Agenda: May 10, 2010 Genocide in Rwanda 1. Quiz 2. Summarizing the Rwanda case Q and A: background, IO’s reactions 3. Timeline of Case: prelude 4. film: “Ghosts of Rwanda” 5. Timeline of Case: The Genocide 6. Tuesday: Timeline of Case: After the Genocide: Justice for Rwandans? 7. Generalizing from the Case 3a. Summarizing the Case Setting the stage: What are the major Rwandan ethnicities? What are the major political factions? What problems caused the world to view Rwanda as a crisis requiring attention in 1993-94? Initially, who did what to address the problems? What events proved catalytic to a major escalation in the problems there? 3b. Summarizing the Case: Analyzing the Evolution of problem and of the I.O. intervention: The U.N.’s first mandate was that of the UNOMUR. Who did what here? Did it resemble classical “peacekeeping”? Was it successful? What was the Arusha Agreement of August 1993? When the UN mandate changed from UNOMUR to UNIMIR how was the problem redefined and how did this affect achieving the role of the UN Peacekeepers? What happened in April 1994 that altered the problems further? How did it affect the operation of UNIMIR? What were UNIMIR II and “Operation Turquoise”? Did either have potential to stop the genocide? Assess the contribution of the US Operation Support Hope. How did its mandate differ from that of UNIMIR II and “Operation Turquoise”? 6. Generalizing from the Case Think of the precedent set by the UN intervention in Somalia. How did lessons from that case infect the responses of IOs in this case? The U.N.’s inability to coordinate actions by member states hampered goal achievement in Somalia. How did that affect U.N. actions in Rwanda? Think of the U.S. role in Rwanda as a humanitarian intervention. Was it successful in the same sense that UNOSOM I and the Task Force there were limited successes? Why or why not? What are the advantages to the US of acting multilaterally in cases of humanitarian intervention? What are the disadvantages of acting multilaterally? 4a. Prelude to Genocide in Rwanda August 1992: Three year Hutu-Tutsi war in Burundi and Rwanda comes to negotiated end in Arusha Agreements: power sharing among Tutsi rebels of RPF (14% of Rwandans) and Hutu Government (85%) is called for. Fighting continues, off and on. Feb. 1993: First 300 foreign armed forces to assist with ceasefire are French and arrive in February. March 4, 1993: Rwandan Govt. asks U.N. Sec. Council to investigate; Secy. General sends fact finding mission. March 12: U.N. Sec. Council adopts Resolution 812, calling for cooperation with ceasefire. June 1993: U.N. Sec. Council adopts Resolution 846, establishing observer mission UNOMUR. Oct. 1993: U.N. Sec. Council adopts Resolution 872, establishing assistance mission UNAMIR. Goals in several phases include: Establishing a transitional administration as planned in Arusha Agreement; demilitarization; de-mining; investigate violations. De-mobilization of rebel armed forces. Monitor election security. Oct. 22: Canadian Gen. Romeo Dallaire arrives to implement agreements, and to command UNAMIR. (more) 4. Prelude to Genocide in Rwanda –2- Jan. 1994: New Pres. Habyarimana sworn in, but Hutu extremist parties obstruct power sharing plan. Chief among them: MRND Interahamwe (“we who work together”) CDR Impuzamugambi (“the ones who have only one goal”) Dallaire requests permission to seize arms from these groups, but U.N. headquarters declares that that is beyond the UNAMIR mandate. Jan.-Feb. 1994: Assassinations of key politicians continue. UNAMIR forces increase to 2500. April 5: U.N. Sec. Council debates, extends UNAMIR mandate 4 months. April 6: Tanzanian Pres. Ali Hassan Mwinyi calls Burundi and Rwanda Presidents back for one day meeting to discuss restarting progress on implementing the Arusha Agreement. 5. A Case of Genocide: Rwanda, 1994 April 7, 1994: Pres. Juvenal Habyarimana dies when airplane is shot down in which he and Burundi President are returning from talks in Tanzania. Both were Hutus. April 7: Hutu hard-line opponents of compromise murder (Hutu) Prime Minister, 10 Belgian U.N. peacekeepers. Kigali descends into anarchy. Jean Kambanga made PM. Interahamwe roadblocks, house searches for enemies begin 45 min. after plane crashes. April 9: France, Belgium begin emergency airlift of foreigners out of Rwanda. April 12: Widespread massacres in countryside. April 21: Despite Gen. Dallaire’s plea for more forces, broadened mandate, U.N. Sec. Council refuses and announces reduction of force from 2500 to 270. Ghana, BenglaDesh, Belgium quit UNAMIR. Late April-May: Widespread killings. RPF, Kambanga accuse each other of the violence. May 17: U.N. Sec. Council Resolution 