BHV 390: Research Methods
Kimberly Porter Martin, Ph.D.
Components of a Research Report
• Title Page
• Literature Review
• Methods Section
• Results Section
• Discussion Section
Title Page in APA Format
RISK AND POLITICS:
AN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRISIS IN A
MULTICULTURAL U.S. NEIGHBORHOOD
Susie Q. Student
Submitted to the Sociology and Anthropology Department
University of La Verne
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN SOCIOLOGY
An abstract is a brief summary of what is in a paper or report.
Abstracts are between 150 and 350 words long and begin on
their own new page with the heading “Abstract.”
They are written after the research is completed.
Components of an abstract include:
• One or two sentences introducing the topic and/or population
on which the study focused.
• One or two primary hypotheses addressed by the study.
• Methods including the sample size, sampling technique and
sex, age and ethnicity statistics on the participants.
• Data collection methods sources for measures of major
• A brief general statement of the most important findings,
usually from one or two hypotheses
Tens of thousands of Vietnamese Amerasian immigrants entered the
United States following the 1988 Homecoming Act. This population
experienced poverty, abuse and severe discrimination growing up in
Vietnam, and intensive culture shock and disconfirmed expectations after
arriving in the United States. Participants were one hundred female and
fifty-nine male Vietnamese Amerasian immigrants living in or near the
Little Saigon area of Orange County, California in 1995 and 1996 Twenty-
one of the participants were Afro-Amerasian. Participants ranged from 19
to 43 years of age (M=25). Structured interviews including the
Vietnamese language version of the Harvard Trauma Scale and the State-
Trait Anger Inventory were used to elicit data. Data was collected on
conditions of life in Vietnam, life trauma, psychological symptoms of
trauma, and anger. Male participants were found to have significantly
higher levels of life trauma and trait anger than females. Afro-Amerasian
individuals had significantly higher life trauma levels than other
participants. More than 30 percent of participants had scores indicating
clinical signs of posttraumatic stress disorder for at least one of two PTSD
• Participants – Gives the demographic profile (using
frequency statistics) of the age, gender, ethnicity and any
other important demographic information about
participants, along with the sample size and the sampling
• Measures – Tells which variables were measured using
single item demographic questions, and then how each
major variable is measured including the name of any
composite scales or indices that come from the literature.
• Procedures – Tells the steps you took in doing your
research in enough detail so that others could replicate
your research exactly.
Gives the results of your study in one of two
Explanatory/Quantitative: One to three
sentences for each SPSS analysis that gave you
a significant result using the wording given in the
Descriptive: Results summarized and
described with specific quotes and/or examples
described to show the kinds of information
The discussion section explains and interprets the
results. The Discussion Section might include:
• What your results mean.
• What the implications for action or change based
on these results might be.
• The relationships between results.
• How your results contradict or support one
• Whether your results support or contradict what
the literature review said.
• What went well in your study, and what would
you do differently next time?
• What are your suggestions for future research
on your topic or in your population.
• A “References” section beginning on a
• APA, ASA or AAA format for
• Only references cited in your paper
should go here.
• For this class, you should have a
minimum of 8-10 references that you
have cited and that are included in the