Methodology for Efficiency Improvements HDV’s and Mobile
Developed by Carbon Offset Aggregation Cooperative with support and assistance from the
The methodology is for project activities which improve the efficiency of HDVs (Heavy Duty
Vehicles) and/or mobile machinery equipment e.g. bulldozers, road-building machines etc.
Measures to improve operating vehicle efficiency may include but are not limited to anti-
idling devices, eco-drive, tire-rolling resistance improvement, air-conditioning system
improvement, low viscosity oils, cab-heaters, aerodynamic drag reduction measures,
transmission improvements, etc. Information on Methodology for Efficiency Improvements
HDV’s and Mobile Machinery can be found at:
The methodology takes components from the approved CDM methodology ACM0016
“Baseline Methodology for Mass Rapid Transit Projects”1. The components used refer
basically to calculation of GHG emissions resulting from fuel combustion. Furthermore
there is a complimentary factsheet concerning these CDM methodologies available from the
CAI Helpdesk Database2.
The methodology has the following applicability conditions:
1. The methodology is applicable to efficiency improvements of heavy duty trucks and
2. The methodology is designed as an efficiency improvement methodology and not as
a fuel-switch methodology. Therefore, it is not applicable for a fuel switch from
fossil towards bio-fuels. The methodology can be used if fuel is switched from liquid
to gaseous fuels occurs as long as the fuel switch accounts for no more than 20% of
total fuel used.
3. The methodology is not applicable to modal shift, e.g. moving goods from truck to
rail and it is not applicable for electricity usage.
4. The methodology is not applicable for electricity usage.
More information on Baseline Methodology for Mass Rapid Transit Projects (ACM0016):
The spatial extent of the project boundary encompasses the area in which the project takes
place. It is based on the origins and destinations of freight transported by the project
system or sites in which project equipment is used.
The Historic Benchmark approach has been selected as the most appropriate baseline
scenario. This approach assumes that past trends in emissions will continue into the future
and is based on a technology improvement factor.
Additionality3 shall be determined by using the most recent version of the, “Tool for the
demonstration and assessment of additionality.”4 as approved by the Executive Board of
Baseline emissions for HDVs are calculated based on the baseline emission factor per
gross-tkm fixed prior project start multiplied with the actual gross-tkm performed with the
project activity. Baseline emissions for mobile equipment and machinery are calculated
based on the baseline emission factor per ton-hour or per activity level as justified in the
The first step of baseline emissions calculation is to identify baseline emission sources.
Thereafter the procedure to calculate baseline emissions is determined. In a third step the
technological improvement factor is defined. The baseline emission factor must be
multiplied by the corresponding technology improvement factor which accounts for
reductions in emissions which would happen anyway due to regular truck replacement.
In the last step of baseline emissions calculation the technological improvement factor
should be defined. An annual technology improvement factor would be justified if it can be
shown that under Business As Usual i.e. in the absence of the project, emissions would
reduce anyway due to regular truck replacement. However historical data shows that fuel
consumption and therefore emissions of trucks have not improved in the last decade. It can
be concluded that it is reasonable to assume no technology improvement factor for HDV
emissions. Furthermore, no data on different sources of mobile equipment is available.
Heavy equipment use technologies also prevalent in HDVs. As long as no detailed
information is available thus no technology improvement factor is assumed and only a
historic baseline approach is taken.
Project emissions are based on the fuel consumed by project units, fuel consumption level
and carbon emission factor. The first step of project emissions calculation is to identify
The concept of “additionality” under the CDM refers to the project has to prove that the emission reductions are
additional to any that would occur in the absence of the certified project activity (CDM Rule book:
More information about “Tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality” is available at:
project emission sources. The most important emission source is the operation of
Net calorific value of fuel (NCV)
CO2 emission factor for fuel type (EFCO2)
Methane emission factor (EFCH4)
Emission factor based on different freight types (EF)
Emission factor based on different equipment/machinery types (EF)
Every type of freight transport has different emission factor and should be calculated
separately. Freight types shall be differentiated basically according to types of trucks used
and their specific weight. Freight categories proposed include:
Liquids e.g. fuel transport
Cement, steel, stones, ore etc
Food and agricultural products
Manufactured products including cars, machinery and others
Forestry industry including sawmills, log transporting etc
Also, subgroups of freight/truck categories can be formed by using criteria such as;
Routes or route types (highway, urban)
Average trip distance (long-haul, medium-haul, short-haul)
Average gross vehicle weight
Further differentiation of freight type.
In addition to the parameters listed below, the provisions on data and parameters
monitored in the tools referred to in this methodology apply.
Fuel consumption project units using different fuel type (FC)
Activity level of project (AL)
CO2 and CH4 (Only gaseous CH4 fuels are included)
No independent evaluation has been undertaken of this methodology. However as a CDM
based methodology the following strengths and weaknesses apply.
This methodology allows This methodology is considerably
estimating accurately the emission data-intensive due to the
reduction of certain efficiency requirement for verification of
improvements. It does an ex-ante progress during the lifetime of the
appraisal, which has to be project and the need to undertake ex-
validated in the future with ex-post ante and ex-post analyses. These data
estimation in order to get the may also not be readily available in
Certified Emissions Reductions developing countries.
(CER) (Emissions reduction
Costly data collection which
estimations may result in the
frequently exceeds what CDM credits
acquisition of CER). pay. (Punte, 2011)
Strict guidelines for data collection Detailed requirements may not be
and a clear procedure make this considered viable when taking into
methodology the most accurate.5 account the likely emissions
Guidelines are available online.
Carbon Offset Aggregation Cooperative, 2011, Methodology for Efficiency Improvements
HDVs and Mobile Machinery
CDM – Executive Board, Baseline Methodology for Mass Rapid Transit Projects
ACM0016/Version 02.1.0, Sectoral Scope: 07, EB 55.
Punte, S., Replogle, M., Mejia, A., 2011. Transport Emissions Evaluation Models for Projects
(TEEMP). Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions as Catalysts for Environmentally
Sustainable Transport. Seoul, South Korea. Accessed on July 18, 2011 at:
Each CDM project has to be verified during the lifetime of the project comparing the real emissions with the
corresponding forecasted emissions.