918 authorizes UNAMIR II: 5500 troops with expanded mandate, but only as peacekeepers; no enforcement authority May 24: ICRC reports from 200,000 to 400,000 have died. 5. A Case of Genocide: Rwanda, 1994 -2- May 31, 1994: U.N. relief shipments are halted after Ghanian peacekeeper is killed by artillery shell. June 8: U.N. Sec. Council passes Resolution 925: mandate is for refugee aid, not to stop the fighting. June 14: OAU negotiates ceasefire between Provisional Government (Hutu) and RPF (largely Tutsi). Massacres continue. June 22: U.N. Sec. Council authorizes U.N. force for Rwanda of 5500. French component of “Operation Turquoise” (2500 troops) arrive from Zaire; RPF denounces French as pro-Hutu force. July 4: RPF captures Kigali, but 5/6 of its people are gone. July 8: U.N. Special Envoy Shahryar Khan announces creation of “no fighting zone;” claims RPF, France, and Provisional Govt. have agreed to this. July 14: Fighting continues. Provisional Govt. leaders flee into French occupied zone seeking protection. July 12-17: 1.2 million Hutus flee into area around Goma, Zaire July 18: RPF declares victory; establishes new government. July 21: International aid agencies state that 4 million are refugees, of whom 2 million are now outside Rwanda. 5. A Case of Genocide: Rwanda, 1994 –3- July 22: Pres. Clinton orders airlift of supplies to refugee camps, assigns 1500 troops to mission. July 29: 200 U.S. troops launch “Operation Restore Hope,” retake and reopen Kigali airport; French are not informed, and begin to withdraw their troops from Rwanda. Aug. 2: U.S. announces RPF has agreed to establishment of a U.N. Tribunal to investigate recent violence. Aug. 22: France withdraws its entire contingent from Rwanda. Sept. 30, 1994: U.S. withdraws from Rwanda. April 19, 1996: Last UNAMIR II troops leave Rwanda. 6. Rwanda: After the Genocide –1- 1994-95: Violence continues in refugee camps inside Zaire. Nov. 8, 1994: U.N. Security Council Resolution 955 establishes International Tribunal for Rwanda to try those responsible for the genocide. It passes 13-1-1, with China abstaining and with Rwanda voting “No.” Rwanda objected to the absence of capital punishment from the mandate; cases were limited to offenses committed in calendar 1994, to which Rwanda also objected as being “too narrow.” Separately, Rwandan courts try and convict 300+, and sentence 116 to death, in related cases (1994-99). Jan. 1995: U.N. closes refugee camp at Cyanika, Rwanda. 300,000 then remained refugees in that area. March: U.N. in Nairobi, Kenya report that 20 detainees in Rwandan genocide have died in Kigali jail. April: Rwandan Government begins first trials of accused perpetrators of 1994 genocide; attempts to close refugee camp Kibeho, evicting 100,000 Hutus. May: Rwandan Government requests U.N. end its 1994-95 arms embargo against Rwanda, charging that Hutus in Zaire refugee camps pose a continuing threat. The Great Lakes region surrounding Rwanda slides into a regional war, one that continues for a decade inside Eastern Congo and Burundi, and additionally involves Ugandan and Rwandan troops. 6. Rwanda: After the Genocide -2- November 23, 1995: U.N. International War Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda indicts 8 for genocide; first trial is scheduled to be begun Sept. 27, 1996, but is postponed. April 18, 1996: Final 362 U.N. Peacekeepers leave Rwanda. Dec. 1996: U.N. spokesperson states Rwanda is holding 87,000 on charges related to the genocide. First two death sentences are handed down in these national trials (Jan ’97). Detained persons rise to 120,000 by Oct. 1998. Feb. 1997: 4 UN monitors of the Rwandan peace are murdered by Hutu rebels after reports of Hutu “death squads” are filed. Feb. 1997: U.N. Secy. General Kofi Annan fires top two chief administrators of the ICTR (Rwandan Tribunal). April 1997: Massacres of schoolgirls and Belgian nun after group refuses rebel Hutu order to separate into Hutu, Tutsi groups. August 1997: UNHCR reports massacre of 120 Tutsis in western Rwanda. Dec. 11, 1997: 327 killed in Hutu attack on Tutsi refugee camp in Mudende, Rwanda. Jan. 8, 1998: 8 nuns killed by Hutu rebels. Feb. 27, 1998: FBI makes first arrest of a Rwandan indictee, in Laredo TX: Elizaphan Ntakirutimana. 