ethnic RPF Govt. suspends
     cooperation with UN War Crimes Tribunal over release of
                6. Rwanda: After the Genocide-4-

Dec. 16, 1999: U.N. Panel Report on the Genocide faults U.S.,
     Annan for ineffective response. Annan apologizes, but RPF
     does not accept it.

December 24, 1999: Hutus murder 29 Tutsis

March 23, 2000: ICTR Appeals court reverses ICTR decision of
    Nov. 1999, and permits trial of Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza to
    proceed. Barayagwiza case had been dismissed due to 2
    year detention in Cameroon without a specific charge; ICTR
    charge of genocide will proceed.

April 17, 2000: Paul Kagame, a Tutsi, becomes Pres. of Rwanda
      after his RPF Pres., a Hutu, resigns in dispute with RPF over
      ethnicity of Cabinet. Kagame is first Tutsi Pres. of Rwanda;
      he won 81 of 86 votes in parliamentary balloting for the
(August 2000: U.N. Establishes War Crimes Tribunal for Sierra
Feb. 19, 2003: ICTR convicts Rev. Elizaphan Ntakirutimana
     (former head of Seventh Day Adventist Church in Kabuye)
     and his son, Dr. Gerard Ntakirutimana, of aiding genocide.
     After the 17 month trial sentences of 10 and 25 years are
     handed down. These convictions mark only the 10th and 11th
     convictions obtained by the ICTR; all were Hutus. (For
     comparison, by 2000 more than 2500 had been convicted in
     Rwandan courts.)
2003: Pres. Kagame releases 40,000 detainees by Presidential
    Directive, principally elderly, minors, and ill defendants.
    Some are required to build housing for survivors of the 1994
    massacres after their release.
                6. Rwanda: After the Genocide -5-

April 2003: 93 percent of Rwandans approve of new Constitution
      which provides for a seven year Presidential term (with one
      re-election possible) and a five year term for both houses of
      a bicameral legislature (80; 26). Approx. 40% of the
      legislature is female.

August 2003: By this time, 6500 have been convicted of crimes
    committed in the 1994 genocide. Paul Kagame is re-elected
    president this month, with 95 percent of the vote. Amnesty
    International denounces the “climate of fear” created by the
    Government prior to the election.

July 2005: Rwandan Government releases 36,000 detainees:
     suspects who have confessed to involvement in the 1994
     genocide, but who neither planned the events, nor were
     convicted of such planning. At year’s end, 53,000 detainees
     held on charges related to the genocide remained in

(August 2005: 12 year Hutu-Tutsi conflict in neighboring Burundi
    brought to end with election of a Hutu rebel leader, Pierre
    Nkurunziza as President).

March 2006: U.S. Dept. of State reports continued presence of
    Hutu rebel groups opposed to the Kagame Government,
    based in border region of Democratic Republic of Congo.

April 13, 2006: Paul Bisengimata convicted by ICTR of crimes
      against humanity (Extermination) for events in 1994 at the
      Musha Church in Kigali, where approx. 1000 perished. He
      received a 15 year sentence.
               6. Rwanda: After the Genocide -6-

As of May 5, 2006: 24 cases had been completed by ICTR, with 8
     of these on appeal. Another 42 cases are proceeding
     against defendants in custody, 27 in trial and 15 awaiting
     trial. Nine additional indictees remain at large.
8. Discussion Questions: Justice for Rwandans

Given what we know occurred in Rwanda, what do you think
    would be appropriate to be done with those responsible?

Has what has been done with them been sufficient to ground the
    new Rwanda in justice and democracy? Why or why not?

Samantha Power once wrote that:

     " ‘mere genocide’ could not pass a Pentagon cost-benefit

     What does this perspective suggest about the U.S. response
     to the Rwandan genocide?

     Is this view sufficient to explain the behavior of diplomats
     and White House as well? Why or why not?

Consider the behavior of the U.N. head of peacekeeping in New
York, Kofi Annan, in the Rwandan genocide. What explanations
did he or other U.N. officials offer for their behavior? Are these
explanations adequate? How, if at all, do they harmonize with
Power’s point?

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