Chapter 4 Matter and Energy in the Ecosystem by 9h9O9MR


									             Chapter 4
      Matter and Energy in the
•All living things need energy
•All energy first comes from the sun
•Energy is used in organisms
•Energy is then used in space as heat
•Energy is used over and over. It is
recycled in the ecosystems

SUN       ORGANISMS          SPACE
Organisms in the ecosystems
get food (energy) in 3 ways

• Organisms that make their own
  food from inorganic molecules and
• Ex: plants, protists, bacteria
• Most producers use
  photosynthesis to convert sun’s
  energy to food
• A few bacteria make food from
  energy stored in inorganic
  molecules, not from the sun
• Organisms that cannot make their
  own food
• Ex: all animals, fungi, many protists
  and bacteria
• Consumers get energy by eating
  other organisms
• HERBIVORES-eat only plants
• Are called primary consumers(only
  eat producers)
• Ex: some birds & insects, cows,
  buffalo, antelope
• Herbivores have adaptations to
  gather, grind, and digest producers
• CARNIVORES-capture and eat
  herbivores and other carnivores
• If they eat primary consumers
  (herbivores) then the carnivore is a
  secondary (2nd) consumer
• If they eat another carnivore, then
  the carnivore is a tertiary (3rd)
• Ex: lions, snakes, hawks, spiders
• Carnivores have adaptations for
  hunting, capturing, and eating prey
• OMNIVORES-eat both producers
  (plants) and consumers
• Ex: humans, bears, chimpanzees
• Depending on what they are eating,
  omnivores can be primary,
  secondary or tertiary
• SCAVENGERS-feed on dead
  organisms, do not hunt for live prey
• eat dead plants, dead bodies of
  herbivores, carnivores, omnivores
• Depending on what they are eating,
  they can be primary, secondary or
• Ex: vultures, hyenas, many insects
• Scavengers are important because
  they start the recycling of the dead
  material into the environment
• Bacteria and fungi that consume the
  bodies of dead organisms and other
  organic wastes
• Break down the organic matter in
  animal waste
• Function to recycle the nutrients back
  into the environment so the
  ecosystem doesn’t run out of
• Break down the organic matter into a
  simple form and return it into the soil.
• Producers (plants) can now reuse
  them to start the cycle all over
       Cycle of Matter in an

         Decomposers      Producers
        Bacteria&fungi plants&bacteria

  Scavengers                    Herbivores
Vultures, insects              Cows, buffalo

           Omnivores    Carnivores
            Humans     Lions, snakes
         Trophic Levels
• Levels of feeding of organisms in an
• A layer in the structure of feeding
  relationships in an ecosystem
• Producers make up the first and largest
  trophic level
• Producers are called autotrophs b/c
  they make own food
• Producers allow energy into the
• Consumers make the second and
  higher trophic levels
• Consumers are heterotrophs b/c they
  cannot make own food and have to get
  it from other organisms
Trophic Levels of an

       4th LEVEL
    Tertiary consumbers

         3rd LEVEL
    Secondary consumers

     Primary consumers

        1st LEVEL

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