6. Rwanda: After the Genocide –3- March 6, 1998: 135 killed in inter-ethnic violence, according to NYTimes. May 1, 1998: Former Prime Minister Jean Kambanda pleads guilty to genocide before the UN Tribunal in Arusha. This is the first conviction before the Tribunal. August 3, 1998: 110 killed in Hutu-Tutsi violence near Kigali. Justice Minister Nkubito announces that 90,000 suspects in the genocide currently are in Rwandan jails, jails built to house only 12,250. Sept. 2, 1998: ICTR convicts Jean-Paul Akayesu, former mayor of Taba, Rwanda, of genocide. This is the first time that mass rape is defined as a violation of the 1948 Geneva Conventions. (Feb. 22, 2001: ICTY hands down first sentences, 12 to 28 years, to 3 Serb soldiers in the Foca, Bosnia rape camps “crime against humanity” case) October 1998: Jean-Paul Akayesu, a Hutu, is given 3 life sentences by ICTR in genocide case. Feb. 1999: UN Tribunal sentences Hutu military leader Omar Serushago to 15 years in genocide case May 1999: UN Tribunal convicts 2 more in genocide cases. Nov. 1999: Tutsi dominated but multi-ethnic RPF Govt. suspends cooperation with UN War Crimes Tribunal over release of detainees. 6. Rwanda: After the Genocide-4- Dec. 16, 1999: U.N. Panel Report on the Genocide faults U.S., Annan for ineffective response. Annan apologizes, but RPF does not accept it. December 24, 1999: Hutus murder 29 Tutsis March 23, 2000: ICTR Appeals court reverses ICTR decision of Nov. 1999, and permits trial of Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza to proceed. Barayagwiza case had been dismissed due to 2 year detention in Cameroon without a specific charge; ICTR charge of genocide will proceed. April 17, 2000: Paul Kagame, a Tutsi, becomes Pres. of Rwanda after his RPF Pres., a Hutu, resigns in dispute with RPF over ethnicity of Cabinet. Kagame is first Tutsi Pres. of Rwanda; he won 81 of 86 votes in parliamentary balloting for the office. (August 2000: U.N. Establishes War Crimes Tribunal for Sierra Leone) Feb. 19, 2003: ICTR convicts Rev. Elizaphan Ntakirutimana (former head of Seventh Day Adventist Church in Kabuye) and his son, Dr. Gerard Ntakirutimana, of aiding genocide. After the 17 month trial sentences of 10 and 25 years are handed down. These convictions mark only the 10th and 11th convictions obtained by the ICTR; all were Hutus. (For comparison, by 2000 more than 2500 had been convicted in Rwandan courts.) 2003: Pres. Kagame releases 40,000 detainees by Presidential Directive, principally elderly, minors, and ill defendants. Some are required to build housing for survivors of the 1994 massacres after their release. 6. Rwanda: After the Genocide -5- April 2003: 93 percent of Rwandans approve of new Constitution which provides for a seven year Presidential term (with one re-election possible) and a five year term for both houses of a bicameral legislature (80; 26). Approx. 40% of the legislature is female. August 2003: By this time, 6500 have been convicted of crimes committed in the 1994 genocide. Paul Kagame is re-elected president this month, with 95 percent of the vote. Amnesty International denounces the “climate of fear” created by the Government prior to the election. July 2005: Rwandan Government releases 36,000 detainees: suspects who have confessed to involvement in the 1994 genocide, but who neither planned the events, nor were convicted of such planning. At year’s end, 53,000 detainees held on charges related to the genocide remained in custody. (August 2005: 12 year Hutu-Tutsi conflict in neighboring Burundi brought to end with election of a Hutu rebel leader, Pierre Nkurunziza as President). March 2006: U.S. Dept. of State reports continued presence of Hutu rebel groups opposed to the Kagame Government, based in border region of Democratic Republic of Congo. April 13, 2006: Paul Bisengimata convicted by ICTR of crimes against humanity (Extermination) for events in 1994 at the Musha Church in Kigali, where approx. 1000 perished. He received a 15 year sentence. 6. Rwanda: After the Genocide -6- As of May 5, 2006: 24 cases had been completed by ICTR, with 8 of these on appeal. Another 42 cases are proceeding against defendants in custody, 27 in trial and 15 awaiting trial. Nine additional indictees remain at large. 8. Discussion Questions: Justice for Rwandans Given what we know occurred in Rwanda, what do you think would be appropriate to be done with those responsible? Has what has been done with them been sufficient to ground the new Rwanda in justice and democracy? Why or why not? Samantha Power once wrote that: " ‘mere genocide’ could not pass a Pentagon cost-benefit analysis.” What does this perspective suggest about the U.S. response to the Rwandan genocide? Is this view sufficient to explain the behavior of diplomats and White House as well? Why or why not? Consider the behavior of the U.N. head of peacekeeping in New York, Kofi Annan, in the Rwandan genocide. What explanations did he or other U.N. officials offer for their behavior? Are these explanations adequate? How, if at all, do they harmonize with Power’s point?
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